• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hardiness

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A Concept Analysis of Hardiness (강인성 (Hardiness)의 개념 분석)

  • 이영애
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.616-622
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    • 1994
  • Precise concept analysis has been neglected be-cause of a lack of understanding of its necessity and a lack of conceptual analytic knowledge. Concept analysis is the mental work of examining parts, phenomenon and the interrelated whole of a thing. Focus in this article is to extract the critical attributes of hardiness and make an operational delinition. The process of concept analysis is illustrated and documented using the analytic approach described by Walker and Avant (1983). To explore the explicit or implicit meanings of hardiness, existing literature was reviewed. The evolution of hardiness and the dictionary definitions were also added. Hardiness can be defined as follows : A condition of being inured to fatigue or hardship which has three subcomponents-challenge, control and commitment. Critical attributes of hardiness were extracted that may be used in naming the occurrence of the phenomenon. Model case, contrary case, borderline case and related case were described. Antecedents and consequences were explored. The defining critical attributes of hardiness are : 1. Resistance-hardiness involves resistance of stress or hardship. 2. Hardiness involves appraisal of change as a chance. 3. Hardiness implies interpretation of events and self as influential,. 4. Hardiness requires active involving reaction Implications for nursing and for further study are added.

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The Concept of Hardiness : A Review of the Literature for Nursing (강인성 (hardiness)에 대한 문헌고찰)

  • 박명희
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.227-237
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    • 1992
  • The purposes of this literature review were to identify the theoretical basis and components of the concept hardiness, trends in the study of hardiness it's application in nursing and issues in measurement. The concept of hardiness has been derived deductively from existential psychology and is composed of three components, control, commitment and challenge. In research, the characteristic of hardiness has been demonstrated as a motivating factor in resolving stressful situations and in adapting to actual health problems. With regard to the measurement of hardiness, because of it's low level of predictability related to health outcomes, it is recommanded that the component of be omited from the concept of hardiness. On the basis of this literature review, the following suggestions are proposed. 1. Considering the lack of empirical suport, the theory of hardiness needs to be evaluated. 2. There is a need for further study of hardiness in a broad variety of populations. 3. A valid, reliable and culturally appropriate instrument needs to be developed for health related research. 4. Analysis is needed of the relationship between hardiness and stress-resistance, and of the factors related to both.

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Analysis of Nursing Studies on Hardiness Published in Korea (강인성에 대한 국내 간호논문 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Ock
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify patterns and trends of hardiness studies and to suggest the direction of further research. Method : Forty-seven hardiness studies were collected through internet searching and were reviewed by some criteria. Result : The results showed that hardiness studies have increased rapidly since 1990's. Eighteen studies were thesis' for degrees and others were for non-degree research studies. All studies employed the non-experimental design, particularly correlational studies. In the sampling method, all studies used non-probability sampling. Most commonly used instrument for hardiness measurement was Pollock(1986)'s HRHS. In the majority of research, hardiness was treated both as a composite measure and 3 subscales. Hardiness-related concepts were 27 and classified into 5 categories such as health behavior, stress, adaptation, support, and others. Most common statistical technique was Pearson's correlation coefficient, followed by regression, ANOVA, path analysis. Conclusion : To be utilized as practical nursing knowledge, hardiness studies should be done with more empirical analysis such as experimental research, and Meta-analysis is needed to compare the effect size and significance of composit and 3 subscales of hardiness construct.

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Ways of Coping and Health-Related Hardiness in University Students (대학생의 스트레스 대처방식과 강인성)

  • Kim, Nam-Sun;Kwon, MI-Kyung;Kim, Hye-Won;Lee, Kyu-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to explain the relationship between ways of coping and health-related hardiness in university students at G city. Method: The participants were a convenience sample of 250 students. The data were collected by a questionnaire given to the students between June 1 to June 10, 2006. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The most frequently used method of coping was pursuit of social support. The mean score for level of health-related hardiness was $3.34{\pm}0.55$. There were significant differences in ways of coping according to satisfaction with college life (F=4.036, p=.008). There were significant differences in health-related hardiness according to smoking or not (F=6.237, p=.002). There were positive correlation between problem focused coping and hardiness (r=.357, p=.000), between social support and hardiness (r=.345, p=.000), between hope seeking thought and hardiness (r=.247, p=.000). In regression analysis, ways of coping was significantly influenced by hardiness(16.6%). Conclusion: The results suggest that programs for strengthening hardiness can be considered as significant nursing interventions for helping university students cope with stress.

