• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hanwoo

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Effects of Activation Regimens of Recipient Cytoplasm, Culture Condition of Donor Embryos and Size of Blastomeres on Development of Reconstituted Bovine Embryos (수핵 난자의 활성화 방법과 공핵 수정란의 배양체계 및 할구의 크기가 소 핵이식 수정란의 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 심보웅;조성근;이효종;박충생;최상용
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.425-435
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    • 1998
  • To improve the efficiency of nuclear transplantation in bovine, in this study the development in vitro of nuclear transferred (NT) embryos was compared by different activation regimens of the enucleated oocytes. The effect of developmental stage and culture system of donor nuclei on fusion and development in vitro of NT embryos were also evaluated. Oocytes were collected from Hanwoo ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse and matured in Ham's F-10 supplemented with hormones. After 20~22 h maturation, the oocytes were vortexed to be free from cumulus cells and subsequently their nucleus and the first polar body were removed. Enucleated oocytes were divided into 3 groups for activation; the oocytes of group I were activated with ionomycin for 5 min and subsequently incubated in 6-dimetylarninopurine (DMAP) for 4 h, Those of group II were treated with DMAP for 4 h at 39 h after onset of in vitro maturation (IVM) and those of group III were kept in room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$) for 3 h at 39 h after onset of IVM. After in vitro fertilization (IVF) the embryos for muclear donor were cultured either by group culture (20 embryos /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) or individually (1 embryo /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) for 4 day and 5 day. At day 4 and 5 after IVF, blastomeres were separated in calcium-magnesium free medium, and then classified into small (day 5: $\leq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4: $\leq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) and large (day 5 : $\geq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4 ; $\geq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). The separated blastomeres were replaced into enucleated and activated recipient cytoplasm. The blastomere-oocyte complexes were fused by electrically. The NT embryos were cultured in TCM-199 containing 10% FCS in 39$^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 7 day. The results obtained were summarized as follows; There were no differences in fusion and development to blastocyst between groups as group I (68%, 10%), group II (75%, 14%) and group III (73%, 9%), respectively. However, the cell number in blastocyst of NT embryos in group III were significantly fewer than in the other groups (P<0.05). No differences in fusion and development to blastocyst were found between individual or group cultured and between small or large blastomeres of day 4 and day 5 donor embryos. From these results, it was concluded that the combination of ionomycin and DMAP, or treatment of DMAP at 39 h after onset of IVM were useful for the efficient of production of NT bovine embryos, and the individual cultured embryos could be simply used as donor nuclei for NT bovine embryo.

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Effects of Applying Livestock Manure on Productivity and Organic Stock Carrying Capacity of Summer Forage Crops (가축분뇨시용이 하계사료작물의 생산성 및 유기가축 사육능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Ik-Hwan;HwangBo, Soon;Lee, Ju-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.421-434
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to estimate the selection of appropriate forage crops, proper application levels of livestock manure, and carrying capacity per unit area for organic livestock, as influenced by livestock manure application levels compared with chemical fertilizer to corn and sorghum $\times$ sorghum hybrid, in order to produce organic forages by utilizing livestock manure. For both corns and sorghum $\times$ sorghum hybrids, no fertilizer plots had significantly (p<0.05) lower annual dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than those of other plots, whereas the N+P+K plots ranked the highest yields, followed by 150% cattle manure plots and 100% cattle manure plots. Dry matter, CP and TDN yields of cattle manure plots were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of no fertilizer and P+K plots. In applying cattle manure, the yields of cattle slurry plots tended to be a little higher than those of composted cattle manure plots. Assuming that corns and sorghum $\times$ sorghum hybrids produced from this trial were fed at 70% level to 450kg of Hanwoo heifer with 400g of average daily gain, livestock carrying capacity (head/year/ha) ranked the highest in N+P+K plots of the case of corns (mean 6.7 heads), followed by 150% cattle slurry plots (mean 5.6 heads), 150% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.8 heads), 100% cattle slurry plots (mean 4.4 heads), 100% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.3 heads), P+K plots (mean 4.1 heads), and no fertilizer plots (mean 3.1 heads). Meanwhile, in case of sorghum $\times$ sorghum hybrids, N+P+K plots (mean 5.7 heads) ranked the highest carrying capacity, followed by $100{\sim}150%$ cattle slurry plots (mean $4.8{\sim}5.2$ heads), 150% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.7 heads), 100 % composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.3 heads), P+K plots (mean 3.8 heads), and no fertilizer plots (mean 3.4 heads). The results indicated that replacing chemical fertilizer by livestock manure application to cultivation soil for forage crops could enhance not only DM and TDN yields, but also organic stock carrying capacity. In conclusion, it was conceived that organic forage production by reutilizing livestock manure might contribute to reduced environmental pollution and the production of environment friendly agricultural products through resources recycling.

