• Title, Summary, Keyword: Haze

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Characteristics of Metallic and Ionic Concentration in Fine Particle during Haze Days in Busan (부산 지역 연무 발생일의 미세먼지 중 금속과 이온 성분 농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.767-778
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    • 2017
  • This research investigates the characteristics of metallic and ionic elements in $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ on haze day and non-haze day in Busan. $PM_{10}$ concentration on haze day and non-haze day were 85.75 and $33.52{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, and $PM_{2.5}$ on haze day and non-haze day were 68.24 and $23.86{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. Contribution rate of total inorganic water-soluble ion to $PM_{10}$ mass on haze day and non haze day were 58.2% and 61.5%, respectively, and contribution rate of total water-soluble ion to $PM_{2.5}$ mass on haze day and non haze day were 58.7% and 64.7%, respectively. Also, contribution rate of secondary ion to $PM_{10}$ mass on haze day and non haze day were 52.1% and 47.5%, respectively, and contribution rate of secondary ion to $PM_{2.5}$ mass on haze day and non haze day were 54.4% and 53.6%, respectively. AC (anion equivalents)/CE (cation equivalents) ratio of $PM_{10}$ mass on haze day and non haze day were 1.09 and 1.0, respectively, and AC/CE ratios of $PM_{2.5}$ mass on haze day and non haze day were 1.12 and 1.04, respectively. Also, SOR (Sulfur Oxidation Ratio) of $PM_{10}$ mass on haze day and non haze day were 0.32 and 0.17, respectively, and SOR of $PM_{2.5}$ on haze day and non haze day were 0.30 and 0.15, respectively. Lastly, NOR (Nitrogen Oxidation Ratio) of $PM_{10}$ on haze day and non haze day were 0.17 and 0.08, respectively, and NOR of $PM_{2.5}$ on haze day and non haze day were 0.13 and 0.06, respectively.

Video Haze Removal Method in HLS Color Space (HLS 색상 공간에서 동영상의 안개제거 기법)

  • An, Jae Won;Ko, Yun-Ho
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.32-42
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    • 2017
  • This paper proposes a new haze removal method for moving image sequence. Since the conventional dark channel prior haze removal method adjusts each color component separately in RGB color space, there can be severe color distortion in the haze removed output image. In order to resolve this problem, this paper proposes a new haze removal scheme that adjusts luminance and saturation components in HLS color space while retaining hue component. Also the conventional dark channel prior haze removal method is developed to obtain best haze removal performance for a single image. Therefore, if it is applied to a moving image sequence, the estimated parameter values change rapidly and the haze removed output image sequence shows unnatural glitter defects. To overcome this problem, a new parameter estimation method using Kalman filter is proposed for moving image sequence. Experimental results demonstrate that the haze removal performance of the proposed method is better than that of the conventional dark channel prior method.

Characteristics of Air Quality over Korean Urban Area due to the Long-range Transport Haze Events (장거리 수송 연무 발생과 연관된 우리나라 대도시 대기질 특성)

  • Jo, Hyun-Young;Kim, Cheol-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2011
  • Haze phenomena were analyzed to assess the impact of long range transport process on the air quality of Seoul and Busan. We statistically classified haze days observed in both Seoul and Busan into two types of haze cases: stagnant case and long-range transport case, and analyzed the air pollutant levels comparatively for each of the two cases for the period of 2000~2007. The results showed that the long-range transport haze case occurs less frequently with the occurrence frequency of 35.5% than stagnant case with the occurrence frequency of 64.5%. During the observed all haze days, all pollutants have high concentration in comparison with those under other meteorological conditions (Rain, Mist, Dust, Clear, Rain+Mist) except for only $PM_{10}$ of Dust case where its level shows highest among total 6 categorized conditions. The long range transport haze case shows similar levels of $PM_{10}$ and $NO_2$, but higher $SO_2$ and lower $O_3$ compared with stagnant haze cases, suggesting the importance of sulfur chemistry for long range transport haze case and local photochemistry for stagnant haze case. In addition, by employing the NOAA/HYSPLIT-4 backward trajectory model, we subdivided the long range transport haze cases into two different sources: urban anthropogenic high emission areas of central China, and natural emission sources over north China and/or Mongolia. The former long range transport haze case shows higher occurrence (with Seoul 70% and Busan 85%) than the latter haze case (with Seoul 30% and Busan <10%). This is also implying that the long haze phenomena occurred over Korea have been influenced by not only the anthropogenic emissions but also the natural dust emissions. These both emission sources can be good contributors in calculating the source-receptor relationship over Korean atmospheric environment.

