• Title, Summary, Keyword: Head Lettuce

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Occurrence of Sclerotinia Rot on Composite Vegetable Crops and the Causal Sclerotinia spp.

  • Kim, Wan-Gyu;Cho, Weon-Dae
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2002
  • Composite vegetable crops grown in greenhouses and open fields in Korea were surveyed from 1995 to 1999. Occurrence of Sclerotinia rot was observed in 123 of 277 lettuce fields, in 11 of 18 head lettuce fields, in 12 of 14 endive fields, and in 4 of 38 garland chrysanthemum fields surveyed during the growing seasons. The disease most severely occurred up to 80% on lettuce. Incidence of the disease was as high as 20% at its maximum on endive and garland chrysanthemum but relatively low on head lettuce. Symptoms of the disease developed on leaves of all the composites, crowns of lettuce and head lettuce, and stems of garland chrysanthemum. Out of 240 isolates of Sclerotinia species obtained from the diseased composites, 169 isolates were identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and the others as S. minor based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. S. sclerotiorum was isolated from all the composites, and S. minor only from lettuce and endive. Eight isolates of S. sclerotiorum and four isolates of S. minor were tested for their pathogenicity to the composites by artificial inoculation. All the isolates of the two Sclerotinia spp. induced rot symptoms on the plants of the composites by artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed in the fields. The pathogenicity tests revealed that there is no significant difference in virulence of the isolates to the composites and in susceptibility of the composites to the isolates.

Application of Different Packaging Methods and Materials for Comparing Freshness of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) harvested in Summer Season (고온기 결구상추의 포장재와 포장방법 적용에 따른 선도 비교)

  • Lee, Jung-Soo;Choi, JeeWon;Kim, Jin Se;Park, Me Hea;Choi, HyunJinn;Lee, YounSuk;Kim, Dong Eok;Hong, YuunPo;Kim, Ji-Gang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.163-171
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    • 2017
  • Effects of different packaging methods for maintaining the shelf life and postharvest quality of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were studied after harvesting in summer season. Lettuce heads were packaged in plastic crate with or without different films such as (A) Individual lettuce head sealed packaging with linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) film; (B) Packaging lettuce head in plastic crate and wrapped with LLDPE film; (C): Individual lettuce head sealed packaging with perforated high density polyethylene (HDPE) film; (D) Packaging lettuce head in plastic crate and wrapped with perforated HDPE; and (E) Packaging lettuce head in plastic crate without any film (control), and stored at $2^{\circ}C$ for 35 days. Several quality parameters such as fresh weight loss, SPAD (soil & plant analyzer development) meter value, respiration rate, moisture content and appearance of lettuce were investigated. The lettuce wrapped with individually-sealed LLDPE film showed the lowest weight loss and the highest SPAD value rendering the best appearance index among the treataments throughout the three-week storage period at $2^{\circ}C$. Extending the freshness of iceberg lettuce during low temperature storage will definitely increase the salability potential in the domestic market even during summer season.

Quality Evaluation of Minimally Processed Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) According to Degree of Head Formation (결구 차이에 따른 양상추 신선편이 제품의 품질 비교)

  • Youn, Aye-Ree;Kwon, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Byeong-Sam;Cha, Hwan-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.460-465
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    • 2008
  • This study examined the effect of head formation on the quality maintenance of minimally processed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) samples. The fresh-cut lettuce samples were packed in $20{\times}15{\times}5$ cm polypropylene+polyethylene terephthalate tray, and were then stored at $4^{circ}C$ for up to 8 days. According to the results, the sample with 100% head formation had lower sugar, minerals (Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, K), and chlorophyll contents compared to the sample with 70% head formation. The 70% head formed lettuce had higher vitamin C content at 3.30 mg/100 g, whereas the 85% and 100% formed samples had lower levels of 2.61 and 2.10 mg/100 g, respectively. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the 70% formed lettuce was 240 unit/g, while the 100% formed sample had almost 2-fold higher activity. However, the 100% formed lettuce had greater firmness than all other samples. Overall, among the fresh-cut lettuces, the sample with 70% head formation showed more positive effects in terms of quality maintenance.

