• Title/Summary/Keyword: Hamcho

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Antioxidant Effects of Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) and Quality Characteristics of Pettitoes (jokbal) added with Hamcho (함초의 항산화성 및 함초를 첨가한 족발의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Kwon-Bok;Kim, Jeong-Mee;Kim, Mi-Ja;Kang, Soon Ah
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.383-391
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to ascertain the antioxidant properties of Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) and as well as manufacture pettitoes using Hamcho as a natural antioxidant material for diverse applications. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of 25, 50, 100 mg/mL in methanol extracts from Salicornia herbacea L. increased significantly (p<0.05) to 12.8%, 21.6% and 39.1%, respectively. The total phenolic content was $38.58{\pm}4.25{\mu}M$ as tannic acid equivalent for 100 mg/mL of methanol extracts from Hamcho. FRAP value was $448.58{\pm}14.01{\mu}M$ as ascorbic acid equivalent in reducing power. To apply Hamcho to food as a natural antioxidant, pettitoes were prepared with added Hamcho. To manufacture pettitoes added with Hamcho, general quality characteristics of pettitoes added with 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% based on 100 g of pettitoes were determined. In conclusion, mineral components increased according to the added amount of Salicornia herbacea L. Crude protein showed the highest value with 2% added Hamcho. Overall, the addition of Hamcho led to hardening of the meat texture. As a result of measuring color in terms of brightness, redness, and yellowness with chromaticity, the L value (brightness) increased with added amount of Hamcho. There was no significant difference in redness or yellowness. As a result of the sensory evaluation of pettitoes according to addition of Hamcho, the group with 4% added Hamcho showed enhanced overall preference with improved flavor, taste and textural properties.

Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activities of Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) (함초의 항산화 및 산화 촉진 효과)

  • Kim, Ilrang
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2015
  • Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea) extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol content, antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities. The total polyphenol content was 1.81 g and 0.72 g per 100 g of dried sample in water and ethanol extracts respectively. Both water and ethanol extracts of Hamcho significantly exhibited antioxidant activity. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical was 13.8~26.2% and 14.2~16.0% in water and ethanol extracts respectively. The inhibitory effect of conjugated diene formation was 24.6~39.1% and 28.4~39.6% in water and ethanol extracts respectively. However, pro-oxidative effect was also observed in the Hamcho extracts. The Hamcho water extract showed the pro-oxidant effect by enhancing the formation of hydroxyl radical and conjugated diene. The ethanol extract of Hamcho induced conjugated diene formation at 0.5 mg/mL but not at 1 mg/mL. The hydroxyl radical formation was not induced by the Hamcho ethanol extract. Taken together, these results show that Hamcho extracts can act as pro-oxidants by generating hydroxyl radical or conjugated diene in addition to their antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study suggests that the physiological properties of Hamcho and its use as food materials should be considered with caution because antioxidant dietary plants such as Hamcho possess possible adverse effects induced by pro-oxidant activity.