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The Studies on Growth Characteristics and Dry Matter Yield of Hybrid Corn Varieties in Daegwallyeong Region (대관령에서 옥수수 품종별 생육특성과 건물수량에 기후변화의 영향)

  • Kim, Meing Jooung;Seo, Sung;Choi, Ki Choon;Kim, Jong Geun;Lee, Sang Hack;Jung, Jeong Sung;Yoon, Sei Hyung;Ji, Hee Chung;Kim, Myeong Hwa
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on the growth characteristics and dry matter yields of silage corn hybrids in fields of forage crops of Hanwoo Experiment Station, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, from Apr. 2009 to Sep. 2011. Corn hybrids were cultivated in Daegwallyeong of Gangwon Province, at an altitude of 760 m. Corn varieties used in this study consisted of 5 domestic varieties and 5 foreign varieties. Differences of silk days according to years occurred at an average of 5.5 days. The silk periods of domestic varieties occurred from Aug. 8 to 12, while that of overseas varieties was from Aug. 5 to 11. Silk days of domestic varieties occurred approximately 3 to 4 days earlier than those of oversea varieties. Silk days of Kwangpyeongok and P3156 belonging to the early varieties were Aug. 8 and 5, respectively. Kwangpyeongok and P3156 were Aug. 8 and 5, respectively. Pyeonganok and DK729 belonged to late varieties. The mean plant height of corn was approximately 231 cm, while those of Kwangpyeongok and Pyeonganok were 236 cm and 237 cm, respectively. The mean stem diameter and ear height of corn were approximately 23.2 mm and 94 cm, respectively. In the case of stem diameters, those of Cheonganok and 33J56 were 86 cm and 80 cm, respectively, while Gangdaok grew to a greater height (enter height) than other varieties. Dry matter yields of Kwangpyeongok and Pyeonganok were higher than those of other varieties. The mean leaf ratio of corn was 39.3%, while that of domestic varieties increased as compared to foreign varieties. The average DM yield of corn was 16,653 kg/ha, while those of 32P75, P3156, Pyeonganok, P3394 and Kwangpyeongok were 18,901, 17,997, 17,675, 17,194, 17,188 kg/ha, respectively. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) yields of 32P75, P3156, P3394, Pyeonganok and Kwangpyeongok were 13,381, 12,590, 12,532, 12,140 and 12,036 kg/ha, respectively. Corn crude protein (CP), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and TDN were 7.8%, 74.2%, 42.4%, 23.5% and 70.3%, respectively. In the case of nutritive values of corn, there was no significant difference between of corn varieties of domestic and foreign origin.

