• Title, Summary, Keyword: Harmonization

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A Study on the Harmonization Method(和法) in Huang Di Nei Jing(黃帝內經) and Shanghan Zabing Lun(傷寒雜病論) (≪황제내경(黃帝內經)≫ 여(與) ≪상한론(傷寒論)≫ "화법(和法)"지고찰(之考察))

  • Ju, Bao-zhao;Kim, Hyo-chul
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : Through the analysis of the harmonization(和) thought in Traditional Chinese culture, and then excavate the theory and application of Harmonization Method(和法) in Huang Di Nei Jing(黃帝內經) and Shanghan Zabing Lun(傷寒雜病論). Methods : We find the harmonization(和) means harmony and neutral in traditional Chinese culture, including the harmony of society, the harmony of the mind and the body, and so on. Results : Huang Di Nei Jing(黃帝內經) emphasized the health status is moderate, the disease state is unbalance, preserving our health should keep the yin-yang equilibrium, treating disease should reestablish the equilibrium status, which establish the foundation of the theory of Harmonization Method(和法). Shanghan Zabing Lun(傷寒雜病論) created the methods of settlement and harmony, which is a precedent for the wide application of Harmonization Method(和法) for future generations, including to reconcile the interior-exterior and yin-yang, to harmony the ying-wei and qi-blood, to reconcile the activities of qi of internal organs. Conclusions : The harmonization(和) is the ideological foundation of the theory system of TCM and the Harmonization Method(和法). The Harmonization Method(和法) is an important treatment method for clinical practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

A study on the harmonization for developing ENC consistency (전자해도 일관성 향상을 위한 Harmonization 방안 연구)

  • Ko, Hyun-Joo;Oh, Se-Woong;Sim, Woo-Sung;Suh, Sang-Hyun;Youn, Chung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.115-116
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    • 2012
  • ENC internationality is emphasized by promoting coordination between international organizations recently. However, as a uniform chart pattern is more than ncecessary for save and comfortable navigation between adjacent countries, it is expected to require base technology to solve this problems. In this study, we define each other's different needs and object of Harmonization and identify the base technology by analyzing the case of foreign coutries' Harmonization to come up with an effective counterplan. In addition we analyze and arrange the difference between Korea and other countries in the point of the topic classified from examples of other countries. In conclusion, the effects are drawn from that by conducting this analyzing.

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A Study on the Effects of Job Involvement, Job Stress, and Organizational Culture on Work-Life Harmonization (근로자의 일 지향성, 일 스트레스 및 조직문화가 일과 삶의 조화에 미치는 영향)

  • Cheon, Hye-Jung;Han, Na
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.53-72
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the effects of job involvement, job stress, and organizational culture on work-life harmonization of Korean employees. The data came from 481 employees in diverse organizations located in Seouland the metropolitan area. Key findings of the study were (a) job involvement was significantly different for different types of occupation and job positions, while job stress was significantly different based on gender, education, income, and the term of service; (b) perceptions of organizational culture by employees varied according to gender, age, position, the period of service, and firm size; (c) the level of work-life harmonization was not significantly different based on gender, age, marital status, education, and income - but it did differ significantly based on types of occupation and firm size; (d) the employee's type of education, job involvement, job stress, and organizational culture have effects on work-life harmonization.

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Verification of Harmonization of Dose Assessment Results According to Internal Exposure Scenarios