Antioxidant Activities of Red Hamcho(Salicornia herbacea L.) against Lipid Peroxidation and the Formation of Radicals (빨간 함초의 지질 과산화 및 라디칼 형성에 대한 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Dong-Pil;Jung, Yong-Hee;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Song, Hee-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 2007
  • Hamcho(Salicorinia herbacea, glasswort), a halophyte, is an annual succulent shrub that grows on coastal wetlands and has been regarded as a functional food for good health. Natural dried red and green Hamcho were extracted with 25% ethanol and water at 70$^{\circ}C$. The antioxidant activities of these four extracts were examined by six different assays, including the measurement of total phenolics, radical scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), nitric oxide(NO) and nitrite(NO$_2$) scavenging effects, reducing power, and the inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The total phenolic contents of the four extracts were high at 237 ${\sim}$ 255 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 1 g of dried sample tested. The green Hamcho extracts contained more phenolic compounds than the red Hamcho extracts. When they were compared to tocopherols, the antioxidant activities of the green and red Hamcho powders were significantly higher at the same concentration levels(5 mg and 3 mg, respectively) in a POV test. The inhibition effects of the four extracts at a level of 75 ${\mu}l$ were higher than 98% in the POV test. The red Hamcho 25% ethanol extract showed a high significant effect on DPPH radical scavenging(SC$_{50}$, 90.1 ${\mu}l$). The green Hamcho 25% ethanol extract, however, showed a high significant effect on NO radical scavenging(SC$_{50}$, 6.1 ${\mu}l$). The NO$_2$ radical scavenging effect was assayed at pH 1.2, 4.2 and 6.0, and all the Hamcho extracts scavenged the NO$_2$ radical much more effectively at pH 1.2. The NO$_2$ scavenging effect of the red Hamcho 25% ethanol extract(64%) was as high as that of 5 mM vitamin C at pH 1.2(p<0.05). In the reducing power test, the red Hamcho 25% ethanol extract revealed the highest ferric ion reducing activity among the Hamcho extracts, and its activity was as high as that of 0.33 mg/ml of vitamin C. The four Hamcho extracts showed high tyrosinase inhibition effects of more than 80%, and their activities were higher than 50${\mu}$g of kojic acid. The green and red Hamcho 25% ethanol extracts totally inhibited tyrosinase activity(100%). Therefore, the results suggest that red Hamcho extracts may serve as useful natural antioxidants along with green Hamcho extracts.

Antioxidant Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) Cake Prepared by Enzymatic Treatment

  • Oh, Ji-Hae;Kim, Eun-Ok;Lee, Sung-Kwon;Woo, Mee-Hee;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2007
  • The antioxidant activities of water ($H_2O$) and ethanol (EtOH) extracts from hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) juice and cake prepared by enzymatic treatments were evaluated by in vitro assays against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Among the $H_2O$ and EtOH extracts from five different carbohydrases treated, the EtOH extract from viscozyme-treated hamcho cake had higher yield and phenolic content, and exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity against DPPH ($IC_{50}=186.91\;{\mu}g/mL$), superoxide ($IC_{50}=87.54\;{\mu}g/mL$), and hydroxyl radicals ($IC_{50}=367.07\;{\mu}g/mL$). Antioxidant assay-guided fractionation and purification of the EtOH extract led to isolation and identification of five phenolic compounds, procatechuic, ferulic and caffeic acids, quercetin, and isorhamnetin. Most of these phenolic compounds exhibited considerable DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and in particular, caffeic and ferulic acids had stronger superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities than the well-known antioxidant radical scavenger, (+)-catechin (p<0.05). Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the primary compounds responsible for the strong antioxidant activity in the EtOH extract of the viscozyme-treated hamcho cake. Meanwhile, these five phenolic compounds were detected in the EtOH extract of the viscozyme-treated hamcho cake at the following levels (dry base of hamcho); procatechuic acid (1.54 mg%), caffeic acid (6.87 mg%), ferulic acid (8.45 mg%), quercetin (12.63 mg%), and isorhamnetin (6.65 mg%). However, three of these phenolic compounds (procatechuic, caffeic acid, and ferulic acids) were detectable in the $H_2O$ extract of viscozyme-treated hamcho juice. These results suggest that the EtOH extract of viscozyme-treated hamcho cake may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Physiological Effect of Hamcho Yogurt on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (Streptozotocin-유발 당뇨쥐에 대한 함초 요구르트의 생리학적 효능)

  • Cha Jae-Young;Jeon Beong-Sam;Kim Beom-Kyu;Kang Ho Young;Cho Young-Su
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.619-625
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    • 2005
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Hamcho yogurt fermented by lactic acid bacteria containing Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea) extract powder in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 3 week period. The Hamcho yogurt given to the STZ-diabetic rats had significant effect in lowering the serum glucose concentrations and food intakes compared to the STZ-diabetic rats. The Hamcho yogurt administration increased the tolerance to oral glucose loading in the STZ-diabetic rats. The Hamcho yogurt and yogurt given to the STZ-diabetic rats were significantly decreased the serum total cholesterol concentration and the atherogenic index. Based on the beneficial effect against the blood glucose and cholesterol levels, we suggest the Hamcho yogurt can be used as functional food for the hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects.

Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effect of Dietary Hamcho Powder in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats (Streptozotocin-유발당뇨쥐에서 함초첨가 식이의 항당뇨 및 항산화 효과)

  • 방미애;김현아;조영아
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.840-846
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    • 2002
  • Male Sprague-Bawler rats were blocked into four groups which were normal rats fed control diet (NC) diabetic rats fed control diet (DC), normal rats fed Hamcho powder diet (NH), and diabetic rats fed Hamcho powder diet (DH). Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg B.W. i.p.). The animals were fed ad libitum for 5 weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose 6-phosphtase (Gspase), glutathione S-transferase (GST) glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were measured in the homogenates of liver and kidney, and total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the blood serum. Food and water intakes were markedly higher in diabetic groups than those of normal groups and were not significantly decreased by Hamcho powder supplementation, But, FER (Feed efficiency ratio) of DH Brood was higher than that of U group. Total cholesterol level of DH group was decreased in the second and third week, and the weekly change of blood sugar was also decreased in the 5th week. Dietary Hamcho intake showed 41.2% of hypoglycemic effect in diabetics rats. Levels of total lipid and triglycerides of DH group were lower than those of DC group. Hepatic GR activity of DH group was higher than those of other groups. However, renal GR activity was lower than those of other groups. Hepatic G6Pase activity was significantly high in DH group and reduced by Hamcho powder supplementation. GST was reduced by Hancho diet in diabetic rats. In conclusion Hamcho supplementation decreased serum lipid and glucose concentration in STZ-induced diabetic rats and this effects of Hamcho might exert antidiabetic effect of Hamcho powder diet.

Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Yogurt Supplemented Salicornia herbacea Extract in Cholesterol-Fed Rats. (콜레스테롤 급여 흰쥐에서 함초 요구르트의 콜레스테롤 저하효과)

  • 차재영;전병삼;박정원;김범규;정찬영;류진수;최충국;조영수
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.747-751
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    • 2004
  • The effect of yogurt containing Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea) extract (Hamcho yogurt: HY) on the lipid concentrations in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a cholesterol diet were studied. Rats were assigned three groups in the experiment; cholesterol diet (the CHOL group), cholesterol diet plus yogurt by lactic acid bacteria (the Y group) or cholesterol diet plus yogurt supplemented Hamcho extract by lactic acid bacteria (the HY group). Fermented milk with or without Hamcho extract in the diet supplemented at the levels 5.0% for 3 weeks. The concentrations of total cholesterol and bile acid in serum was significantly lower in the HY group than the CHOL group. This effect was also observed in rats fed a diet supplemented fermented milk. This cholesterol-lowering effect was more pronounced in the HY group compared to the Y group. The atherogenic index was significantly lower in the HY or Y groups than the CHOL group. The concentration of non esterified fatty acid in serum was significantly lower in the HY group than the CHOL and the Y groups. These results suggested that Hamcho yogurt exert the hypocholesterolemic effect in cholesterol fed rats.

Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Hamcho (Salicomia herbacea) on Antioxidative Defense System in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet (함초(Salicornia herbacea)의 효소적 가수분해물이 고콜레스테롤 식이 흰쥐의 항산화방어계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kyung-Ran;Choi, Jeong-Hwa;Lee, Sung-Kwon;Woo, Mi-Hee;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.1356-1362
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of enzymatic hydrolysate (extract) of Salicomia herbacea L. (Korean name: Hamcho) on antioxidative defense system in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Rats were divided into six experimental groups which are composed of normal diet group, normal diet group supplemented with 2% Hamcho extract, high cholesterol diet group, high cholesterol diet groups supplemented with 1%, 2% and 4% Hamcho extracts. The activity of serum glutamate oxaloacetae transaminase in rats was not different among all experimental groups, while the activity of glutamate pyruvate transaminase in groups supplemented with Hamcho extract was significantly lower than that of high cholesterol control group. Supplementation of Hamcho extract (SHE) to the high cholesterol fed rats resulted in increased activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peioxidase. However, there was no significant difference in the activity of hepatic catalase among all experimental groups. SHE also resulted in decreased levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and mitochondrial carbonyl values. Those effects were higher to some extent in 2% and 4% Hamcho extract groups than those of high cholesterol control group. These results suggest that enzymatic hydrolysate of Hamcho may reduce oxidative damage by activation of antioxidative defense system in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