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A Correlation Study on the Relationship between Hardiness and Compliance with Prenatal Care in Pregnant Woman (임부의 강인성과 산전간호이행과의 관계연구)

  • 박명희
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.339-355
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    • 1993
  • The purpose of this correlational study was to offer strategies for nursing intervention to improve compliance with prenatal care. This study was designed to investigate degree of tardiness, correlation between hardiness and compliance with prenatal care. In research, the characteristic of hardiness has 1 teen demonstrated in resolving stressful situaltions and in adapting to overcome physical and psycho-logical tension. pregnancy is normal crisis process. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate degree of hardiness in normal pregnant woman and I think that concept of hardiness is able to become a new, important concept for prenatal care imtervention. The subjects were 388 normal pregnant woman over five months, who were selected from five university hospitals and two health centers in Taegu. Data were obtained using a convenience sample technique. Data collection was done from March 6 to June 18, 1992. The instruments used for this study were the Health Related Hardiness Scale developed by Pollock(1984) and compliance with a prenatal care scale developed by the author on the basis of results of a literature review. Data were analyzed using the SAS program for t - test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression. The results are as follows : 1. The scores on the hardiness scale ranged from 35 to 210 with mean of 88.89. 2. The scores on the compliance with prenatal care scale ranged from 28 to 140 with a mean of 111.49. 3. There were significant differences between hardiness and obstetrical characteristic factors, duration of pregnancy, frequency of pregnancy, frequency of abortion(P .05). 4. There were significant differences between compliance with prenatal care and general and obstetircal characteristic factors, education and frequency of pregnancy(P .05). 5. Correlations between hardiness and compliance with prenatal care were all negative and significant(r=-.2276~ -.2930, P .000). Challenge of hardiness components was the low est (r= -.2814). 6. Significant differences between hardiness and compliance with prenatal care by group were as follows : Group 1 was the high est, whereas Group 8 was the lowest(F=5.47, P .0000). 7. Factors influencing compliance with prenatal care were : 1) Challenge was the main variable and accounted for 7.92% of the total variance. 2) Education and frequency of pregnancy accounted for an additional 2.74% of the total variance. From the above findings, this study suggests the following : 1) Considering the lack of empirical support, the theroy of hardiness needs to be evaluated. 2) A valid, reliable and culturally appropriate instrument needs to be developed for Health Related Hardiness Scale. 3) There is a need for further study of hardiness in a broad variety of populations. 4) There is a need for comparative study correlation between hardiness and compliance with prenatal care in woman with normal and abnormal pregnancies

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Factors influencing related health promoting behavior in College Women (여대생의 건강증진행위와 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hye-Sook
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.16-31
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    • 2002
  • This study was done in order to analyze the relationship of gender identity, self-esteem, self-efficacy, hardiness, and health promotion behavior in the College Women. The subjects were 275 students from a college in Kyungbuk. The instruments used for this study were made of general characteristics(6 items), gender identity(1 item), self-esteem(10 item), self-efficacy(13 items), hardiness(38 items) and health promoting behaviors(40 items). The data were analyzed by SPSS/$PC^+$ program using descriptive statistics, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Stepwise Regression. The results of this study were as follows. 1. The Mean score of gender identity, self-esteem, self-efficacy, hardiness, and health promotion behavior were as follows. 1) The mean score of the health promoting behavior was 2.24. Among the subcategories, the highest score was interpersonal support(2.91), self-actualization (2.85), and the lowest score was health responsibility(1.62). 2) The mean score of the gender identity was 2.04. 3) The mean score of the self-esteem was 2.85. 4) The mean score of the self-efficacy was 6.50. 5) The mean score of the hardiness was 2.83. 2. Correlations of gender identity, self-esteem, self-efficacy, hardiness, and health promotion behavior were as follows. 1) Gender identity was positively correlated with self-esteem(r=-.287, p=.0000), self-efficacy(r=-.226, p=.0000), hardiness(r=.237, p=.0000), health promotion behavior(r=-.236, p=.0000). 2) Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-efficacy(r=.499, p=.0000), hardiness (r=-.275, p=.0000), health promotion behavior(r=.428, p=0000). 3) Self-efficacy was positively correlated with hardiness(r=-.423, p=.0000), health promotion behavior(r=.492, p=.0000). 4) Hardiness was positively correlated with health promotion behavior(r=-.457, p=.0000). 4. Self-efficacy, hardiness and self-esteem were the major predictors for health promoting behavior(35.7%).