  • Kim, Bong-Gi;Ha, Wi-Ho;Kwon, Tae-Eun;Lee, Jun-Ho;Jung, Kyu-Hwan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.143-153
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    • 2018
  • Background: The determination of the amount of radionuclides and internal dose for the worker who may have intake of radionuclides results in a variation due to uncertainty of measurement data and ingestion information. As a result of this, it is possible that for the same internal exposure scenario assessors could make considerably different estimation of internal dose. In order to reduce this difference, internal exposure scenarios for nuclear facilities were developed, and intercomparison were made to determine the harmonization of dose assessment results among the assessors. Materials and Methods: Seven cases on internal exposures incidents that have occurred or may occur were prepared by referring to the intercomparison excercise scenario that NRC and IAEA have carried out. Based on this, 16 nuclear facilities concerned with internal exposure in Korea were asked to evaluate the scenarios. Each result was statistically determined according to the harmonization discrimination criteria developed by IDEAS/IAEA. Results and Discussion: The results were evaluated as having no outliers in all 7 cases. However, the distribution of the results was spread by various causes. They can be divided into two wide categories. The first one is the distribution of the results according to the assumption of the intake factors and the evaluation factors. The second one is distribution due to misapplication of calculation method and factors related to internal exposure. Conclusion: In order to satisfy the harmonization criteria and accuracy of the internal exposure dose evaluation, it is necessary that exact guidelines should be set on low dose, and various intercomparison cases also be needed including high dose exposure as well as the specialized education. The aim of the blind test is to make harmonization evaluation, but it will also contribute to securing the expertise and high quality of dose evaluation data through the discussion among the participants.

Harmonization of MRL Setting for Compounds Used Both as Pesticides and as Veterinary Drugs with Regulatory Aspects - Cypermethrin in Food of Animal Origin (농약 및 동물용의약품으로 사용되는 약제의 잔류허용기준 설정 개선 - 축산물 중 cypermethrin의 잔류 사례)

  • Kwon, Jin-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Cypermethrins, possess eight isomers, used both as pesticide and as veterinary drug, were set different MRLs for livestock by CCPR and CCRVDF of Codex Alimentarius. Korea Food Code designates MRLs for livestock only as pesticide. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study presented necessaries of harmonization of MRL setting for compounds used both as pesticides and as veterinary drugs with regulatory aspects, showing an example of cypermethrin residue in livestock. CONCLUSION(S): For harmonization, following factors must be considered and recommended; designation of marker residue; alpha-cypermethrin, zeta- cypermethrin, and cypermethrin, clarification of the definition of target tissues; meat, fat, muscle, by-product, eggs, milk, and etc., method of analysis; clarification of target analytes of isomers, quantitation and calculation method as a principle of residue analysis.

A Theoretical Study on Family-Friendly Management - Dual Agenda Approach - (이중의제접근을 통한 가족친화경영)

  • Lee, Ju-Yeon;Choe, Sok-Ho
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.15-36
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to review previous domestic and foreign studies and to investigate personal work-life harmonization through theoretical research on familyfriendly management using a dual agenda approach. The authors briefly identified trends and critically reviewed domestic researches on family-friendly management and foreign studies of scholars that overcame the limitations of domestic studies to present a foundation for work-life harmonization through a dual agenda approach. As a result, the existing family-friendly management was found to be compatible with work and family but was not effective in developing personal careers. The workers who actively accepted family-friendly management as part of their work-life balance were mostly female laborers who were employed part-time, had lower academic education, earned lower wages and, in general, were non-professional workers without specific skills or career aspirations. The remainder of the workers, full-time male employees, with higher education and with professional knowledge and skills, inevitably worked longer, more labor-intensive hours, due to the advent of the dual agenda approach. A new work-life harmonization program is urgently needed not only for family-friendliness but also for healthy organizations, individual career development and personal wellbeing.

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Harmonization of laboratory results by data adjustment in multicenter clinical trials

  • Lee, Sang Gon;Chung, Hee-Jung;Park, Jeong Bae;Park, Hyosoon;Lee, Eun Hee
    • The Korean journal of internal medicine
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.1119-1128
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    • 2018
  • Background/Aims: In multicenter clinical trials, laboratory tests are performed in the laboratory of each center, mostly using different measuring methodologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coefficients of variation (CVs) of laboratory results produced by various measuring methods and to determine whether mathematical data adjustment could achieve harmonization between the methods. Methods: We chose 10 clinical laboratories, including Green Cross Laboratories (GC Labs), the central laboratory, for the measurement of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides, creatinine, and glucose. The serum panels made with patient samples referred to GC Labs were sent to the other laboratories. Twenty serum samples for each analyte were prepared, sent frozen, and analyzed by each participating laboratory. Results: All methods used by participating laboratories for the six analytes had traceability by reference materials and methods. When the results from the nine laboratories were compared with those from GC Labs, the mean CVs for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and glucose analyzed using the same method were 1.7%, 3.7%, 4.3%, and 1.7%, respectively; and those for triglycerides and creatinine analyzed using two different methods were 4.5% and 4.48%, respectively. After adjusting data using Deming regression, the mean CV were 0.7%, 1.4%, 1.8%, 1.4%, 1.6%, and 0.8% for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, creatinine, and glucose, respectively. Conclusions: We found that more comparable results can be produced by laboratory data harmonization using commutable samples. Therefore, harmonization efforts should be undertaken in multicenter trials for accurate data analysis (CRIS number; KCT0001235).

