• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hanwoo maturity scores

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Effect of Different Maturity Scores and Number of Extractions on the Sensory Traits of Water Extract from Hanwoo Shank Bones (한우 성숙도와 추출횟수가 사골용출액의 관능 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Seong, Pil-Nam;Hah, Kyung-Hee;Yun, Yeong-Tak;Lim, Dong-Gyun;Park, Beom-Young;Lee, Jong-Moon;Kim, Dong-Hun;Ahn, Chong-Nam
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different maturity scores [2 (bull), 2 (steer), 3-9 (cow)] and the number of extractions on water extract from Hanwoo shank bones (arm, fore shank, round and hind shank) with regard to sensory traits (white color, aroma, taste, overall acceptability). The white color of water extract from Hanwoo shank bones of maturity score 2 (bull and steer) was lighter than with maturity scores of 3-9 (cow) (p<0.05). The aroma of water extract from Hanwoo shank bones of maturity score 2 (bull and steer) was stronger than with other maturity scores 3-9 (cow) except for maturity score 5 (p<0.05). The taste and overall acceptability of water extract from Hanwoo shank bones of maturity score 2 (bull and steer) were higher than with maturity scores of 3-9 (cow) (p<0.05). The white color, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of water extract from Hanwoo shank bones of all maturity scores significantly decreased as the number of extractions (from 2nd to 4th) increased (p<0.05). In conclusion, there were significant differences between maturity scores 2 and maturity scores 3-9 (cow) with regard to sensory traits. Further studies need to address whether different maturity scores affect the price of shank bones in the meat industry.

Effect of Maturity Scores and Number of Extractions on the Chemical Properties of Water Extract from Hanwoo Shank Bones (한우 성숙도와 추출횟수가 사골용출액의 화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Seong, Pil-Nam;Hah, Kyung-Hee;Jeong, Jin-Hyung;Lim, Dong-Gyun;Park, Beom-Young;Lee, Jong-Moon;Kim, Dong-Hun;Ahn, Chong-Nam
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.463-468
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of maturity scores [2 (bull), 2 (steer), 3-9 (cow)] and the number of extractions (up to 4 times) on the chemical properties of water extract from Hanwoo shank bones (arm, fore shank, round and hind shank). The turbidity, meat color (CIE L value), collagen, protein, caloric and chondroitin sulfate contents of samples were observed. The turbidity and lightness were higher for water extract of Hanwoo shank bones with a maturity score of 2 (bull and steer) than maturity scores of 3-9 (cow) (p<0.05). The turbidity and lightness of water extract from shank bones of all Hanwoo maturity scores significantly increased with the 1st and 2nd extractions, but significantly decreased with 3rd and 4th extractions (p<0.05). The collagen and protein contents were highest for water extract from Hanwoo shank bones of maturity score 2 (bull and steer) (p<0.05). The caloric and chondroitin sulfate contents were higher for water extract from Hanwoo shank bones of maturity score 2 (bull and steer) than maturity scores of 3-9 (cow) (p<0.05). As the number of extractions increased, the chondroitin sulfate content significantly decreased (p<0.05). Based on these results, differences correlating with maturity scores were found only with collagen and protein contents. Therefore, further studies should be considered to address whether different maturity scores affect the price of shank bones in the meat industry.

Correlation between Shear Force and Grade Decision Factors on Hanwoo Cow Carcass (소 도체등급 판정 항목과 전단력과의 상관관계)

  • Kim, Dong-Yeop;Kim, Byoeng-Do;Baek, Sang-Guk;Jeong, Hyeong-Jin;Kim, Dae-Gon;Han, Gi-Dong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.344-348
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the correlation between shear force determined by tenderness analyzer and grade decision factors consisting of yield grade (carcass weight, ribeye area, backfat thickness) and quality grade (meat color, fat color, marbling, maturity, texture) in a total of 200 Hanwoo cows. Results showed that there was a negative correlation between shear force and yield grade (r=-0.186, p<0.01), i.e., when the grade of carcass yield increased (A score), the shear force value decreased. Shear force scores showed a significant correlation with marbling scores (r=-0.19, p<0.01), but no correlation with scores of meat color, fat color and texture. The maturity of Hanwoo cows is known to be one of the major factors for evaluating the grade, and the maturity showed no significant correlation with shear force value (r=-0.05, p>0.05). It is possible to get useful information for evaluating the grade of Hanwoo cows if further studies addressing the correlation of water holding capacity, juiciness, taste and overall acceptability with maturity are carried out.

Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle

  • Do, ChangHee;Park, ByungHo;Kim, SiDong;Choi, TaeJung;Yang, BohSuk;Park, SuBong;Song, HyungJun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1083-1094
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    • 2016
  • Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity ($0.41{\pm}0.031$), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness ($0.20{\pm}0.018$), longissimus muscle (LM) area ($0.23{\pm}0.020$), carcass weight ($0.28{\pm}0.019$), yield index ($0.20{\pm}0.018$), yield grade ($0.16{\pm}0.017$), marbling ($0.28{\pm}0.021$), texture ($0.14{\pm}0.016$), quality grade ($0.26{\pm}0.016$) and price/kg ($0.24{\pm}0.025$). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color ($0.06{\pm}0.013$) and fat color ($0.06{\pm}0.012$). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ${\pm}0.047$ to ${\pm}0.058$. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and carcass quality could be obtained under the national scale breeding scheme of Korea for Hanwoo and that continuous efforts to improve the breeding scheme should be made to increase genetic progress.