Burqanism from the Origin of the Pastoral Nomadic Koryo Region and the Vision of Korean Livestock Farming (고려의 원시영역 유목초지, 그 부르칸(불함)이즘과 한국축산의 비전)

  • Chu Chae Hyok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2005
  • Khori(高麗) refers to the Chaabog(reindeer) that live on lichens(蘚) on Mt. Soyon(鮮) in which pastures are the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia. Thus, the origin region of the Khori or Koguryo that are the ancestors of the reindeer-herding pastoral nomads(馴鹿 遊牧民) can be said to be the Steppe-Taiga-Tundra pastoral areas of North Eurasia and North America. When the pastoral nomads moved on to the great mountain(大山) zone of the Jangbaek(長白) to the Baekdu(白頭) Mountains, they could have been in contact with pastoral farmers or agricultural farmers living there and they became the farmers remaining on agricultural farms. They were the Koryo people, the ancestors of Korea. Staying in one place, they gradually forgot the origin of their reindeer-herding pastoral nomadic history in the Northwest area of Mt. Soyon, the small mountain(小山) zone of the Steppe-Taiga-Tundra pastoral areas. In other words, they lost their identity as reindeer-herding pastoral nomads when they entered the agricultural area after leaving the pastoral area. However, since their basic genes had already formed when they lived on the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia, it is possible to study their pastoral nomadic history focusing on 'the minority living in the broad area(廣域少數)', by utilizing highly advanced biotechnological science and focusing on genes and information technology innovation, and removing various past hindrances in research. Therefore, it is not so difficult to restore the reindeerherding pastoral nomadic history of the Koguryo(高句麗) people and secure their pastoral nomadic identity, of which the first steps have already been taken into their historical stages. The Eurasian continent and the Korean peninsula, especially the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia and the Korean peninsula have been closely related to each other ecologically and historically. They can never be a separate space at all. The Eurasian continent lies horizontally east to west and thus, the continent forms an isothermal zone. Also, since the time of producing their own foods, it was relatively easy for people with their technology to move to other places owing to the pastoral nomadic characteristic of mobility. Unlike the Chungyen(中原) region, western Asia and the regions covering the Siberia-Manchu-Korean peninsula where food production revolution was first made were connected to the Mongolian lichens route(蘚苔之路: Ni, ukinii jam) and steppe roads. Although the ecological conditions of nature have changed a bit throughout a long history, it was natural for the many tribes in North Asia living on the largest Steppe-Taiga-Tundra area in the world to have believed 'the legends related to animals in relation to their founders and ancestors(獸祖傳說)'. Assuming that Siberian tigers and the tigers living on Mt. Baekdu were connected ecologically and genetically because of the ecological characteristics of the animals, and their migration from plateau to plateau, we would suspect that the Chosun(朝鮮) tribe living on Mt. Baekdu were ethnically and culturally more closely connected to the farther removed Ural-Altai tribes that lived on the cold and dry plateau region than to the Han(i14;) tribe who lived in Chungyen(中原) that was close to Mt. Baekdu. More evidence is the structure of the Korean language which has the form of 'Subject + Object + Verb', which is assumed to have originated from the speedy lifestyle of the reindeer-herding pastoral nomads. The structure is quite different from that of the Han(漢) language, which is based on agricultural life. Also, it is natural for reindeer riding reindeerherding pastoral nomads or horse-riding sheep-herding pastoral nomads(騎馬, 羊遊牧民) to have held military and political power over the region and eventually to have established an ancient pastoral nomadic empire in the process of their conquest of agricultural regions. The stages for founding global empires in the history of mankind maybe largely divided into two, in terms of ecological conditions and occupations. They are the steppes and the oceans. Of course, the steppe-based empires were established based on the skills to deal with horses and the ability to shoot arrows while riding horses, along with the use of iron ware in the 8th century BC. The steppe-based empires became the foundation for an oceanic empire, which could have been established by the use of warships and warship guns since the 15th Century. Based on those facts, we know that Chosun, Puyo(夫餘), and Koguryo are the products of a developmental process of pastoral nomadic empires on the steppes. Maybe we can easily find the pastoral nomadic identity of the Koguryo more than we expected when we trace the origins and