• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hanwoo steers

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A study on the changes of carcass muscle distribution in the high quality meat production of Hanwoo steers in Kyungnam (경남지역 거세한우의 고급육 생산을 위한 도체 근육부위별 분포도 차이에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Cheol-Ho;Kim, Taeg-Seog;Kim, Chung-Hui
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2020
  • A grading system is implemented to evaluate the meat quality of Hanwoo. In the grading system, grade 1++A is the highest grade. Livestock farms breed Hanwoo with good quality feed in order to obtain the highest grade. In this process, the content ratios of muscles in individual regions can be changed. To find out the muscle distribution ratios of Hanwoo steers, grade 1A, 1+A, and 1++A Hanwoo steers were compared with grade 1+A Hanwoo female. Grade 1A Hanwoo steers had higher ratios of shank (SK), brisket and flank (BF), neck chain (NC), and inside skirt (IS) meats and a lower ratio of striploin (SL) meat compared to grade 1+A Hanwoo feamle. Grade 1++A Hanwoo steers had higher ratios of neck (NK) and loin (LN) meats and lower ratios of inside skirt (IS), tenderloin (TL), top round (TR), eye round (ER), bottom round (BR), bottom sirloin triangle (BST), and knuckle (K) meats compared to grade 1+A Hanwoo steers. In comparison between grade 1A and 1++A Hanwoo steers, the ratio of shank (SK) was significantly lower in higher quality meats. If the changes are continuously studied to improve the process so that the ratios of partial meats of the regions highly preferred by consumers can increase, it will contribute to increases in the incomes of livestock farms and enable Hanwoo to grow into a global brand.

Change of performance, serum metabolite, and carcass characteristics on high energy diet of Hanwoo steers

  • Jang, Sun Sik;Yang, Seung Hak;Lee, Eun Mi;Kang, Dong Hun;Park, Bo Hye;Kim, Hye Jae;Kwon, Eung Gi;Chung, Ki Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.810-817
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of a high-energy diet on the level of serum metabolites and on carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. High energy diets have been used for enhancing intramuscular adipose tissue in high quality beef cattle. However, there is not much information about the physiological reactions to this diet. We hypothesized that a high energy diet would increase blood metabolites and the meat quality of Hanwoo steers during the early and final fattening periods. A $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement (High, Control, and Early, Final) in a completely randomized design was used to feed 24 Hanwoo steers. Two steers were kept in the same pen and 12 pens were used for the experiment. Blood was drawn from each steer on the first week of every other month from 11 to 28 months. Overall Average Daily Gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were not different between high energy and control diets (p > 0.05). However, Dry Matter Intake (DMI greater with the control diet than DMI with the high energy diet during the final fattening period (p < 0.05). Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were greater in the control diet group than in the high energy diet group during the final fattening period (p < 0.05). However, serum albumin, glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and phosphorus were greater in the high energy group than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Carcass traits or physico-chemical characteristics were not different between high energy diet treatment and the control. These data indicated that a high energy diet (+ 3% TDN) increased serum triglyceride during early fattening periods and decreased non-esterified fatty acids during final fattening periods in Hanwoo steers.

Effects of Italian ryegrass diet on the performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites of Hanwoo steers

  • Kim, Hwi Jae;Ki, Kwang Seok;Jang, Sun Sik;Yang, Seung Hak;Lee, Eun Mi;Kang, Dong Hun;Park, Bo Hye;Kwon, Eung Gi;Chung, Ki Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.84-93
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to develop a pasture feeding program for reducing the Hanwoo feeding cost. Italian ryegrass (IRG) is a major plant which is abundantly produced in the southern area of South Korea. Locally produced Italian ryegrass has a 30 - 50% reduced pasture cost compared to imported pasture grasses. We hypothesized that Italian ryegrass feed could reduce the feeding cost but not change the physiological characteristics of the Hanwoo steers in the feedlot. Four treatments (Control, short fed IRG silage, long fed IRG silage, and IRG hay) in a completely random design were used to feed 27 Hanwoo steers. Three or four steers were fed in the same pen, and 8 pens were used for the treatments. Blood was drawn from each steer on the first week of every month from 11 to 30 months. Overall, the average daily gain and feed efficiency were not different among the treatments (p < 0.05) except for the final fattening diets (p < 0.05). The long fed IRG silage group had a low ADG compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The serum non-esterified fatty acid and glucose concentrations were reduced during the fattening periods (p < 0.05); however, the serum albumin, total proteins, triglycerides, and phosphorus were increased during the fattening periods (p < 0.05). The carcass weight, longissimus muscle area and back-fat thickness were low in the long fed IRG silage group (p < 0.05). The IRG diet induced saturated fatty acids in the longissimus dorsi (p < 0.05). These results show that the IRG diet increased the serum triglycerides but reduced the glucose level at the final fattening diet and decreased the meat yield score in Hanwoo steers.

