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Survey on the Effect of the Parity on Reproductive Traits of Korean Native Cows (산차가 한우번식에 미치는 영향에 대한 조사 연구)

  • 백광수;고응규;성환후;이명식;류일선;정진관;나승환
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.359-366
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    • 1998
  • A survey was carried out to investigate the effect of the parity on reproductive traits of Hanwoo(Korean native cows). Data on the reproductive traits of 670 Korean native cows were collected from January, 1996 to December, 1997 and analyzed by the parity. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. The average ages at first breeding, first conception and first calving were 443.0, 457.0 and 746.6 days, respectively. 2. The average days to first estrus after calving was 70.1 days and it was shortest in the cows with more than 5 parities (60.4 days) and longest in the cows at 4th parity (79.7 days). 3. The average number of services per conception was 1.53 and it was fewer in the cows at 2nd paity (1.43), but more in the cows with more than 5 parities (1.73). 4. The average days to first conception after calving was 91.2 days and there was a trend that it was longer as the parity of cows increased(p>0.05). 5. The average length of calving interval was 375.3 days and it was shortest in the cows at 2nd cows (370.8 days) and longest in the cows at 4th parity (395.2 days).

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Effects of spent mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) substrates on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and digestibility of whole crop sorghum silage (팽이버섯 수확후배지 첨가가 수수 사일리지의 in vitro 반추위 발효특성 및 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yea Hwang;Chang, Sun Sik;Kim, Eun Tae;Cho, Woong Gi;Lee, Shin Ja;Lee, Sung Sil;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2015
  • The in vitro experiment was conducted to ensure the supplemental level of spent Flammulina velutipes mushroom substrates (SMS) as an energy source in manufacturing of whole crop sorghum silage. Sorghum harvested at heading stage was ensiled with spent mushroom substrates of 20% (S-20), 40% (S-40) and 60% (S-60) as fresh matter basis for 6 week. The experiment was conducted by 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 hrs of incubation time with 3 replications. The silages were evaluated fermentation characteristics and dry matter digestibility (DMD) in vitro. The pH of in vitro solution was inclined to decrease with elapsing the incubation time, and that of the S-20 was significantly (P<0.05) lower than the other treatment at 48 hr of incubation. Gas production was greater (P<0.05) in the S-20 than the other treatments at 6 and 12 hrs of incubation. The microbial growth in vitro was inclined to decrease following 24 hr of incubation, and thereafter sustained the similar levels. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was lowered by increasing the supplemental level of spent mushroom substrate, and was a low level in the S-60 throughout whole incubation time. Although the IVDMD for S-40 was steadily increased from 9 hr of incubation and reached to similar level with the S-20 at 48 hour of incubation, however SMS for whole crop sorghum silage fermentation might as well add about 20 to 30% in fresh matter basis when considering DMD.

Changes of Carcass Traits and Surface Meat Color of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo) Reared Different Altitudes or Transferred from Different Distance (고도 및 수송거리별 출하 한우의 도체특성 및 표면육색의 변화)