Characteristics of Fine Particle Concentration and Case during Haze Days in Busan (부산 지역 연무 발생일의 미세먼지 농도와 사례별 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.751-765
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    • 2017
  • This research investigates the characteristics of meteorological variation and fine particles ($PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$) for case related to the haze occurrence (Asian dust, long range transport, stationary) in Busan. Haze occurrence day was 559 days for 20 years (from 1996 to 2015), haze occurrence frequency was 82 days (14.7%) in March, followed by 67 days (12.0%) in February and 56 days (10.0%) in May. Asian dust occurred most frequently in spring and least in winter, whereas haze occurrence frequency was 31.5% in spring, 29.7% in winter, 21.1% in fall, and 17.7% in summer. $PM_{10}$ concentration was highest in the occurrence of Asian dust, followed by haze and haze + mist, whereas $PM_{2.5}$ concentration was highest in the occurrence of haze. These results indicate that understanding the relation between meteorological phenomena and fine particle concentration can provide insight into establishing a strategy to control urban air quality.

Improved Dark Channel Prior Dehazing Algorithm by using Compensation of Haze Rate Miscalculated Area (안개량 오추정 영역 보정을 이용한 개선된 Dark Channel Prior 안개 제거 알고리즘)

  • Kim, Jong-Hyun;Cha, Hyung-Tai
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.770-781
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    • 2016
  • As a result of reducing color information and edge information, object distinction in haze image occurs with difficulty. One of the famous defogging algorithm is haze removal by using 'Dark Channel Prior(DCP)', which is used to predict for transmission rate using color information of an image and eliminates haze from the image. But, In case that haze rate is estimated under color information, there is a miscalculated issue which is posed by haze rate and transmission in area with high brightness such as a white object or a light source. In this paper, We deal with a miscalculated issue by correcting from around haze rate, after application of color normalization used by main white part of image haze. Moreover, We calculation improved transmission based on the result of improved haze rate estimation. And then haze image quality is developed through refining transmission.

Sharpness-aware Evaluation Methodology for Haze-removal Processing in Automotive Systems

  • Hwang, Seokha;Lee, Youngjoo
    • IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.390-394
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    • 2016
  • This paper presents a new comparison method for haze-removal algorithms in next-generation automotive systems. Compared to previous peak signal-to-noise ratio-based comparisons, which measure similarity, the proposed modulation transfer function-based method checks sharpness to select a more suitable haze-removal algorithm for lane detection. Among the practical filtering schemes used for a haze-removal algorithm, experimental results show that Gaussian filtering effectively preserves the sharpness of road images, enhancing lane detection accuracy.

박막 태양전지 응용을 위하여 유리 습식 식각을 이용하여 Multi-Scale Architecture의 haze 효과

  • Oh, Donghyun;Jeon, Minhan;Kang, Jiwoon;Shim, Gyeongbae;Cho, Jaehyun;Park, Cheolmin;Kim, Hyunhoo;Yi, Junsin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.161.1-161.1
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    • 2016
  • 박막 태양전지의 광 산란을 위한 텍스쳐 된 표면은 반사 손실을 감소시키기 위한 것이다. 그러나, 투명한 전극(TCO)의 텍스쳐 된 표면은 빛의 가용성을 제한하고, 장파장 영역에서 haze의 수치를 감소시키며, 전반사의 증가는 박막 태양전지의 Jsc를 감소시킨다. 본 논문에서는 높은 빛의 가용성을 위하여 HF+HCl 혼합용액을 이용하여 표면의 질을 향상시키기 위한 해결책을 제시했다. 같은 HF+HCl 혼합용액을 사용하여, 540 nm의 파장에서 약 85 %의 높은 haze 수치를 달성했으며, ZnO:Al 막의 증착 후에 식각된 유리 기판과 함께 비교했을 때, 2.3%의 haze 수치의 감소를 얻었다. 또, 깊은 습식 식각에 의하여 Haze 수치를 증가시키기 위한 메커니즘 간단히 설명했다. 텍스쳐 된 유리 기판의 haze 수치의 측면에서 광학 이득은 일반적인 Asahi FTO 유리(${\lambda}=540nm$의 13.5%)에 비해 상당히 높다. 이러한 높은 haze 수치의 AZO 박막은 박막 태양전지의 Jsc를 개선하는데 이용할 수 있다.