Comparison of Meat Quality Traits, Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid on Longissimus Lumborum Muscles from Hanwoo, Holstein and Angus Steers, Fattened in Korea

  • Jeong, Da-Woon;Oh, Mi-Ra;Seong, Pil-Nam;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Geun-Ho;Kim, Jin-Hyung;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Lee, Jun-Soo;Park, Beom-Young
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.591-597
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to compare meat quality traits related to the tenderness of longissimus muscles obtained from domestic and imported steers. A total of 12 steers from three breeds were slaughtered, and were graded as quality grade 2. They were composed of 4 Hanwoo and 4 Holstein steers (domestic) as well as 4 Angus steers (imported from Australia and gained for six months in Korea until slaughtered). The longissimus lumborum muscles were separated and were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 7 and 14 d. Sarcomere length of Hanwoo was significantly shorter than Holstein and Angus at storage day 14 (p<0.05). The myofibrillar index was significantly lower on Hanwoo than Angus at ageing day 7, and was significantly lower than Holstein and Angus steers at storage day 14 (p<0.05). Total collagen contents of Hanwoo and Angus steers were significantly higher than Holstein on storage day 7 (p<0.05), whereas soluble collagen contents of Holstein were significantly higher than Hanwoo and Angus on storage days 7 and 14 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the fatty acid composition of the three breeds (p>0.05). Glutamic acid contents of Hanwoo and Angus steers were higher than those of Holstein steers at ageing day 7 and 14 (p<0.05). The results of this study have shown that there were no dramatic differences between beef from the three breeds that were fattened for 6 months under equal conditions.

Effects of potato byproduct on growth performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers

  • Kang, Dong Hun;Ki, Kwang Seok;Jang, Sun Sik;Yang, Seung Hak;Lee, Eun Mi;Park, Bo Hye;Kwon, Eung Gi;Chung, Ki Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.574-585
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of a potato byproduct on growth performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The palm oil coated potato byproduct was supplemented to the diet of Hanwoo steers to estimate the effect on growth performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics during the late fattening period. Thirteen steers with initial body weight of control ($676.8{\pm}31.7kg$), treatment 1 ($671.8{\pm}46.2kg$) and treatment 2 ($672.8{\pm}31.1kg$) were used for 60 days, respectively. Average daily gain of steers in treatment 2 and control was greater than that in treastment 1 (p > 0.05). All steers in treatment 2 had a grade quality grading system than B in meat quantity and had a meat quality higher than the $1^{st}$ grade. According to the physicochemical analysis of longissimus muscle, treatment 2 had high brightness resulting from high meat quality (p > 0.05), and a decrease in redness and yellowness is seen as a dilution effect due to muscle hypertrophy (p > 0.05). The fatty acid composition showed low levels of linoleic acid (p = 0.039) and arachidonic acid (p = 0.008) in treatment 2. This resulted in lower polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels (p = 0.034). On the other hand, high levels of oleic acid resulted in high levels of MUFA (p > 0.05). These results indicate that potato byproduct had similar effects with ${\beta}_2-adrenergic$ agonist (${\beta}_2-AA$). And there was no negative effect on the intramuscular fat. In conclusion, palm oil coated potato byproduct could be potentially used as an alternative growth enhancer.

Nutrient requirement for maintenance and nutritional changes of the Hanwoo steers in early-fattening stage under heat stress

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2018
  • Four early-fattening Hanwoo steers weighing $247{\pm}13.5kg$ were used within a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to establish a nutrient requirement for maintenance and to investigate nutritional changes in the steers under heat stress condition. The steers were fed four different energy level diets: 100% (control) and 100%, 115% and 130% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) requirement of the early-fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance based on the Korean Feeding Standard for Hanwoo. The steers in the control were housed with no stress (temperature $24^{\circ}C$ and humidity 60%), whereas the steers in the other groups were under heat stress (temperature $30^{\circ}C$ and humidity 70%). True digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and other nutrients were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by heat stress (i.e., control vs T100). This may be the result of a lower DM intake than that of the Korean feeding standard due to the establishment of the nutrients requirement under heat stress. Heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect the blood metabolite concentrations. Average daily gain (ADG) for T100 (-69.6 g) was lower than that of the control (-44.6 g, numerically), T115 (44.6 g, p < 0.05) and T130 (83.3 g, p < 0.05), respectively. Based on the ADG and TDN intake, the equation (Y = 0.1814X + 111.5) for the TDN requirement of the early fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance was calculated, indicating that 11.5% of TDN requirement for maintenance under heat stress may be additionally supplied.

