• Title, Summary, Keyword: HPV16

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Analytical Performance of Sensitivity and Specificity for Rapid Multiplex High Risk Human Papillomavirus Detection Kit: HPV ViroCheck (고위험군 HPV 검출을 위한 분석적 민감도와 특이도 성능평가)

  • Park, Sunyoung;Yoon, Hyeonseok;Bang, Hyeeun;Kim, Yeun;Choi, Seongkyung;Ahn, Sungwoo;Kim, Jungho;Lee, Suji;Yang, Ji Yeong;Lee, Dongsup
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.446-454
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    • 2017
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causes of cervical cancer. Sixteen high risk HPVs, including HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV31, HPV 33, HPV 35, HPV 39, HPV 45, HPV 51, HPV 52, HPV 53, HPV 56, HPV 58, HPV 59, HPV 66, HPV 68, and HPV 69 are found in cervical cancer. HPVs 16 and 18 are mainly presented in 70% of cervical cancer. Therefore, identifying the presence of these high-risk HPVs is crucial. The objective of this study is to establish the HPV ViroCheck for detecting 16 HR-HPVs and genotypes of HPVs 16 and 18, as well as to analyze the analytical performance of HPV ViroCheck. We performed the analytical sensitivity of HPV E6 / E7 genes of 16 high risk HPVs to confirm the limit of detection. Then, a cross reactivity of HPV ViroCheck with microorganisms and viruses related to the cervix were analyzed for analytical specificity. Analytical sensitivity of high risk HPV genotypes ranged from 1 to 100 copies when using cloned DNAs. The limit of detection was 10 cells for both SiHa and HeLa cells. Cervical-related microorganisms and viruses did not show cross-reactivity to HPV DNA. Moreover, the intra- and inter-assay coefficient variations (CVs) were below 5%. In conclusion, HPV Virocheck will be useful for the detection of 16 HR HPVs, as well as HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes rapidly.

Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Distribution in Invasive Squamous Cervical Carcinomas in Tunisia and Vaccine Impact

  • Ennaifer, Emna;Salhi, Faten;Laassili, Thalja;Fehri, Emna;Alaya, Nissaf Ben;Guizani, Ikram;Boubaker, Samir
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6769-6772
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    • 2015
  • Background: High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the leading cause of cervical cancer (CC) and Pap smear screening has not been successful in preventing CC in Tunisia. HPV vaccination that targets HPV16 and 18 offers a new efficient prevention tool. Identification of HPV types in CC is thus essential to determine the impact of HPV vaccine implementation. The aim of this study is to provide specific data from Tunisia. Materials and Methods: A total of 89 histological confirmed paraffin embedded samples isolated from patients with CC diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 were collected from five medical centres from Northern and Southern Tunisia. HPV DNA was detected using a nested PCR (MY09/MY11-GP5+/GP6+) and genotyping was assessed using a reverse blot line hybridisation assay that enables the detection of 32 HPV types. Results: HPV DNA was detected in all samples. Twelve high risk types were detected; HPV16 and/or 18 were predominant, accounting together for 92.1% of all the CC cases (HPV16: 83.1%). Single infections accounted for 48.8% of the cases and were mostly linked to HPV 16 (32.6%) and less frequently to HPV 18 (2.4%). The other high risk HPV single infections were linked to HPV 35 (4.6%), 45 (4.6%), 58 (2.3%) and 59 (2.3%). Multiple infections with mixing of 2 to 4 genotypes predominately featrued HPV16 and/or 18 with HPV 35 and 45 (96.6 %) and less frequently with HPV 59, 40, 66, 73 and 58. There was no statistically significant variation in the relative distribution of HPV types with age. Conclusions: These results strongly indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccines can have a major impact in preventing CC in Tunisia.