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Physical, Chemical and Optical Properties of an Asian Dust and Haze Episodes Observed at Seoul in 2010 (2010년 서울에서 관측한 황사와 연무사례의 물리, 화학, 광학적 특성비교)

  • Song, Seungjoo;Kim, Jeong Eun;Lim, Eunha;Cha, Joo-Wan;Kim, Jhoon
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated physicochemical and optical characteristics for three episodes of Asian dust, stagnant haze and long-range transport haze and for one clean day. $PM_{10}$ mass concentration during Asian dust and two haze days was increased by 2~9 times compared to that of clean episode. During Asian dust episode, coarse particle concentration was increased and the mass concentration of calcium in a coarse mode ($1.8{\sim}10{\mu}m$) was $5.4{\mu}g/m^3$ which was 7 times higher than that of clean episode. The calcium was presented as a form of $CaCO_3$ in a coarse mode. During the two haze episodes, fine particle (< $1.8{\mu}m$) concentration was increased and secondary inorganic pollutants such as sulfate, ammonium and nitrate composed of 90% of the total ions. $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ and $NH_4NO_3$ were dominant in a fine mode for stagnant haze episode. But they were the most dominant form in both fine mode and coarse mode for long-range transport haze episode. According to the optical properties for each episode (Asian dust, stagnant haze and long-range transport haze) were classified as dust, black carbon and mixture, respectively.

Chemical Composition Characteristics of Atmospheric Aerosols in Relation to Haze, Asian Dust and Mixed Haze-Asian Dust Episodes at Gosan Site in 2013 (2013년 고산지역 연무, 황사, 연무-황사혼재 대기 에어로졸의 화학조성 특성)

  • Ko, Hee-Jung;Song, Jung-Min;Cha, Joo Wan;Kim, Jeongeun;Ryoo, Sang-Boom;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.289-304
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    • 2016
  • The $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ aerosols were collected at the Gosan site of Jeju Island in 2013 and analyzed, in order to examine the variation characteristics of the chemical compositions in relation to the haze, Asian dust, and mixed haze-Asian dust episodes. Volume concentrations obtained from the Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) were high in the range of $0.6{\sim}1.0{\mu}m$ particles for haze event, and in the range of $2.0{\sim}10.0{\mu}m$ particles for Asian dust event. For the haze event, nitrate concentrations increased highly as 8.8 and 25.1 times for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$, respectively, possibly caused by the inflow of air mass stagnated in eastern parts of China into Jeju area. For the Asian dust event, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$, $NO_3{^-}$ and nss-$SO_4{^{2-}}$ increased 6.0, 1.5, 1.8 times for $PM_{10}$, and 2.3, 1.3, 1.6 times for $PM_{2.5}$, respectively. Meanwhile, for the mixed haze-Asian dust event, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ increased 13.4 and 3.2 times for $PM_{10}$, and 1.8 and 3.4 times for $PM_{2.5}$, respectively. The $NH_4NO_3$ content was higher than that of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ during the haze event, however it was relatively low during the mixed haze-Asian dust event. The aerosols were acidified mostly by inorganic acids, and especially the nitric acid contributed highly to the acidification during both the haze and the mixed haze-Asian dust events. Meanwhile, the neutralization by ammonia was noticeably high during haze event when the stagnated air mass moved from China.