• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hanwoo

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Discovery of Gene Sources for Economic Traits in Hanwoo by Whole-genome Resequencing

  • Shin, Younhee;Jung, Ho-jin;Jung, Myunghee;Yoo, Seungil;Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy;Markkandan, Kesavan;Kang, Jun-Mo;Rai, Rajani;Park, Junhyung;Kim, Jong-Joo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1353-1362
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    • 2016
  • Hanwoo, a Korean native cattle (Bos taurus coreana), has great economic value due to high meat quality. Also, the breed has genetic variations that are associated with production traits such as health, disease resistance, reproduction, growth as well as carcass quality. In this study, next generation sequencing technologies and the availability of an appropriate reference genome were applied to discover a large amount of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten Hanwoo bulls. Analysis of whole-genome resequencing generated a total of 26.5 Gb data, of which 594,716,859 and 592,990,750 reads covered 98.73% and 93.79% of the bovine reference genomes of UMD 3.1 and Btau 4.6.1, respectively. In total, 2,473,884 and 2,402,997 putative SNPs were discovered, of which 1,095,922 (44.3%) and 982,674 (40.9%) novel SNPs were discovered against UMD3.1 and Btau 4.6.1, respectively. Among the SNPs, the 46,301 (UMD 3.1) and 28,613 SNPs (Btau 4.6.1) that were identified as Hanwoo-specific SNPs were included in the functional genes that may be involved in the mechanisms of milk production, tenderness, juiciness, marbling of Hanwoo beef and yellow hair. Most of the Hanwoo-specific SNPs were identified in the promoter region, suggesting that the SNPs influence differential expression of the regulated genes relative to the relevant traits. In particular, the non-synonymous (ns) SNPs found in CORIN, which is a negative regulator of Agouti, might be a causal variant to determine yellow hair of Hanwoo. Our results will provide abundant genetic sources of variation to characterize Hanwoo genetics and for subsequent breeding.

Comparison of characteristics of long noncoding RNA in Hanwoo according to sex

  • Choi, Jae-Young;Won, KyeongHye;Son, Seungwoo;Shin, Donghyun;Oh, Jae-Don
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.696-703
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Cattle were some of the first animals domesticated by humans for the production of milk, meat, etc. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is defined as longer than 200 bp in nonprotein coding transcripts. lncRNA is known to function in regulating gene expression and is currently being studied in a variety of livestock including cattle. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of lncRNA according to sex in Hanwoo cattle. Methods: This study was conducted using the skeletal muscles of 9 Hanwoo cattle include bulls, steers and cows. RNA was extracted from skeletal muscle of Hanwoo. Sequencing was conducted using Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the Bovine Taurus genome. The expression levels of lncRNAs were measured by DEGseq and quantitative trait loci (QTL) data base was used to identify QTLs associated with lncRNA. The python script was used to match the nearby genes Results: In this study, the expression patterns of transcripts of bulls, steers and cows were identified. And we identified significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs in bulls, steers and cows. In addition, characteristics of lncRNA which express differentially in muscles according to the sex of Hanwoo were identified. As a result, we found differentially expressed lncRNAs according to sex were related to shear force and body weight. Conclusion: This study was classified and characterized lncRNA which differentially expressed by sex in Hanwoo cattle. We believe that the characterization of lncRNA by sex of Hanwoo will be helpful for future studies of the physiological mechanisms of Hanwoo cattle.

Identification of the SNP (Single Necleotide Polymorphism) of the Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD) Associated with Unsaturated Fatty Acid in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Oh, Dong-Yep;Lee, Yoon-Seok;Yeo, Jung-Sou
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.757-765
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    • 2011
  • Fatty acid composition of beef intramuscular tissue is an important trait because high proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acid are related to favorable beef flavor. In this study, we investigated the effects of genetic factors, such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), on beef carcass traits, including fatty acid composition, in the Hanwoo. Analysis of fatty acids in Hanwoo was performed using a breed raised in Gyeonbuk province (n = 395). Compared to the homozygote, the GA, CT, and CT genotypes of exon 5 in the SCD polymorphism showed a higher content of oleic acid (p<0.05) and higher contents of mono-unsaturated fatty acid (p<0.05) and marbling scores (p<0.05) in intramuscular fat. Results of haplotype analysis showed a significant presence of unsaturated fatty acids and marbling score in the $ht1^*ht2$ and $ht2^*ht2$ groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, haplotype effects more powerful than a single gene were also observed. These ht1 and ht2 types also showed a significant difference in unsaturated fatty acids and marbling score, affecting beef flavor in the Hanwoo groups. Therefore, it can be inferred that the ht1 and ht2 types might be valuable new markers for use in improvement of Hanwoo.