Production and Prophylactic Efficacy Study of Human Papillomavirus-like Particle Expressing HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein

  • Park, Jie-Yun;Pyo, Hyun-Mi;Yoon, Sun-Woo;Baek, Sun-Young;Park, Sue-nie;Kim, Chul-Joong;Haryoung Poo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.313-318
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    • 2002
  • To perform the prophylactic study of a vaccine derived from human papillomavirus (HPV) using Balb/c mice, we produced virus like particles consisting of HPV capsid protein L1 which has been reported to induce significant humoral and cellular immunity using various animal model systems. In order to produce HPV16 VLPs, the cDNA of L1 capsid protein in HPV type 16, obtained by polymerase chain reaction, was inserted into yeast expression vector, YEG$\alpha$-HIR525 under the control of GAL10 promoter. The transformation of YEG$\alpha$-HPV16 L1 was performed into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2805 by the lithium acetate method and the yeast clone expressing the highest level of L1 capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 16 was selected by Western blot analysis using anti-HPV16 L1 antibody. The purification of HPV16 VLP has been performed by the ultracentrifugation and gel-filtration methods. To validate the vaccine efficacy of the purified HPV16 VLPs and investigate the properties of HPV16 VLPs to induce humoral immunity, ELISA assay was performed. A significantly increased production of anti-HPV16 VLP antibodies was observed in sera from immunized mice. The neutralization activity of antibodies in the sera from the vaccinated mice was demonstrated by a rapid and simple assay to detect hemagglutihation inhibition activity.

Risk Stratification of Early Stage Oral Tongue Cancers Based on HPV Status and p16 Immunoexpression

  • Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi;Soundara, Viveka T.;Shyamsundar, Vidyarani;Ramani, Prathiba;Krishnamurthy, Arvind
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8351-8359
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    • 2014
  • Background: Recent epidemiological data have implicated human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in the pathogenesis of head and neck cancers, especially oropharyngeal cancers. Although, HPV has been detected in varied amounts in persons with oral dysplasia, leukoplakias and malignancies, its involvement in oral tongue carcinogenesis remains ambiguous. Materials and Methods: HPV DNA prevalence was assessed by PCR with formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections (n=167) of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients and the physical status of the HPV16 DNA was assessed by qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was conducted for p16 evaluation. Results: We found the HPV prevalence in tongue cancers to be 51.2%, HPV 16 being present in 85.2% of the positive cases. A notable finding was a very poor concordance between HPV 16 DNA and p16 IHC findings (kappa<0.2). Further molecular classification of patients based on HPV16 DNA prevalence and p16 overexpression showed that patients with tumours showing p16 overexpression had increased hazard of death (HR=2.395; p=0.005) and disease recurrence (HR=2.581; p=0.002) irrespective of their HPV 16 DNA status. Conclusions: Our study has brought out several key facets which can potentially redefine our understanding of tongue cancer tumorigenesis. It has emphatically shown p16 overexpression to be a single important prognostic variable in defining a high risk group and depicting a poorer prognosis, thus highlighting the need for its routine assessment in tongue cancers. Another significant finding was a very poor concordance between p16 expression and HPV infection suggesting that p16 expression should possibly not be used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in tongue cancers. Interestingly, the prognostic significance of p16 overexpression is different from that reported in oropharyngeal cancers. The mechanism of HPV independent p16 over expression in oral tongue cancers is possibly a distinct entity and needs to be further studied.

Carcinogenic Potentials of HPV-16 and NNK in Human in Vitro Model (인체 세포 모델을 이용한 HPV-16과 NNK의 발암 잠재력에 관한 연구)

  • 양재호;이세영
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.271-275
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    • 1996
  • Carcinogenic potential of HPV-16 DNA and NNK in a human keratinocyte cell line was assessed to study effects of viral-chemical interaction. Human cells were transfected with HPV-16 DNA and 6 clonal cell lines were subsequently obtained. Clonal line-3 and 6 at passage 7 showed characteristics of tumor cells such as increases of saturation density, soft-agar colony formation, cell aggregation and foci appearance. Among cells treated with 1$\mu M$, 10$\mu M$, 100$\mu M$ or 1 mM of NNK for 4 weeks, 100$\mu M$ treatment showed most tumorigenic characteristics at passage 7. These results indicate that either HPV-16 or NNK alone is tumorigenic in this in human in vitro model. When cells transfected with HPV-16 were subsequently exposed by 100 uM NNK for 4 weeks, all the clonal cells except clone-1 showed higher levels of tumor cell characteristics than HPV-16 DNA or NNK exposure alone. Clonal line-6, the most tumorigenic cells, showed higher transcriptional level of fibronectin and lower level of TGF-$\beta_1$, as compared to control cells, suggesting that alteration of growth factor or extracellular matrix may play a role in carcinogenesis process induced by HPV-16 and NNK. Taken together, the present study indicates that viral-chemical interactions between HPV-16 DNA and NNK enhance carcinogenic potentials of human cells and implies that smoking among people infected with human papillomavirus may pose an additional risk of causing cancer.