Effect of Feeding Head Lettuce, Water Spinach, Ruzi grass or Mimosa pigra on Feed Intake, Digestibility and Growth in Rabbits

  • Nakkitset, Supharoek;Mikled, Choke;Ledin, Inger
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1171-1177
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    • 2008
  • The performance of growing rabbits fed Ruzi grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) residue, Mimosa pigra and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) was studied in an experiment using 64 rabbits (4 males and 4 females per treatment) of 2 breeds, New Zealand White and a crossbred between New Zealand White and native breed. The rabbits had an average initial weight of 668 g, were about 6 weeks old and were housed in individual pens. The foliages were fed ad libitum and a commercial concentrate was fed at a restricted level of 2% of body weight on a dry matter (DM) basis. In the digestibility experiment, the rabbits, 4 per foliage and males only, were fed the same foliages as in the growth experiment but without concentrate. Daily weight gain was lower in the group fed Ruzi grass, 14.8 g/d (p<0.001) compared to 17.6, 18.5 and 18.4 g/d for head lettuce, Mimosa pigra and water spinach, respectively. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were lowest for the rabbits fed water spinach, 66 g DM/d and 3.6 kg DM/kg live weight, respectively. The New Zealand White breed had a higher daily gain than the crossbred rabbits (p<0.05), 18.0 and 16.7 g/d, respectively. There were no significant differences in feed intake, growth or feed conversion ratio due to sex. The digestibility coefficients of DM, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the rabbits fed Ruzi grass. Breed and sex had no effect on digestibility. In conclusion, feeding head lettuce residue, Mimosa pigra and water spinach resulted in higher growth rate and digestibility than feeding Ruzi grass and can be recommended as alternative feeds.

Effects of Light Sources, Light Quality on the Growth Response of Leafy Vegetables in Closed-type Plant Factory System (완전제어형 식물공장에서 광원, 광질에 따른 엽채류 6종의 생육반응)

  • Kim, Sang Bum;Lee, Kyung Mi;Kim, Hae Ran;You, Young Han
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.32-40
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the growth response of economical six leafy vegetables that are crown daisy, pak-choi and four kinds of lettuce (Red leaf lettuce, Green leaf lettuce, Head lettuce, Romaine lettuce) by light treatment of LED in plant factory. The light treatments were composed of red, blue, red+farred, red+blue, red+blue+white LEDs, irradiation time ratio of the red and blue LED per minute (1 : 1, 2 : 1, 5 : 1, 10 : 1), and duty ratio of mixed light (100%, 99%, 97%). The following results were obtained in different LED light sources treatments: Shoot biomass and S/R ratio of romaine lettuce were the highest under mixed red+blue LEDs. S/R ratio of head lettuce was higher under mixed red+blue+white LEDs than red+blue LEDs. The others showed no difference in LED light treatment. Shoot biomass, total biomass and S/R ratio of green lettuce, head lettuce and pak-choi were highest in the higher red ratio (5 : 1) on irradiation time of red : blue LED ratios. By the different duty ratio (red+blue and red+blue+white LEDs), Under the mixed light of red+blue, shoot and root biomass of crown daisy and romaine lettuce were high in duty ratio of 100% and 99%, and S/R ratio was highest in all the 6 kinds in duty ratio of 97%. All the 6 kinds showed a fine growth state in low duty ratio (97%). Green lettuce, romaine lettuce and pak-choi showed relatively high shoot biomass and total biomass in low duty ratio of 97% under the mixed light of red+blue+white. S/R ratio of romaine lettuce and head lettuce were highest in the duty ratio of 97% with red+blue+white LEDs. Thus, we can cultivate stably without reference to external factors, if we use appropriate light sources and light quality in closed-type plant factory.