  • Jang, Yong-Seol;Choi, Chang-Kun;Lee, Jeong-Woo;Kwak, Don-Kyu;Sung, Cheol-Wan;An, Jun-Sang;Park, Byung-Ki;Lee, Jong-In;Shin, Jong-Suh
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2012
  • The purposes of the study were to examine the changes in carcass traits and surface meat color, and cortisol concentration by different altitudes and shipping distances for steer and cow. The experimental animals were shipped from Kangwondo, Kyunggido, Choongchungdo, and Kyungsangdo to Wonju LPC. The animals were examined for yield traits, quality traits, carcass grade, lightness, redness, yellowness, croma value, and cortisol concentration by different altitudes and shipping distances. The results showed that the carcass traits of steer like back fat thickness were not different by shipping distances of 100 km, 150 km, and 200 km. However, the fat thickness was higher in steers shipped from 250 km than 100 km, 150 km, and 200 km distance. Ribeye area was reduced significantly in 200 km and 250 km than 50 km. Yield index and yield grade were significantly low in 250 km than 50-200 km. However, meat color, fat color, texture, mature, and quality grade had no differences between shipping distances. Marbling score was not different in 50-200 km. However, the marbling score in 250 km was significantly lower than that of 50 km. In case of surface meat color by shipping distance, redness, yellowness, chroma value, and hue-angle were not different in shipping distance of 250 km. The lightness had similar result in 50-200 km. However, in case of 250 km the lightness was significantly low. The REA of cow carcass by shipping distance had no differences by shipping distance. The BET had similar results in 50-150 km. However, it had significantly thick in 200 km. The yield index and yield grade had no differences in 50-150 km. However, yield index and grade were significantly low in 200 km. The carcass trait of cow had no differences in all items by shipping distance. Although the carcass traits and the BET for steer by altitude had no differences between 100, 200, 300 and 500 m, but those were significantly thick in 400 m. And the yield index and the yield grade at altitude 400 m were lower than that of other altitudes. The quality traits and the quality grade had no differences between 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m altitudes. The yield traits, quality traits, yield grade, and quality grade had no significant differences by altitudes. In case of yield index of cow for 300 m was low than the cases of 100 m and 200 m. The surface meat color for steer and cow had no differences by altitudes. However, the lightness of cow had positive result in 100 m than 200 m and 300 m. In case of steer and cow the cortisol concentration by shipping distance was high as the shipping distances were longer. However, the cortisol concentrations of steer and cow by altitudes were decreased as the altitudes were increased. From the above results carcass traits and carcass grade were decreased and the cortisol concentration was increased as the altitudes were decreased for steer and cow.

Effects of Saponin Contained Plant Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Production (Saponin 함유 식물 추출물의 첨가가 반추위 발효성상과 메탄생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ok, Ji-Un;Baek, Youl-Chang;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Lee, Sang-Cheol;Seol, Yong-Joo;Lee, Kang-Yeon;Choi, Chang-Weon;Jeon, Che-Ok;Lee, Sang-Suk;Lee, Sung-Sil;Oh, Young-Kyoon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponin contained plant extracts on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Ruminal fluid was collected from rumen cannulated Hanwoo steers fed rice straw and concentrate (5:5). Collected rumen fluids, corn starch and buffer including saponin contained plant extracts (ginseng, Ogapi, soapwort, tea plant and yucca; 0.5%/15 ml) were incubated at $39^{\circ}C$ for 24 h. All incubations were repeated five times. Rumen pH in all treatments was lower (p<0.05) compared with that of the control (no addition) during incubation time. The concentration of total VFA in all treatments was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control after 12h incubation. Compared with the control, the concentration of acetate and propionate in all treatments was lower and higher after 6h incubation, respectively. The concentration of $NH_3$-N in all treatments was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control except for Ogapi or yucca extracts supplementation. The number of protozoa in all treatments was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of the control except for soapwort extract supplementation. The total gas production and methane production in all treatments was higher (p<0.05) and lower (p<0.05) compared with the control, except for ogapi or soapwort extracts supplementation after 12h incubation, respectively. Therefore, reduction in methane production by saponins may could be results from decreased protozoal population without any negative in vitro fermentation.

Repeated Records Animal Model to Estimate Genetic Parameters of Ultrasound Measurement Traits in Hanwoo Cows (반복모형을 이용한 한우 초음파 측정형질의 유전모수추정)