Detection of Chemical Characteristics in Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) according to Harvest Periods (함초(Salicornia herbacea L.)의 채취 시기별 이화학적 특성 탐색)

  • Cha, Jae-Young;Jeong, Jae-Jun;Kim, Yong-Taek;Seo, Won-Seok;Yang, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Jin-Sook;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.683-690
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    • 2006
  • The chemical compositions of amino acids, minerals, betaine, and polyphenolic compounds from Salicornia herbacea (Hamcho) according to harvest periods were analyzed. Changes of chemical characteristics in water and ethanol extracts from Hamcho were evaluated for titratable acidity, pH, soluble solid, and Hunter's color values. The antioxidative activity of water extract from Hamcho was also determined by DPPH $({\alpha},{\alpha}'-diphenyl-{\beta}-picrylhydrazyl)$ scavenging radical activity. Total polyphenolic compounds of Hamcho were shown the highest in August harvested by 201.6 ppm. The betaine of Hamcho water-extract was identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which content was 0.248%, 0.269% and 0.204% in June, August, and October, respectively. Major compositional amino acids (mg%) were glutamic acid (582: 519: 664), proline (552: 471: 322), phenylalanine (480: 431: 424), aspartic acid (322: 297: 330), and arginine (282: 321: 483) in June, August, and October, respectively, and major free amino acids (mg%) were proline (9.7: 3.4), asparagine (6.7: 1.4), hydroxyproline (6.4: 2.8), valine (3.9: 2.5), arginine (1.7: 3.0) in June and August, respectively. Mineral contents (mg%) were Na (5,695: 7,536: 5,529), K (1,640: 963: 931), Mg (359: 428: 348), Ca (221: 234: 251), and P (207: 189: 259) in June, August, and October, respectively. Especially, K was high in June, Na and Mg were high in August, and Ca and P were high in October, respectively. DPPH scavenging radical activity was shown in the following order; 0.05% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)> August> June> October harvested Hamcho. The chemical components of polyphenolic compounds, betaine, amino acids and minerals were changed by harvest periods according to the growing season, and the highest concentrations of polyphenolic compounds and betaine of Hamcho were shown in August harvested.

Effects of Water Extract from Enzymic-Treated Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea) on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet (효소처리한 함초(Salicornia herbacea) 열수추출물이 고콜레스테롤 식이 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kyung-Ran;Jang, Mi-Jin;Choi, Sang-Won;Woo, Mi-Hee;Choi, Jeong-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of water extract from enzymic-treated Salicornia herbacea (Hamcho) on lipid metabolism in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were divided into six groups which were composed of normal diet group, normal and $2\%$ Hamcho extract diet group, high cholesterol diet group, high cholesterol and $1\%,\;2\%\;and\;4\%$ Hamcho extracts diet groups. Body weight gain and food efficiency ratio (FER) of the high cholesterol diet group were significantly increased compared to the normal diet group, while those of the high cholesterol and Hamcho extracts diet groups were decreased compared to the high cholesterol diet group. Food intake was not significantly different among all experimental groups, The serum TG content of the high cholesterol diet group was significantly increased compared to the normal diet group, but that of the high cholesterol and extracts diet group was significantly decreased in dose-dependent concentration. The liver TG, total lipid and total cholesterol contents of the high cholesterol diet group were significantly increased compared to the normal diet group, while those of the high cholesterol and $2\%\;or\;4\%$ Hamcho extracts diet groups were significantly decreased compared to the high cholesterol diet group. The serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol contents, and AI of the high cholesterol diet group were significantly increased compared to the normal diet group, while those of the high cholesterol and Hamcho extracts diet groups were decreased, and especially the high cholesterol and $4\%$ Hamcho extract diet group was significantly decreased compared to the high cholesterol diet group. Serum HDL-cholesterol contents of the high cholesterol diet group were significantly increased compared to the normal diet group. These results suggest that supplementation of water extract from enzymic-treated Salicornia herbacea may have a pronounced impact on lipid metabolism of serum and liver in the rats fed high cholesterol diet.