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Relationship among Daily Life Stress, Self-Efficacy, Hardiness, and Health Behavior of University Students (대학생이 지각한 일상생활 스트레스, 자기효능, 강인성과 건강행위와의 관계)

  • Lee, Young Whee
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.699-708
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This correlational study was undertaken to examine the relationship among daily life stress, self-efficacy, hardiness, and health behavior of university students. Methods: Two hundred sixty five university students were gathered from the undergraduate classes. Data were collected through self-reported question- naires which included daily life stress scale, self-efficacy scales, hardiness scales, and health behavior scales. Results: The daily life stress level had a maximum score of 4 with a mean score of 2.09 and the mean score of health behavior was 2.56. A negative correlation exists among daily life stress, self-efficacy, and health behavior. The self-efficacy is positively correlated with the health behavior. According to the hardiness factor, health behavior is positively correlated with hardiness. In the subareas, health behavior is positively correlated with control, commitment, and challenge. The self- efficacy factor was positively correlated with challenge. Conclusions: In conclusion, based onthe results of this study, both self-efficacy and hardiness are useful concepts in reducing the stress level and in increasing the health promoting behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a program based on both self-efficacy and hardiness.

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Effects of Self Efficacy, Health Related Hardiness on a Health Promoting Lifestyle of Middle-aged People (중년기 성인의 자기 효능감 및 건강관련 강인성이 건강증진 생활양식에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-In;Kim, Soon-Yi;Seo, Ki-Soon
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self efficacy, and health related hardiness on a health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged people Method: The study was designed as a descriptive survey study. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire which included general characteristics, measure of self efficacy, health related hardiness, and health promoting lifestyle. Data collection was done between May and August, 2007 with 197 middle-aged participants. Result: The average score of the participants for self efficacy was 34.78, for health related hardiness 57.01 and for a health promoting lifestyle 127.53. There were positive correlations between self efficacy and a health promoting lifestyle, health related hardiness and a health promoting lifestyle, and self efficacy and health related hardiness. The correlations were statistically significant. Health related hardiness was a significant predictors of a health promoting lifestyle. Conclusion: A strategy for improving self efficacy and health related hardiness should be developed and a nursing intervention program should also be provided based on the developed strategy of middle-aged people.

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A Study of Relationships Hardiness, Coping Behaviors and Organizational Commitment of General Hospital Employees (종합병원 종사자의 강인성, 대응행위 및 조직몰입과의 관계)

  • Hwang, Seo Yeon;Seo, Eun Hui;Park, Seon Il
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.196-206
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This descriptive correlation study was done to identify the hardiness, coping behavior, and organizational commitment of general hospital employees and show how these variables affect increases in role performance and problem solving ability to have a positive influence on organizational harmony. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive research design was used with a sample of 368 employees working in general hospitals in M and C cities. A survey was used to collect the data. Results: The score for perception of hardiness of general hospital employees was 2.85, and coping behavior was 2.40, both out of a possible 4 points, and organizational commitment, 3.03 out of a possible 5 points. There were statistically significant positive correlations between hardiness and coping behavior (r=.33, p<.001), also between hardiness and organizational commitment (r=.51, p<.001), and also between coping behavior and organizational commitment (r=.22, p<.001). Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that hardiness, coping behavior, and organizational commitment in general hospital employees have positive correlations, and thus hospital administrators should explore ways of increase individual employee hardiness and coping behavior, and make efforts to harmonize their organizations by enhancing organizational commitment.

Relationship of Health Status, Self-Efficacy, Hardiness, Family Support and Pain in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (류마티스 관절염환자의 건강상태와 자기효능, 강인성, 가족지지 및 통증과의 관련성)

  • Paik, Kwang-Mi;Shim, Seung-Cheol;Kim, Jong-Im
    • Journal of muscle and joint health
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.309-322
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to find out the relationship among several variables such as health status, self-efficacy, health related hardiness, family support and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were 108 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who visited the out patient department of Rheumatism at E university hospital in Teajon. Data were collected by questionnaire from November 26, 1999 to January 14, 2000. The instrument used in this study were health status developed by Bae et al(1998), self-efficacy scale developed by KRHPS, health related hardiness modified by Suh(1988), family support scale developed by Kang(1984), Pain with graphic rating scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, multiple regression using the SPSS Win program. The results were as follows; 1. There were no statistically significant differences between general characteristics and variables such as health status, self-efficacy, health related hardiness and family support respectively. 2. Statistically significant differences were not found between clinical characteristic and variables such as health status, self-efficacy, health related hardiness and family support respectively. 3. Significant correlations were found between health status and self-efficacy, self-efficacy and hardiness, hardiness and family support, health status and pain, self-efficacy and pain respectively(p<0.01), and health status and hardiness, self-efficacy and family support, hardiness and pain respectively(p<0.05). 4. Self-efficacy and pain were significant affecting factors of a health status. In these results, it is suggested that nursing intervention to increase self-efficacy and to reduce pain was very important for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

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