Effect of Electrolyzed Water and Citric acid On Quality Enhancement and Microbial Inhibition in Head Lettuce (전해수와 구연산을 이용한 양상치의 품질 향상 및 미생물 저감화 효과)

  • Jin, Yong-Guo;Kim, Tae-Woong;Ding, Tian;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.578-586
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of alkaline electrolyzed water (AIEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), 1% citric acid, and 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite, either alone or in combination with citric acid, in reducing the populations of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) on lettuce at various exposure times (3, 5, and 10 min) with different dipping temperatures (1, 20, 40, and $50^{\circ}C$). In addition, the inhibitory effect of alkaline electrolyzed water combined with citric acid on the browning reaction during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 15 days was investigated. Compared to the untreated control, electrolyzed water more effectively reduced the number of total bacteria, mold, and yeast than 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite under the same treatment conditions. All treatments exposed for 5 min significantly reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast, and mold on head lettuce. The inactivation effect of each treatment on head lettuce was enhanced as the dipping temperature increased from 1 to $50^{\circ}C$, but there was no significantly difference at temperatures greater than $40^{\circ}C$ (p<0.05). The total counts of yeast and mold in head lettuce were completely eliminated when a combination of 1% citric acid and AlEW treatment was used at temperatures greater than $40^{\circ}C$. However, decreased reduction in L. monocytogenes (2.81 log CFU/g), and E. coli O157:H7 (2.93 log CFU/g) on head lettuce was observed under these treatment conditions. In addition, enhanced anti-browning effect was observed when the samples were subjected to both 1% citric acid and AlEW treatment at temperatures greater than $40^{\circ}C$ compared to when single treatments alone were used. Thus, this combined treatment might be considered a potentially beneficial sanitizing method for improving the quality and safety of head lettuce.

Effect of NaCl Stress on the Growth, Antioxidant Materials, and Inorganic Ion Content in Head Lettuce Seedlings (양상추 유묘의 생육, 항산화물질 및 무기이온의 함량에 미치는 NaCl 스트레스의 영향)

  • Kim, Ju-Sung;Hyun, Tae-Kyung
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.433-440
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    • 2011
  • In head lettuce seedlings, NaCl stress was treated with hydroponic culture containing 0, 50, or with 100 mM NaCl in the seedling grown up to two leaf stages. Our focus was on the effect of NaCl on fresh and dry weights, antioxidant materials, and inorganic ion level. Fresh and dry weights of head lettuce seedlings increased with the increase in salinity while the optimal growth occured at 50 mM NaCl. The chlorophyll a (Chl a), total Chl and Chl a/b ratio increased 6 days after treatment with 100 mM NaCI. However, the Chl b content decreased. Total glutathione increased only in the root of head lettuce seedlings, whereas significant increase of total arcorbate content was observed in both shoot and root after the treatment with 100 mM NaCl. In addition, the NaCl treatment resulted in the decreased level of spermidine content, and a increased spermine content. Furthermore, $Na^+$ content in shoot and root increased significantly while $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$ content decreased. The alteration of inorganic ion level after treatment with NaCl caused the reduction of $K^+/Na^+$, $Ca^{2+}/Na^+$, and $Mg^{2+}/Na^+$ ratio with the increase of NaCl concentration. Taken together, these findings indicate that the treatment of NaCl causes the induction of oxidative stress, and results in the alteration of metabolic mechanism in head lettuce seedlings.

Variation in Phenotypic Characteristics and Contents of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Germplasm