Effect of Marbling Score on Carcass Grade Factors, Physico-chemical and Sensory Traits of M. Longissimus Dorsi in Hanwoo (근내지방도가 한우 도체등급 요인, 이화학적 특성 및 관능적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Moon;Choe, Ju-Hui;Jin, Hyune-Ju;Kim, Tae-Il;Park, Beom-Young;Hwang, Do-Yon;Koh, Kyung-Chul;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Hwang, Kyu-Seok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.659-668
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of marbling scores on carcass grade factors, physico-chemical and sensory traits of Hanwoo. Data used in this study were collected from 73,316 carcasses obtained at the Nonghyup Seoul slaughterhouse in 2009 and 271 cuts of M. longissimusdorsi were analyzed to estimate beef qualities. As the marbling scores increased, backfat thickness was linearly increased (p<0.05) in cows (9.51 mm-14.69 mm) and steers (8.71 mm-14.23 mm). As the marbling scores increased, maturity of cows was increased and meat color, texture and quality grade improved for all genders. With increase of the marbling scores, crude fat contents (3.07%-26.70%), water holding capacity (52.09%-58.66%), $L^*$ value (34.08-41.97) were significantly increased (p<0.05) and Warner-Bratzler shear force was linearly decreased (p<0.05) from 8.58 kg to 2.60 kg. The increase of crude fat contents had the similar interval with the increase of marbling scores from 1 to 6 but it is sharply increased from marbling score 7. There was no difference observed on $pH_{24}$ (5.50-5.66), protein contents (19.57%-21.15%) among the marbling scores. Marbling score was significantly correlated with live weight (r=0.29) in cows, loineye area (r=0.35) in steer, and overall acceptability of panel scores (r=0.67) (p<0.01).

Analysis of Carcass Quality Grade Components and ChemicoPhysical and Sensory Traits of M. longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo (한우 도체 육질등급 요인 분석과 육질등급에 따른 이화학 및 관능 특성)

  • Lee, J.M.;Park, B.Y.;Cho, S.H.;Kim, J.H.;Yoo, Y.M.;Chae, H.S.;Choi, Y.I.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.833-840
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    • 2004
  • The current study was conducted to analysis the effects of sex and live weight on carcass characteristics using total 773 Hanwoo, and to assess the effects of quality grade on chemico-physical and sensory characteristics in longissimus muscle. Results show that both steer and cow received superior quality grade to bull within the same weight c1ass(P < 0.05). Marbling score, texture, maturity, meat color and fat color were significantly( P< 0.01) affected by sex, whilst only marbling score and maturity were significantly affected by live weight. The ultimate quality grade showed significant relationships with marbling score(r = - $0.81^{**}) meat color (r= 0.21^{**}) fat color(r = 0.10^{**}) and with texture(r = 0.41^{**})$ but that had no such a relationship with maturity. WB-shear force and cooking loss were decreased when carcass grade was increased(P < 0.01), but water-holding capacity was identical between the quality grades. Objective meat color dimensions in lightness, redness and yellowness were increased for higher quality grade(P< 0.01). Meat flavor, juiciness and tenderness received higher scores for higher quality grade(P< 0.01). Intramuscular fat content had significantly relationships with WB-shear force(r = 0.$56^*), water-holding capacity(r = 0.18^{**}), juiciness(r = 0.46^{**}), tenderness(r= 0.49^{**})$, and flavor intensity(r = 0.$34^*$). In addition, a higher WB-shear force was related to a lower flavor, tenderness and juiciness scores.

Growth, Behavior, and Carcass Traits of Fattening Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Steers Managed in Different Group Sizes

  • Lia, S.G.;Yang, Y.X.;Rhee, Y.J.;Jang, W.J.;Ha, J.J.;Lee, S.K.;Song, Y.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.952-959
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to evaluate growth, behavior and carcass traits of fattening Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) steers managed in different group sizes. A total of 48 animals, 6 months of age, were allocated to one of three group sizes and the experiment was conducted from 12 to 30 months of age. Groups were balanced for weight and the group sizes consisted of 4, 8, or 12 steers which were named 4sG, 8sG and 12sG, respectively. When animals were 12 months of age, initial fasted body weight (BW, $304.51{\pm}12.40\;kg$) was measured. All animals were housed at a constant space allowance of $8.82\;m^2$ per animal, and a feeder and drinker were provided per 4 animals. The whole fattening stage was divided into three phases: phase I (from 12 to 18 month of age), phase II (from 19 to 24 month of age), and phase III (from 25 to 30 month of age). Steers managed in 12sG showed low (p<0.05) growth rate and feed conversion rate (FCR) in phase I and phase II when compared to other treatment groups. However, this difference was not observed for the whole fattening phase (p>0.05). Steers managed in 4sG had a thick (p<0.05) ultrasound back fat thickness at 15 and 18 months of age. However, group size had no effect on meat yield and quality traits of area and marbling score. Animals managed in 8sG yielded a better meat grade of "A" than the "B" grade in other treatment group sizes. Lean color, fat color, firmness and maturity scores did not differ among group sizes. Hanwoo steers housed under 12sG spent less time on eating concentrate, relevant higher eating rate, less frequency of allogrooming, and more time on walking (p<0.05). It could be concluded that a large group size retarded growth rate and back fat thickness in the fattening stage, which was mainly focused on 15 and 18 months of age.