history of the Korean tribe living in the pastures located in the northwest area of Mt. Jangbaek by focusing on pastoral nomadic mobility and organization just as we have investigated the historic origins of Anglo-Saxons in America by focusing on the times before the 15th Century. In the process, we should keep in mind that English culture originated from the Industrial Revolution and was directly delivered to the American continent, although America was far from England and was not an intermediate point on long sojourns either. Further, American culture came back to England in a more advanced form later. The most important thing currently to be resolved is to cause Koreans to look back on their own history in a freer way of thinking and with diverse, profound, and sharp insight, taking away the old and existing conventional recognition that is entangled with complicated interests with Korean people and other countries. The meanings of Chosun, Khori, and Solongos have been interpreted arbitrarily without any historic evidence by the scholars who followed conventional tradition of fixed-minded aristocrats in an agricultural society. If the Siberian cultural properties of the stone age, the earthenware age, the bronze age, and the iron age are analyzed in such a way, archaeological discovery will never be able to contribute to the restoration of the Koguryo's pastoral nomadic identity. One should transcend the errors that tend to interpret the cultural properties discovered in the pastoral nomadic regions as not being differentiated from those of agricultural regions and just interpret them altogether from the agricultural point of view. A more careful intention is required in the interpretation of cultural properties of ancient Korean empires that seem to have been formed due to mutual interactions of pastoral nomadic and agricultural cultures. Also, it is required that the conventional recognition chain of 'reverse-genes' be severed, which has placed more weight on agricultural properties than pastoral nomadic ones, since their settlement on agricultural farms was made after the establishment of their ancient pastoral nomadic empires. There is no reason at all to place priority on stoneware, earthenware, bronze ware, and iron ware than on wooden ware(木器) and other ware which were made of animal skins(皮器), bones and horns(骨角器), in analyzing the history in the regions of reindeer or sheep pastures. Reading ancient Korean history from the perspective of pastoral nomadic history, one feels strongly the instinctive emotions to return to the natural 'mother place'. The reindeer-herding pastoral nomadic identity of the Koguryo people that has been accumulated in volumes in their genes and hidden deep inside and have interacted organically could be reborn with Burqanism(Burqan refers to 不咸 in Chinese), which was their religion by birth and symbolized as the red willow(紅柳=不咸). The mother place of the Koguryo's people is the endless vast green pastures of North Eurasia and North America, where we anticipated the development of Korean livestock farming following the inherent properties in the genes of the reindeer-herding pastoral nomads with Korean ancestors. We anticipate that the place would be the core resource that could contribute to the development of life of living creatures following the inherent properties of their genes and biotechnological factors. In other words, biotechnology used for a search for clues on the well-being of humans could be the fruit brought by Burqanism of the Koguryo people and the fruit of the globalization of Korean livestock farming. It is the Chosun farmer in China come from the vast nomadic reindeer pastures of North Eurasia that resolved the food problem of a billion Chinese people with lowland paddy rice seeds (水稻) by transforming Heilongjiang Province(黑龍江省) into an oceanic lowland paddy rice field(水田). Even Mao Tse-tung(毛擇東) could not resolve the food problem by his revolution campaigns for tens of years. Today is the very time that requires the development of special livestock farming following the inherent properties of the ancient Korean reindeer-herding pastoral nomads that respected the dignity of life on the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia and the America continent. I suggest that research should be started from the pastures of the Dariganga Steppe in East Mongolia that was the homeland of Hanwoo(韓牛) and the central horse-herding steppe place(牧馬場) of Chingis Khan's Mongolia. The Dariganga Steppe is awash with an affluent natural environment for pastoral nomadic living however, the quality of life of the pastoral nomads there is still low. I suggest we Koreans, the descendents of the Koguryo, should take our first steps for our livestock farming business project and develop the Northern nomadic pastures, here at the pastures of the Dariganga Steppe, which is the Mongolian core place of state-of-the-art technology for military weapons.