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Comparison of meat quality, fatty acid composition and aroma volatiles of Chikso and Hanwoo beef

  • Utama, Dicky Tri;Lee, Chang Woo;Park, Yeon Soo;Jang, Aera;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.1500-1506
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Although Hanwoo has been selected as the superior commercial beef cattle breed in Korea, Chikso (Korean brindle cattle) is still recognized as a valuable breed for beef production. The aim of this study was to compare the meat quality, fatty acid composition and aroma volatiles of beef from Chikso and Hanwoo steers maintained under identical feed management, as information regarding these characteristics is still limited. Methods: A total of 19 carcasses with a quality grade of 1 were selected, and strip loin (longissimus lumborum) cuts were collected from 11 Hanwoo carcasses and 8 Chikso carcasses. Meat quality and aroma analyses were performed at day four postmortem. Results: Though Hanwoo strip loin tended to have higher fat content (15.37%) than Chikso (12.01%), no significant differences were observed. Meat pH, water-holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force value, instrumental surface color (Commission International De L'eclairage $L^{\star}$, $a^{\star}$, $b^{\star}$, chroma, and hue angle) and fatty acid composition were not significantly different. Roasted Chikso beef released more intense aroma than roasted Hanwoo beef based on the total area units of identified volatiles. Among identified volatiles, the amounts of toluene, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal were higher in roasted Chikso beef than in roasted Hanwoo beef. In addition, the aroma pattern of the roasted beef from these breeds was well-discriminated by electronic nose. Conclusion: No distinct differences were found in terms of meat quality between Hanwoo and Chikso beef in this study. However, the aroma pattern and volatiles of roasted Hanwoo and Chikso beef were different according to instrumental analysis.

Current situation of Hanwoo industry and future prospects for precision livestock farming (국내 한우산업 현황과 정밀축산을 활용한 한우고기 생산전망)

  • Park, Bo Hye;Kang, Dong Hun;Chung, Ki Yong
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2018
  • Hanwoo cattle have been genetically selected for enhancing meat quality and meat quantity since the last few decades. Beef consumption in South Korea has also increased to 11.6 kg per year in 2016 and is expected to continue to increase. For improving meat quality, Hanwoo cattle has been raised a high-energy corn-based diet for long fattening periods, which causes not increment of fat percentage in the loin muscle but increment of feeding costs. Consumer demands on the Korean beef industry are driving differing beef production systems and also changes to the beef grading system. For a sustainable Hanwoo industry, researcher in Korea have attempted to develop feeds for efficient fattening periods and precision feeding systems based on genetic information for Hanwoo cattle. Therefore, representatives of government, academics, and market association need to provide efficient collaboration for the future prospective or develop a precise management system for Hanwoo industry in Korea.

Genome-wide Association Study for Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Sensory Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Dang, C.G.;Cho, S.H.;Sharma, A.;Kim, H.C.;Jeon, G.J.;Yeon, S.H.;Hong, S.K.;Park, B.Y.;Kang, H.S.;Lee, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1328-1335
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    • 2014
  • Significant SNPs associated with Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force and sensory traits were confirmed for Hanwoo beef (Korean cattle). A Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significant association (p< $1.3{\times}10^{-6}$) was detected with only one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 5 for WB shear force. A slightly higher number of SNPs was significantly (p<0.001) associated with WB shear force than with other sensory traits. Further, 50, 25, 29, and 34 SNPs were significantly associated with WB shear force, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor likeness, respectively. The SNPs between p = 0.001 and p = 0.0001 thresholds explained 3% to 9% of the phenotypic variance, while the most significant SNPs accounted for 7% to 12% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, because WB shear force and sensory evaluation were moderately affected by a few loci and minimally affected by other loci, further studies are required by using a large sample size and high marker density.

Effect of Yukmijihwangtang meal silage on the performance of hanwoo steers (육미지황탕박을 이용한 TMR의 급여가 한우의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Sang-Woo;Oh, Hyun-Min;Park, No-Sung;Cho, Chi-Hyun;Lee, Bong-Duk;Lee, Hyung-Seok;Lee, Soo-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2011
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding TMR with or without Yukmijihwangtang meal silage on the growth performance, meat yield and quality of Hanwoo steers. Sixteen male Hanwoo steers in the late fattening period were randomly assigned to a control diet and Yukmijihwangtang meal diet, with eight heads per treatment. The supplementation of Yukmijihwangtang meal silage did not affect the feed conversion rate, ribeye area, and meat yield index of cold carcass of Hanwoo. Fat thickness of Hanwoo s loin obtained from silage supplementation was significantly lower than that of non-supplemented. Total grade in meat yield of Hanwoo from silage supplementation were higher than that of non-supplemented control. The supplementation of Yukmijihwangtang meal silage to Hanwoo decreased the marbling score significantly, but did not affect fat color, firmness, and maturity. Total grade of meat quality of Hanwoo with Yukmijihwangtang meal supplementation was lower than that of non-supplemented control. In conclusion, Yukmijihwangtang meal could be used as partial substitution (10%) in TMR for fattening cattle. However, it is considered that Yukmijihwangtang meal can be a useful feed for the periods of growing or early fattening than that of late fattening since it improved meat yield but decreased meat quality grade of Hanwoo steers.