  • Park, Cheol-Hyeon;Koo, Yang-Mo;Kim, Byung-Woo;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Jung-Il;Song, Chi-Eun;Lee, Ki-Hwan;Lee, Jae-Youn;Jeoung, Yeoung-Ho;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 2012
  • The present study data were obtained from 36,894 cows in Korea Animal Improvement Association from 2001 to 2009 which was subjected for ultrasound measurements (eye muscle area, back-fat thickness, marbling score) and descent. Repeated record models were carried out using 7,913 of 36,894 of total animal traits. The ultrasound measured traits and performance test data were used to study the chest girth, body condition score, eye muscle area, back-fat thickness and marbling score with genetic correlation and parameters for the ultrasound measured traits using REMLF90 program. Genetic correlation of eye muscle area with back-fat thickness, marbling score and back-fat thickness with marbling score were noticed in repeated records animal model as 0.69, 0.54, and 0.59, whereas in multiple trait animal model method were 0.07, 0.66, and 0.39, respectively. Repeated records of animal models were used as positive correlation of traits. Multiple trait animal models were used as negative correlation of eye muscle area with marbling score. The analysis on repeat records of animal models using ultrasound measurements about Korean cattle showed positive effects for each traits. In comparison differences between the repeat records of animal models and multiple trait animal models was found with higher traits of her, the heritability and repeatability was found higher in repeat records animal models. In light of these assessments, carcass traits by ultrasound measurements are expected to help and improve an accurate analysis of each trait and if the research analysis using repeat records of animal models continue when we estimate genetic ability of these traits.

Effects of Manufacturing Methods of Broiler Litter and Bakery By-product Ration for Ruminants on Physico-chemical Properties (육계분과 제과부산물을 이용한 반추가축용 완전혼합사료(TMR) 제조 시 가공처리 방법이 물리화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, W.S.;Yoon, J.S.;Jung, K.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.593-606
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to develop effective manufacturing methods of a total mixed ration(TMR) composed of broiler litter(BL) and bakery by-product(BB) for ruminants. Five experiments included a small-scaled manufacture of TMR using a deepstacking method(Exp. 1), its pelletization(Exp. 2), its field-scaled manufacture(Exp. 3), a field-scaled manufacture using an ensiling method(Exp. 4), and a mixing process of deepstacked BL and BB prior to feeding(Exp. 5). BL and BB were mixed at a ratio which makes total digestible nutrients of the TMR 69%. For each experiment, temperature, appearance and physico-chemical properties were recorded and analyzed. The chemical composition data revealed that the mixture of BL and BB showed nutritionally additive balance which resulted from a considerable increase(P<0.05) of organic matter and a desirable decrease(P<0.05) of protein and fiber up to the requirement level for growing ‘Hanwoo’ steers. Deepstacking of BL and BB in Exp. 1 and 3 resulted in a sufficient increase of stack temperature for pasteurization, little chemical losses, appearance of white fungi on the surface, and partial charring due to excess stack temperature. For Exp. 2, its pelleting, which was successful using a simple, small-scaled pelletizer, resulted in a little loss(P<0.05) of organic matter and an increase(P<0.05) of indigestible protein(ADF-CP). Ensiling the mixture in Exp. 4 made little effect on chemical composition; however, one month of the ensiling period was not enough for favorable silage parameters. Deepstacking BL alone in Exp. 5 tended(P<0.1) to decrease true protein : NPN ratio and hemicellulose content and increase ADF-CP content due to the heat damage occurred. Deepstacking or ensiling of BL-BB mixtures and simple incorporating of BB into deepstacked BL prior to feeding could be practical and nutrients-preservative methods in TMR manufacture for beef cattle, although ensiling needed further hygienic evaluation.