Effects of Chemical Amendments on Phosphorus and Total Volatile Fatty Acids in Hanwoo Slurry (한우액상분뇨에 화학제재를 첨가 시 인과 총 휘발성지방산 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, In-Hag;Choi, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.819-824
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of chemical additives on total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and total volatile fatty acids (total VFAs) in hanwoo slurry. The treatments in this study were ferrous sulfate, alum, and aluminum chloride, and applied at the rate of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 g/25 g of hanwoo slurry. All of the chemical treatments significantly lowered TP (11 to 53% of the untreated control), SRP (41 to 99.9% of the untreated control), and total VFAs (22 to 48.5% of the untreated control) by reducing hanwoo slurry pH (3.42 to 6.86). Among these chemical amendments, addition of 0.5 g ferrous sulfate, alum, and aluminum chloride to hanwoo slurry were the best results evaluated on farms with respect to reducing negative environmental impacts. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the use of chemical amendments should be considered in the development of best management practices (BMPs) for the hanwoo industries.

A Study on the physicochemical Properties and Palatability of Hanwoo Beef Loin in $1^+$ Grade (한우 $1^+$ 등급육의 이화학적 특성과 기호성에 관한 연구)

  • 문윤희;김미숙;김대진;양종범;강세주
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1288-1292
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    • 1999
  • The physicochemical properties and palatability of Hanwoo(cow, steer, and bull) beef loin(1+ carcass grade) were studied. pH(5.56~5.69), moisture content(67.6~69.0%), crude protein content(17.8~18.7%), and crude fat content(11.9~13.8%) of Hanwoo beef loin did not show significant difference between the types of Hanwoo. L(44.5~46.9), a(19.9~20.6), and b(10.3~11.6) color parameters, water holding capacity (69.4~70.5%), volatile basic nitrogen content(9.86~11.28mg%), thiobarbituric acid value(0.148~0.158 mg malonaldehyde/kg), and cooking loss(26.3~27.9%) of beef loin did not show significant difference between the types of Hanwoo either. Hardness, myofibrillar fragmentation index(MFI), and chewiness of beef loin were 6.1~6.9 dyne/cm2, 50.3~54.9, and 39.5~ 52.0g, respectively. No differences were found in hardness and MFI between the types of Hanwoo, while chewiness of cow was much lower than that of steer and bull(p<0.05). Cow was the best in palatability.

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Identification of Hanwoo and Holstein meat using MGB probe based real-time PCR associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene (소 모색관련 MC1R 유전자의 SNP와 관련한 MGB probe에 기초한 real-time PCR을 이용한 한우육과 Holstein육의 판별)

  • Park, Sung-Do;Kim, Tae-Jung;Lee, Jae-Il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.25-28
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    • 2005
  • The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) plays an important role in regulation of melanin pigment synthesis within mammalian melanocytes. Mutations within the gene encoding MC1R have been shown to explain coat color variations within several mammalian species including cattle. To develope a rapid and accurate method for the identification of Hanwoo meat, we performed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene using TaqMan$^{(R)}$ MGB probe-based real-time PCR. Two specific probes (one for Hanwoo and the other for Holstein and Black angus) were designed. At the 5' end of 2 TaqMan$^{(R)}$ MGB probes, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) was labeled for Hanwoo, and VIC for Holstein and Black angus. As a result, Hanwoo samples showed FAM-positive signal only, whereas other samples showed VIC-positive. This result suggests that the TaqMan$^{(R)}$ MGB probe based real-time PCR technique would be very accurate, easy and reproducible method to discriminate between Hanwoo meat and Holstein/Black angus meat.

Effects of Weaning Period on Vocalization Frequency in Hanwoo Calf (이유시기가 한우 송아지의 발성빈도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyu-Ho;Yu, Jung-Won;Kim, Sang-Wook;Jung, Wang-Yong;Lee, One-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Rak
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.173-176
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning period on the vocalization frequency of Hanwoo calf. Twelve Hanwoo calves were allocated into 4 groups, control (forced weaning on 90days) and treatment (weaning on 70, 90 and 120days with 5 adaptation days). After weaning, behavior and vocalization of Hanwoo calves were recorded on 3 consecutive days with closed circuit television (DTC-R5254, Digite Co., Ltd., Korea) and digital audio tape recorder (SR-900, Idamtech Co., Ltd., Korea). Vocalization frequency of Hanwoo calf were not significance difference with control and treatment group. Thus, additional studies of feed intake and body weight gain were needed to determine the weaning period of Hanwoo calves.