Protein Patterns on a Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

  • Chung, Hak-Jae;You, Dong-Min;Kim, Hyo-Ju;Choi, Hye-Young;Lee, Myeong-Suk;Kim, Jin-Bum;Lee, Suck-Dong;Park, Jung-Yong;Lee, Myeung-Sik
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 2010
  • Luteal cells produce progesterone that supports pregnancy. Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism. In the present study, the corpus luteum (CL) in early pregnancy established from luteal phase and pregnant phase was analyzed. The first study determined progesterone changes in the bovine CL at day 19 (early maternal recognition period) and day 90 in mid-pregnancy and compared them to the CL from day 12 of the estrous cycle. CL alternation was tested using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Comparing CL from luteal phase to those from pregnant phase counterparts, significant changes in expression level were found in 23 proteins. Of these proteins 17 were not expressed in pregnant phase CL but expressed in luteal phase counterpart, whereas, the expression of the other 6 proteins was limited only in pregnant phase CL. Among these proteins, vimentin is considered to be involved in regulation of post-implantation development. In particular, vimentin may be used as marker for CL development during pregnancy because the expression level changed considerably in pregnant phase CL tissue compared with its luteal phase counterpart. Data from 2-DE suggest that protein expression was disorientated in mid pregnancy from luteal phase, but these changes was regulated with progression of pregnancy. These findings demonstrate CL development during mid-pregnancy from luteal phase and suggest that alternations of specific CL protein expression may be involved in maintenance of pregnancy.

Surveys on Reproduction Status and Calf Production of Hanwoo Farmers (한우 농가의 번식우 관리와 송아지 생산 현황)

  • Yang, Byoung-Chul;Kang, Sung-Sik;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Jang, Sun-Sik;Yang, Boh-Suk;Lee, Seok-Dong;Cho, Sang-Rae
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the breeding status of farms to improve the production efficiency of Hanwoo calf. The study was conducted on 45 farms divided into two groups. This study was conducted to investigate the breeding size and breeding area of Hanwoo cows. The average age at first delivery of Hanwoo was 28.7 months. The number of artificial insemination per pregnancy was $1.45{\pm}0.32$, and the number of artificial insemination days after birth was 119.8 days. Conception rates were $75.2{\pm}16.93%$ for small farms and $70.6{\pm}17.46%$ for medium sized farms and $71.4{\pm}11.03%$ for large farms. When we looked at farming methods, 'the farmers using estrus observation aids' had 10.42% higher calf production rate than the 'unused farmers'. The farms vaccinated with IBR and BVDV for breeding cattle showed a 4.41% decrease in abortion, stillbirth and mortality. According to farming conditions, conception rate and delivery rate improved by 3.47% and 18.29%, respectively, when grazing and exercising were performed. Observation, immunization and grazing were found to be important indicators for improving calf production efficiency in Hanwoo farm. This study can be used as a research data to improve the reproductive rate of farmhouse sites through the survey on the breeding status of Hanwoo farmers.

Results of Embryo Transfer with Hanwoo Embryos Produced In-Vivo or In-Vitro to Holstein Cows as Recipients (체내 또는 체외에서 생산된 한우 수정란을 젖소 수란우에 이식한 결과)

  • Kim, Yong-Jun;Park, Hoon;Lee, Hae-Lee;Shin, Dong-Su;Jo, Sung-Woo;Kim, Yong-Su;Kim, Sue-Hee
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to investigate the result that in-vivo or in-vitro embryos of Hanwoo cows were transferred to Holstein cows. Seventeen Hanwoo cows were used as donors for production of in-vivo embryos and fresh hanwoo in-vivo embryos were transferred to 1,150 Holsteins. And 2 embryos were transferred to 188 Holstein recipients to produce twin calves. Diagnosis on pregnancy was performed by rectal palpation at $60\sim90$ days after transfer. The pregnancy rate of Holstein recipients was 55.8% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vivo embryos and 38.2% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vitro embryos. The delivery rate of pregnant Holstein recipients was 88.4% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vivo embryos and 75.6% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vitro embryos. The rate of delivery of Holstein recipients transferred with two Hanwoo embryos was 36.2% and the rate of twin production was 25.9%. The rate of twin production by embryo transfer with in-vivo embryos was 30.4%, whereas the fate with in-vitro embryos was 15.6%. The pregnancy rate according to the grade of corpus luteum of Holstein recipients transferred with Hanwoo in-vitro embryos was 41.5 and 36.0% for A and B grade, respectively. The pregnancy rate according to the transfer in site in the uterine lumen of recipients was 40.9 and 32.7% for anterior and middle site, respectively. The pregnancy rate according to day of embryo transfer after estrus of recipients was 45.5, 38.8 and 39.7% for day 6, day 7 and day 8, respectively. There was difference of pregnancy rate according embryo transfer technician ($30.5\sim45.8%$) individual dairy farm ($21.1\sim51.0%$). These results are supposed to indicate that the rate of pregnancy after transfer with Hanwoo embryos to Holstein recipients was similar to that within the same breed, and consequently that this method would be beneficial to enhance the productivity in Hanwoo reproduction.