Effects of Deletion of Ca Supplement (limestone) on Growth and Beef Quality in Hanwoo Finishing Steers (한우 비육후기 사료에 칼슘 첨가제(석회석) 제거가 성장 및 육질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, C.E.;Park, N.K.;Seong, P.N.;Jin, S.H.;Park, B.Y.;Kim, K.I.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2003
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing no Ca supplement (limestone) during the late finishing period on growth, marbling and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin $D_3$ level in Korean native cattle. Twenty-four steers (20${\sim}$24 mo of age) were divided into two groups of 12 each: one group assigned to a control diet (concentrates containing 2.5% limestone) and the other to a diet containing no calcium supplement. They were allowed to have free access to diets (concentrates and orchard grass hay) and water during the entire feeding period (223 d). Serum $Ca^{2+}$, Ca and P concentrations were not influenced by diets, but serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin $D_3$ concentrations determined 2 or 6 mo after the beginning of feeding the experimental diets were higher (P<0.01) in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in those fed the control diet (78.3 vs 51.7 and 80.3 vs 51.1 pg/mL, respectively). Steers fed the diet without Ca supplement tended to have a higher intake of concentrates, but a lower intake of hay, compared to those fed the control diet. Average daily gain was higher (P<0.05) in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in those fed the control diet. Feeding the diet without Ca supplement remarkably (P<0.01) increased the marbling score (5.1 vs 2.2) and the muscle (M. longissimus dorsi) fat content (10.2 vs 6.7%) with a concomitant decrease in moisture content (67.6 vs 70.4%), compared to feeding the control diet. Ribeye area was increased (77.2 vs 82.8 $cm^2$) with the diet without Ca supplement, compared to the control diet (P<0.05). Meat color, pH and water-holding capacity in longissimus muscle were not different between the two groups. The Warner-Brazler Shear (WBS) force of the longissimus muscle was slightly (P=0.08) lower in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in steers fed the control diet (2.9 vs 3.2 kg/1.27-cm diameter core). Sensory evaluation showed that feeding the diet without Ca supplement slightly (P<0.05) improved tenderness (4.9 vs 4.5) and flavor (4.9 vs 4.6), compared to feeding the control diet, but juiciness was not affected by diets. Results showed that deletion of Ca supplement from finishing diets is beneficial, increasing growth and marbling partly through an increased energy intake and induced 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin $D_3$ synthesis that may increase intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration and in turn fat synthesis.

Assessment of Regional Nitrogen Loading of Animal Manure by Manure Units in Cheorwon-gun (분뇨단위 설정에 의한 철원군 지역의 가축분뇨 질소부하 평가)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to give basic information of the animal manure management by manure units determination for recycling farming in Cheorwon-gun. Manure units (MU) are used in the permitting, registration, and the environmental process because they allow equal standards for all animals based on manure nutrient production. An MU is calculated by multiplying the number of animals by manure unit factor for the specific type of animal. The manure unit factor for MU determination was determined by dividing amounts of manure N produced 80 kg N/year. Conversion to manure units is a procedure used to determine nutrient pollution equivalents among the different animal types. In this study, the manure unit factor based on nitrogen in Hanwoo, dairy cow, pig were 0.36, 0.8 0.105, respectively. The analysis of manure unit per ha shows that the N loading by MU is quite different by region. The nitrogen loading of manure unit (MU) per ha of cultivated land was the highest in the Galmal-eup on province with 2.4 MU/ha, which is higher than the appropriate level. The Seo-myeon province came next with 1.92 MU/ha. To be utilized as a valid program to build the recycling farming system, diverse measures shall be mapped out to properly determine manure units, evaluate N-loading and to properly manage their nutrient balance of each region.

Evaluation of nutritive value of chestnut hull for ruminant animals using in vitro rumen fermentation (밤 가공 부산물의 반추가축용 사료 가치 평가: in vitro 반추위 배양)