Characteristics and Health Benefit of Highly Marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo Beef

  • Gotoh, Takafumi;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.709-718
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    • 2016
  • This review addresses the characteristics and health benefit of highly marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo beef. Marbling of Wagyu and Hanwoo beef has been increased in Japan and Korea to meet domestic consumer preferences. Wagyu and Hanwoo cattle have high potential of accumulating intramuscular fat (IMF) and producing highly marbled beef. The IMF content varies depending on the feeding of time, finishing diet, and breed type. IMF increases when feeding time is increased. The rate of IMF increase in grain-fed cattle is faster than that in pasture-fed cattle. Fatty acid composition are also different depending on breeds. Highly marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo beef have higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) due to higher concentrations of oleic acid. MUFAs have little effect on total cholesterol. They are heart-healthy dietary fat because they can lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Clinical trials have indicated that highly marbled beef does not increase LDL-cholesterol. This review also emphasizes that high oleic acid beef such as Wagyu and Hanwoo beef might be able to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Superovulatory Response to 200 mg FSH Level and Production In Vivo Embryos in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) (200 mg FSH 투여에 의한 한우의 과배란 유도 및 체내 수정란 생산)

  • Park, Joung-Jun;Yoo, Han-Jun;Kim, Ki-Won;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Park, Choon-Keun;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the FSH levels for superovulation procedure in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). The effectiveness of 200 mg and 400 mg of FSH to initiate superovulation was examined in Hanwoo. Donors, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR 7 days later, 200 mg FSH group was treated with 40, 30, 20, 10 mg FSH levels in declining doses twice daily by intramuscular injection fur 4 days. Also, 400 mg FSH group was treated with 80, 60, 40, 20 mg FSH levels. On the 3rd day administration of FSH, 25 mg $PGF_2$ ${\alpha}$ was administered and CIDR was withdrawn. Donors were artificially inseminated twice at 12 hr intervals. The donor cattle received 250 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at time of 1st insemination and embryos were recovered 8 days after the 1st insemination. As a results, average number of CL treated with FSH 200 mg was higher as $20.9{\pm}1.20$ than $15.8{\pm}0.63$ for donors treated with FSH 400 mg, respectively(p<0.05). Treated group of 200 mg FSH level increased (p<0.05) the number of embryos recovered per procedure compared to 400 mg FSH level ($18.2{\pm}1.18$ vs. $12.38{\pm}0.52$, respectively). When treatment of 200 mg FSH was performed, average transferable embryos/ova increased (p<0.05) to $14.1{\pm}1.12$ from $6.8{\pm}0.33$ of treated of 400 mg FSH. Group of 200 mg FSH increased (p<0.05) to $8.3{\pm}0.76$ from $2.0{\pm}0.26$ in morula stage compare to 400 mg FSH group. Mean of total early blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stage embryos was similar (p<0.05) between the 200 mg and 400 mg FSH levels group ($4.7{\pm}1.19$ vs. $2.9{\pm}0.18$ and $1.2{\pm}0.40$ vs. $1.9{\pm}0.17$). These results suggest that 200 mg FSH level-based superovulation protocol with CIDR may be effectively used fur production of superior embryos in Hanwoo. In other words, the less level of FSH may be effectively applied for Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), because Hanwoo was smaller body size than beef or daily cow.

Comparison of Hanwoo Proven and Young Bulls for Major Economic Traits (한우의 주요 경제형질에 대한 보증씨수소와 후보씨수소의 능력비교)

  • Park, Byoung-Ho;Choi, Te-Jeong;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Choi, Jae-Gwan;Lee, Seung-Soo;Chung, Ho-Young;Kim, Si-Dong;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Hwang, Jeong-Mi;Lee, Seoung-Soo
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.253-258
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to compare the phenotypic performance and genetic merits in terms of weight at 12 months, carcass weight, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, marbling score and selection index of Hanwoo young bulls and proven bulls from the year 2004 to 2006. The data of 208 bulls used in this study were taken from the Nnational Hanwoo genetic evaluation coordinated by National Institute of Animal Science. Hanwoo young bulls were superior in the phenotypic performance of weight at 12 months, carcass weight, and eye muscle area showing significant differences from Hanwoo proven bulls in most comparisons. The backfat thickness of Hanwoo young bulls was significantly thicker higher than Hanwoo proven bulls in all comparisons (p < 0.05). Also, Hanwoo young bulls were not significantly different from Hanwoo proven bulls in the genetic merits of weight at 12 months, carcass weight, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, marbling score, and total genetic merits. Performance of Hanwoo young bulls were not significantly different from 1st class of Hanwoo proven bulls in all the traits studied except in eye muscle area.