Determination of Genetic Diversity among Korean Hanwoo Cattle Based on Physical Characteristics

  • Choi, T.J.;Lee, S.S.;Yoon, D.H.;Kang, H.S.;Kim, C.D.;Hwang, I.H.;Kim, C.Y.;Jin, X.;Yang, C.G.;Seo, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1205-1215
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to establish genetic criteria for phenotypic characteristics of Hanwoo cattle based on allele frequencies and genetic variance analysis using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genetic diversity among 399 Hanwoo cattle classified according to nose pigmentation and coat color was carried out using 22 microsatellite markers. The results revealed that the INRA035 locus was associated with the highest $F_{is}$ (0.536). Given that the $F_{is}$ value for the Hanwoo INRA035 population ranged from 0.533 (white) to 1.000 (white spotted), this finding was consistent with the loci being fixed in Hanwoo cattle. Expected heterozygosities of the Hanwoo groups classified by coat colors and degree of nose pigmentation ranged from $0.689{\pm}0.023$ (Holstein) to $0.743{\pm}0.021$ (nose pigmentation level of d). Normal Hanwoo and animals with a mixed white coat showed the closest relationship because the lowest $D_A$ value was observed between these groups. However, a pair-wise differentiation test of $F_{st}$ showed no significant difference among the Hanwoo groups classified by coat color and degree of nose pigmentation (p<0.01). Moreover, results of the neighbor-joining tree based on a $D_A$ genetic distance matrix within 399 Hanwoo individuals and principal component analyses confirmed that different groups of cattle with mixed coat color and nose pigmentation formed other specific groups representing Hanwoo genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The results of this study support a relaxation of policies regulating bull selection or animal registration in an effort to minimize financial loss, and could provide basic information that can be used for establishing criteria to classify Hanwoo phenotypes.

Effects of plasma insulin, and leptin on fat traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) (혈중 인슐린 및 렙틴이 한우 지방형질에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Cheul;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Dang, Chang-Gwan;Lim, Da-Jeong;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Chang, Sun-Sik;Cho, Young-Moo;Jeon, Gi-Jun;Park, Eung-Woo;Cho, Yong-Min;Lee, Jun-Heon;Yang, Boh-Suk;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of plasma leptin and insulin concentrations on fat traits in Hanwoo. If a biological indicator such as plasma leptin and insulin was identified, it would be a useful biological marker that can be predicted marbling score in young animal. The relationship between plasma hormone (leptin and insulin) and fat traits (marbling score, back fat thickness and P8 fat thickness) was investigated. The experiment studies 100 Hanwoo that were randomly sampled from Hanwoo Experimental Station Herd. The concentration of plasma insulin was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.02) but was not significantly with back fat thickness (P=0.07) and P8 fat thickness (P=0.09). Statistical model determinant that plasma insulin concentration account for phenotypes was moderate on marbling score (5%), back fat thickness (3%) and P8 fat thickness (9%). On the other hand, plasma leptin concentration was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.03) and back fat thickness (P=0.02), but was not significant on P8 fat thickness (0.07). Statistical model determinant that plasma leptin concentration accounting for phenotypes was moderate effect on marbling score (3%) and back fat thickness (2%), but it has a slightly bigger effect on P8 fat thickness (7%). In conclusion, the plasma leptin and insulin seems to have an effect on fat traits (marbling score, backfat thickness and P8 fat thickness) in Hanwoo.

Estimation of the Genetic Substitution Rate of Hanwoo and Holstein Cattle Using Whole Genome Sequencing Data

  • Lee, Young-Sup;Shin, Donghyun
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2018
  • Despite the importance of mutation rate, some difficulties exist in estimating it. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data yields large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which can make it feasible to estimate substitution rates. The genetic substitution rates of Hanwoo and Holstein cattle were estimated using NGS data. Our main findings was to calculate the gene's substitution rates. Through estimation of genetic substitution rates, we found: diving region of altered substitution density exists. This region may indicate a boundary between protected and unprotected genes. The protected region is mainly associated with the gene ontology terms of regulatory genes. The genes that distinguish Hanwoo from Holstein in terms of substitution rate predominantly have gene ontology terms related to blood and circulatory system. This might imply that Hanwoo and Holstein evolved with dissimilar mutation rates and processes after domestication. The difference in meat quality between Hanwoo and Holstein could originate from differential evolution of the genes related to these blood and circulatory system ontology terms.