  • Jeong, Sin-Yong;Jo, Hyeon-Seon;Park, Gi-Su;Kang, Gil-Nam;Jo, Nam-Chul;Seo, Seongwon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2012
  • During the manufacturing process of chestnut, 50% of biomass is produced as chestnut shell (CS) or chestnut hull (CH), a forestry by-product. Due to its high fiber content and economic benefit, there is a possibility of using chestnut hull as a supplement for a ruminant diet. Few studies, however, have been conducted on evaluating nutritive value of chestnut hull for ruminant animals. The objective of this study were thus to analyze chemical composition of CS, a by-product after the first processing of chestnut, and CH, a by-product after the second processing, and access in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of them. For the in vitro fermentation using strained rumen fluid obtained from a fistulated Hanwoo steer, commercial total mixed ration (TMR) for dairy goat was used as a basal diet and was replaced with different proportions of chestnut shell and hull. A total number of 13 treatments were carried out in this study: 100% TMR, 100% CS, 100% CH, a mix with 50% CS and 50% of CH (MIX), TMR replaced with 5%, 10%, or 15% of CS, CH, or MIX, respectively. For each treatment, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and pH after 48 hours of rumen fermentation were measured. Gas production at 6, 12, 24, 48 hours of incubation was also analyzed. Compared to CH, CS contains higher level of fiber (NDF, ADF, lignin) and consequently has a lower amount of non-fiber carbohydrate, but no difference was observed in the other nutrients (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, and ash). IVDMD was significantly (p<0.05) the highest in 100% CH (71.97%) and the lowest in 100% CS (42.80%). Addition of CH by replacing TMR did not affect IVDMD, while an increase in the proportion of CS tended to decrease IVDMD. The total gas production after 48 hours of incubation and the rate of gas production were also the highest in 100% CH and the lowest in 100% CS (P<0.05). Likewise, the pH after 48 hours of fermentation was significantly (p<0.05) the lowest in 100% CH (6.33) and the highest in 100% CS (6.50), and no significant difference in gas production was observed when TMR was replaced with CS or CH up to 15% (P>0.05). In conclusion, CH may successfully be used for a supplement in a ruminant diet. The nutritive value of CS is relative low, but can replace, if not 100%, low quality forage. This study provides valuable information about the nutritive value of CS and CH. An in vivo trials, however, is needed for conclusively accessing the nutritive value of CS and CH.

Utilization Survey and Forage Quality of Phragmites communis and Native Grasses in Haenam, Pyeongchang and Wonju Regions, 2010 (2010 해남, 평창, 원주지역 갈대 등 야초 류의 이용실태와 사료가치 평가)

  • Seo, Sung;Han, Dae-Duk;Jang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Won-Ho;Jung, Min-Woong;Choi, Jin-Hyuck;Kim, Jin-Sook;Kim, Ha-Young;Lee, Joung-Kyong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out in 2010 to investigate the utilization and forage quality of native grasses, such as $Phragmites$ $communis$ which might reduce the cost of feeding domestic cattle. The regions surveyed were the Haenam ranch in Haenam, Pyeongchang, Wonju, and Yeonggwang. In Haenam, yearly silage production harvested from 300 ha was 2,000 MT (7 MT/ha). All of those round bale silages were self-consumed in that region, and marketing price was 50,000~55,000 won per roll (110 won/kg). $Phragmites$ $communis$ of 150 cm in length contained 8.4% crude protein (CP) with relative feed value (RFV) 71.9 and 60.1% in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), which was somewhat more favorable than forage quality of rice straw. The silage quality of $Phragmites$ $communis$ varied greatly by the time of harvest (CP 4.7~6.4%, RFV 62.2~78.9, and IVDMD 41.9~53.9%), even with the same district and of the same original forage materials. Generally, the quality of $Phragmites$ $communis$ silage of was poorer than that of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid. In Pyeongchang, forage quality of $Phragmites$ $communis$ was decreased from 13.9% to 7.6% in CP, 90.7 to 76.1 in RFV, and 72.9% to 54.7% in IVDMD, as plant was getting mature, from 79 cm to 117 cm, 121 cm or to 142 cm in length. In Wonju, the quality values of $Phragmites$ $communis$ of 130 cm in length were 8.5% CP, 82.3 RFV and 70.2% IVDMD, while those of matured grasses of 220 cm in length were lower (10.2% CP, 65.1 RFV and 48.9% IVDMD), but this was a little more favorable than quality of rice straw. In Yeonggwang, feeding $Phragmites$ $communis$ was tried in a Hanwoo feed, but stopped due to low profitability. In conclusion, the overall quality of most native grasses including $Phragmites$ $communis$ in this survey was poor. Therefore, we recommend that $Phragmites$ $communis$ and native grasses should be harvested on June or July to obtain richer forage quality in forage values than rice straw.