Effect of Quality Grades on Carcass Characteristics, Physico-chemical and Sensory Traits of Longissimus Dorsi in Hanwoo (한우 육질등급에 따른 도체등급 요인, 이화학적 및 관능특성)

  • Lee, Jong-Moon;Choe, Ju-Hui;Lee, Hyeon-Kyeong;Na, Jae-Cheon;Kim, Yuen-Ho;Cheon, Dong-Won;Sea, Sang-Chul;Hwang, Kyu-Seok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.495-503
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    • 2010
  • Analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of quality grade on the carcass characteristics, physico-chemical and sensory traits of Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo. A total of 42,113 carcasses were selected on the basis of five quality grades (grade $1^{++}$, $1^+$, 1, 2, and 3) and an additional 258 samples of Longissimus dorsi were used to evaluate the beef quality. The increase in quality grade from grade 3 to grade $1^{++}$ was significant (p<0.05) for carcass weight (from 338.7 kg to 387.2 kg), backfat thickness (from 7.45 mm to 12.23 mm) and marbling score (from 1.09 to 8.31). In contrast, significantly decreased levels of meat color, fat color, texture and maturity were apparent with increasing quality grade (p<0.05). Increasing quality grade was also correlated with significant increases (p<0.05) in crude fat contents (from 3.57% to 25.68%) and water holding capacity (from 52.41% to 58.03), and a decrease of the Warner-Bratzler shear force from 8.29 kg to 2.83 kg. The highest $L^*$ value (41.53) and highest cooking loss (22.11%) were observed with grade $1^{++}$ and 3 beef, respectively. There was no difference observed on $pH_{24}$ (5.53 to 5.66) among the quality grades, which were within the normal range. Sensory evaluation experiments revealed that quality grades were associated with significantly altered (all p<0.05) tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. The crude fat contents showed significant correlation with juiciness (r=0.59), tenderness (r=0.71), flavor (r=0.55), and overall acceptability (r=0.69). The lower sensory trait scores were related to higher WBs. Grade $1^+$ Hanwoo beef had a significantly higher WBs and lower fat contents when compared to grade $1^{++}$ Hanwoo beef (p<0.05).

Effects of Cooking Method and Temperature on the Lipid Oxidation of Electron-Beam Irradiated Hanwoo Steak. (가열방법 및 온도가 전자선 조사한 한우 steak의 지질산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park T. S.;Shin T. S.;Lee J. I.;Park G. B.
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.840-846
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of electron beam irradiation and cooking temperature on physico-chemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of beef. A total of six beef carcasses ($280\∼300 kg$) that were quality grade $1^{+}$(marbling score No.7, meat color No.4, maturity No.1, texture No.1) was purchased at the commercial slaughter house. The carcasses were transported and washed using high pressure water, and pasteulized with $ 50\% $ ethyl alcohol in the laboratory. After the carcasses were deboned and trimmed, loin and round were taken out to make steak (1.5cm thickness) or ground beef respectively. Samples were wrap or vacuum packaged and irradiated with 0, 3, 4.5, 6 and 7.5 kGy using electron-beam accelerator at Samsung Heavy Industries Ltd. Co. (in Taejun). Irradiated samples were cooked with different methods(electronic pan and gas oven) and temperatures ($ 60^{\circ}C, 70^{\circ}C and 80^{\circ}C$) and used to measure fatty acid composition, TBARS, cholesterol oxide products and panel test scores. The content of saturated fatty acids increased by increasing heating temperature in oven boiling steak (OBS) and pan boiling steak (PBS), and there was no difference by electron-beam irradiation. Both irradiated and non-irradiated treatment were high as the heating temperature increased in TBARS by heating temperature in PBS (p < 0.05) and the amount of Malonaldehyde (MA), standard of fat deterioration, was increased in OBS (p < 0.05). Non-irradiated and 3, 6 kGy treatment produced about 2 fold amount of MA at $ 60^{\circ}C $ compared with $ 80^{\circ}C $. In comparison with PBS, OBS produced much amount of MA and a bit different from non-irradiated treatment but did not show no tendency. As irradiation levels and heating temperature increased, the amount of cholesterol oxides products was increased and also pan-heating method, direct heating method, significantly increased the degree of oxidation compared with oven-heating method, indirect heating method (p < 0.05).