Effects of weaning and castration ages on growth performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

  • Lim, Hwan;Ahn, Jun Sang;Kim, Min Ji;Son, Gi Hwal;Park, Joong Kook;Shim, Jae Yoon;Kim, Il Young;Kim, Ji Hyung;Cho, Sung Myoun;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh;Park, Byung Ki
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.12
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    • pp.30.1-30.11
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    • 2018
  • Background: Recently, as production costs have been increasing owing to rising feed prices worldwide, shortening the age of slaughter has been recognized as a way to increase farm income. In Korea, the raising period for Hanwoo steers is over 31 months with the delay of weaning and castration stated as one of the reasons for the increase in the raising period. Thus far, studies on age of weaning and castration have been conducted individually, and there have been no studies on the combined effects of weaning and castration ages on the growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Methods: Weaning ages were calculated at 80 or 130 days of age, and castration ages were calculated at 90 days and 180 days of age. Calves were allocated to one of the four treatment groups: W80C90 (weaning at 80 days of age and castration at 90 days of age), W80C180, W130C90, and W130C180. Results: For the entire experimental period, weaning and castration ages did not significantly affect growth performance of Hanwoo steers. In addition, weaning and castration ages did not affect the overall yield and quality traits of carcass in Hanwoo steers. Conclusion: Weaning and castration ages had small effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Therefore, the early weaning and castration ages are recommended to reduce the slaughter age without any negative effects on meat quality grade.

Effects of Dietary Addition of Bentonite on Manure Gas Emission, Health, Production, and Meat Characteristics of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) Steers

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Kim, Young-Il;Kwak, Wan-Sup
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1594-1600
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    • 2010
  • A study was conducted to determine the dietary effects of a clay mineral (sodium bentonite, NaB) on manure gas emission, health, production, and meat characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Two diets fed to steers included a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treatment diet (control diet+1.0% clay mineral/concentrate mix). Dietary NaB addition considerably reduced concentrations of gases ($H_2S$, $SO_2$ and $NH_3$) in the manure of Hanwoo steers. Growing steers fed NaB had similar blood profiles with the exception of lower (p<0.05) concentrations of blood alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. Dietary NaB addition tended to increase (p = 0.10) live weight by 30 kg at slaughtering and did not affect carcass yield and quality traits. Dietary NaB addition increased concentrations of P (p<0.01), Mg (p<0.01), Na (p<0.01), Zn (p<0.005), K (p = 0.08), Fe (p = 0.08) and Cu (p = 0.07) in the longissimus muscle compared to the control but did not affect (p>0.05) fatty acid composition. The study demonstrated that the dietary addition of a clay mineral could be effective in improving mineral bioavailability to Hanwoo steers, which could be one of the reasons for their improved performance.

Effects of dietary levels of tapioca residue on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

  • Park, Byung Ki;Lee, Dong Kyo;Ahn, Jun Sang;Park, Joong Kook;Kim, Min Ji;Son, Gi Hwal;Shin, Jong Suh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1128-1136
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary levels of tapioca residue on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition in Hanwoo steers. Methods: Twenty-eight steers were randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups; T0 (0% tapioca residue), T6.7 (6.7% tapioca residue), T9 (9% tapioca residue), and T12 (12% tapioca residue). Results: Supplementation with tapioca residue had no effect on overall growth performance. The concentration of plasma total cholesterol was higher in T6.7 than in other treatments (p<0.05). Dietary levels of tapioca residue did not affect carcass yield or the quality traits of Hanwoo steers. The lightness, redness, and yellowness of the longissimus muscle of Hanwoo steers were higher in T6.7 than in other treatments (p<0.05). Cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience were lower in T6.7 than in other treatments (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that supplementation with tapioca residue does not exert any negative effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition in Hanwoo steers. However, as the dietary level of tapioca residue increased, the intake of concentrate intake decreased, and tapioca supplementation greater than 6.7% did not substantially improved the marbling score.

Effects of a Mixture of Eugenol, Thymol and Malate on Growth Performance, Beef Quality and Liver Function in Hanwoo Finishing Steers Fed a High-Concentrate Diet

  • Kim, Do-Hyung;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Choi, Chang-Weon;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Hong, Seong-Koo;Lee, Sang-Cheol;Seol, Yong-Joo;Yeo, Joon-Mo;Kim, Wan-Young;Keum, Jong-Soo;Lee, Sung-Sill;Oh, Young-Kyoon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.505-511
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    • 2010
  • Thirty six Hanwoo steers (average BW, $564.5\;{\pm}\;25.7\;kg$; average age, approximately 23 months) were used to evaluate the effects of a mixture of eugenol (14%), thymol (1%) and malate (85%) on growth performance, beef quality and liver function in Hanwoo finishing steers fed a high-concentrate diet. A feeding trial was conducted for 7 months in National Agricultural Cooperative Federation farm located in Anseong, Korea. Steers were assigned randomly to one of three treatments: control (without additive supplementation), treatment 1 (0.05% additive of concentrate), treatment 2 (0.1% additive of concentrate). The results of this study showed that initial and final BW averaged 564 and 755 kg, respectively, and BW gain was significantly higher (P<0.05) for steers fed the additive mixture than for those fed no mixture (0.78 and 0.79 vs. 0.69 kg/d, respectively). Serum aspartate aminotransferase in the T2 treatment was decreased during the 24 to 31 months of age. Although supplementation of additives resulted in no substantial effect on carcass characteristics, it had a potential effect to improve feed efficiency and AST concentration in Hanwoo finishing steers fed a high-concentrate diet. In conclusion, a mixture of eugenol, thymol and malate has shown promise in improving feed efficiency and liver function in the finishing phase of Hanwoo steers.