An Analysis on the Image and Landscape Harmonization of Urban Bridges on Han-River, Seoul, Korea (도시 교량경관의 이미지와 조화성 분석 -서울 한강 교량을 중심으로-)

  • 이상엽;오휘영;조세환
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2002
  • This study aims to discover the landscape image of bridges and their harmonization wish surrounding sceneries. This research utilized the basic study tool of psycho-physics and processed the case study of five types of bridges on the Han-River, Seoul. Twenty-one bridges on Han-River were classified into five categories ; the cable stayed bridge, the arch bridge, the girder bridge, the trust bridge and the suspension bridge. Also, aesthetic elements of the bridges including the form the texture, the color, the scale and the harmony were examined. The questionaires to analysis the image and harmonization with surrounding sceneries were designed using semantic differential scale and 5 point Likert scale. The results of the research were as follows. First, components representing the images of bridge landscape are classified into three types, ‘beauty’, ‘weightfulness’ and ‘friendliness’. Second, the image of each bridge as a whole turns out not to be different from each other but to be different in the context of neighboring sceneries. It was also determined that both the Cable Stayed Bridge type and the Arch Bridge type are the most attractive. But, the former does have a more masculine image, and the latter has a m[n feminine image. Third, the Cable Stayed Bridge and the Arch Bridge were evaluated highly in terms of harmonization with surrounding landscapes, while the Girder Bridge received the lowest evaluation. All of the above results suggest that the bridges should be constructed not only for beauty itself in form, color, texture and scale, but also in harmonization with the surrounding landscape. Lastly, it is desirable to do further research to find out sort specific design principles that exist between bridges and tangible surrounding landscape types.

Harmonization of Rules of Origin: An Agenda for Plurilateral Cooperation?

  • Hoekman, Bernard;Inama, Stefano
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.3-28
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    • 2018
  • This article discusses the deadlock in the WTO on multilateral harmonization of nonpreferential rules of origin (RoO) and reviews some of the RoO included in recent preferential trade agreements. We argue that there is a trend towards adoption of similar approaches and that this suggests that cooperation to reduce the trade-impeding effects of differences in RoO across jurisdictions is more feasible than often is assumed by observers and policymakers. From a trade facilitation perspective such cooperation could be based on plurilateral initiatives under the umbrella of the WTO. These could include a focus on pursuit of greater convergence between preferential and nonpreferential RoO helping to achieve the long-standing goal of moving towards harmonization of rules of origin.

Harmonization, Mobility Management, and Fixed-Mobile Convergence: Studies in the ITU-T Special Study Group on

  • Delmond, Frederic;Kim, Young-Kyun;Pandya, Raj;Pettitt, Bruce;Samou, Jean-Claude
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.314-320
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    • 2002
  • The various sectors of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) have been addressing the evolution of thirdgeneration and future wireless systems in the context of a comprehensive International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000) project, and within the ITU’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) a Special Study Group on “IMT-2000 and Beyond” has been established to address the network aspects of these emerging wireless systems. The Special Study Group (SSG) is playing a global role in this general area, in which a number of regional standards development organizations and a variety of industry forums are also active. This paper provides background information on the SSG and describes the SSG’s ongoing work addressing medium-term issues relating to convergence of fixed and mobile systems and the harmonization of evolving IMT-2000 systems. The paper also addresses related mobility management aspects.