  • Sung, Jung-Sook;Hur, On-Sook;Ryu, Kyoung-Yul;Baek, Hyung-Jin;Choi, Susanna;Kim, Sang-Gyu;Luitel, Binod Prasad;Ko, Ho-Cheol;Gwak, Jae-Gyun;Rhee, Ju-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.679-689
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    • 2016
  • Lettuce is an important annual leafy vegetable and bitterness is its potent flavor character. Lettuce germplasm differ their phenotypic characters and sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) contents which are important for consumer's acceptance. This study was carried out to evaluate the phenotypic characters and SLs contents in one hundred lettuce germplasm in Jeonju, Korea. Twenty-three agro-morphological (16 qualitative and 7 quantitative) traits and two SLs (lactucin and lactucopicrin) contents were studied in these germplasm. Germplasm exhibited the variation in qualitative and quantitative characters. Average plant weight was 423.9 g with a range from 116.0 to 905.0 g. Lactucin content was varied from 19.7 (IT 294226) to $194.4{\mu}g/g$ (IT 294298) with an average concentration of $84.7{\mu}g/g$. Lactucopicrin ranged from 82.5 (IT 300134) to $2228.6{\mu}g/g$ (IT 294210) with an average concentration of $586.3{\mu}g/g$. Total SLs content was ranged from 120.1 (IT 300134) to 2286.6 (IT 294210)${\mu}g/g$ with the average concentration of $671.0{\mu}g/g$. Significant ($p{\leq}0.05$) differences were found between crisp head and butter head germplasm for lactucin, lactucopicrin and total SLs content. Crisp head germplasm revealed the highest average lactucin ($112.9{\mu}g/g$), lactucopicrin ($734.8{\mu}g/g$) and total SLs content ($847.7{\mu}g/g$). Crisp head and leafy type germplasm exhibited more total SLs content (847.7 and $744.7{\mu}g/g$, respectively) than cos ($524.9{\mu}g/g$) and butter head type ($519.4{\mu}g/g$). Principal component analyses of the quantitative traits indicated that the first principal component axis accounted more than 91% of the total variation. This study revealed the ample genetic variation in the agro-morphological traits and SLs contents to support the selection for improved lettuce varieties.

Effect of Application on the Growth of Head Lettuce under Fertigation Conditions in Highland (고랭지 결구상추의 관비재배시 돈분뇨 발효액비 시용효과)

  • 김원배;권영기;장석우;임상철
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.84-88
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    • 2001
  • The growth of leaves in field-grown head lettuce(cv. Urake) was compared after conventional application of N-P-K fertilizer or after application of various dilutions of livestock waste solution. Plants treated with livestock waste solution diluted 25 times (Ef. 25) or 50 times (Ef. 50) had greater growth than that for any other treatment. The number of leaves was greater with Ef. 25 than that with other treatments, although the increase was not statistically significant. Total head yield increased by fertigation with livestock waste solution compared to yield resulting from conventional fertilization. Plant tissue weight was increased according to the increase in concentration of applied livestock waste solution. The soil chemical properties, pH, electrical conductivity, $NH_4^+-N$, NO$_3$-N, available P exchangeable Ca and Mg, all increased with the increased application of livestock waste solution. In conclusion, fertigation of the dilute livestock waste solution on the range of Ef. 25 to Ef. 50 could improve yield and quality in head lettuce.

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Study on Phenolic Compounds in Lettuce Samples Cultivated from Korea Using UPLC-DAD-QToF/MS (국내 재배 상추로부터 UPLC-DAD-QToF/MS를 이용한 페놀화합물 성분 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Heon-Woong;Lee, Seon-Hye;Asamenew, Gelila;Lee, Min-Ki;Lee, Suji;Park, Jin Ju;Choi, Youngmin;Lee, Sang Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.717-729
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    • 2019
  • The chemical informs about 70 individual phenolic compounds were constructed from various lettuce samples based on literature sources and analytical data. A total of 30 phenolic compounds including quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-(6''-O- malonyl) glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)glucoside, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid as major components were identified in 6 lettuce samples from Korea using UPLC-DAD-QToF/MS on the basis of constructed library. Among these, quercetin 3,7-di-O-glucoside(m/z 627 [M+H]+), quercetin 3-O-(2''-O-malonyl)glucoside(morkotin C, m/z 551 [M+H]+), quercetin 3-O-(6''- O-malonyl)glucoside methyl ester(m/z 565 [M+H]+), 5-O-cis-p-coumaroylquinic acid(m/z 339 [M+H]+) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester(m/z 369 [M+H]+) were newly confirmed from the lettuce samples. In total content of phenolic compounds, 4 red lettuce samples(2,947.7~7,535.6 mg/100 g, dry weight) showed higher than green lettuce(2,687.3 mg) and head lettuce(320.1 mg).