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p16 - a Possible Surrogate Marker for High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Oral Cancer?

  • Sritippho, Thanun;Pongsiriwet, Surawut;Lertprasertsuke, Nirush;Buddhachat, Kittisak;Sastraruji, Thanapat;Iamaroon, Anak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.4049-4057
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    • 2016
  • Background: High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV), particularly types 16 and 18, have been found to play an important role in head and neck cancer, including oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). p16, a cell cycle inhibitor, has been postulated as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV, since p16 is aberrantly overexpressed in such lesions, especially in HR-HPV-positive OPSCC. However, p16 as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV infection in cancers of the oral cavity remains controversial. Objective: The objectives of the study were to investigate the expression of p16 and the presence of HR-HPV in OSCC and oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) and to determine if p16 could be used as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV. Materials and Methods: Forty one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of OSCC (n=37) or VC (n=4) with clinical and histopathologic data of each case were collected. Expression of p16 was determined by immunohistochemistry, focusing on both staining intensity and numbers of positive cells. The presence of HPV types 16 and 18 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Descriptive statistics were employed to describe the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic parameters. Associations between p16 overexpression, HR-HPV and all variables were determined by Fisher's exact test, odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In addition, the use of p16 as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV was analyzed by sensitivity and specificity tests. Results: p16 was overexpressed in 8/37 cases (21.6%) of OSCC and 2/4 cases (50%) of VC. HPV-16 was detected in 4/34 OSCC cases (11.8%) and HPV-18 was detected in 1/34 OSCC cases (2.9%). Co-infection of HPV-16/18 was detected in 1/4 VC cases (25%). Both p16 overexpression and HR-HPV were significantly associated with young patients with both OSCC and VC (p<0.05, OR 20, 95% CI 1.9-211.8; p<0.05, OR 23.3, 95% CI 2.4-229.7, respectively). p16 was able to predict the presence of HPV-16/18 in OSCC with 40% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity and in VC with 100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity, respectively. Conclusions: p16 overexpression was found in 24.4% of both OSCC and VC. HR-HPV, regardless of type, was detected in 15.8% in cases of OSCC and VC combined. The results of sensitivity and specificity tests suggest that p16 can be used as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV in OSCC and VC.

The Prevalence and Genotype of Human Papillomavirus from Patients with Genital Warts in Eastern Guangdong Province

  • Luo, Zhao-Yun;Chen, Qiang;Yang, Hui;Lin, Min;Chen, Chan-Yu;Yang, Chun;Yang, Li-Ye
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5675-5679
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    • 2015
  • Background: Low-risk human papillomavirus (LR-HPV) infection is the main cause of genital warts. LRHPV genotypes 6 and 11 are associated with genital warts, but there have only been a few published studies about the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV in genital warts in China. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes for clinical cases involving both men and women and to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent (genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18) HPV vaccine in eastern Guangdong province of China. Materials and Methods: A total of 696 eligible patients with genital warts were enrolled during the period Aug 2009 through Oct 2014. Specimens were collected from genital warts, the HPV GenoArray test was used for HPV detection and genotyping, which could detect 21 HPV genotypes, including genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18. Results: Among the 696 cases, 675 samples were successfully genotyped. The median age of patients was 32.1 years (range, 16-67 years). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (285/675, 42.2%), HPV-11 (265/675, 39.3%), HPV-52 (52/675, 7.7%), HPV-16 (51/675, 7.56%), HPV-81 (50/675, 7.40%) and HPV-58 (37/675, 5.48%). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 96.59%. The cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6 and 11 was 78.7% (531/675), the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 16 and 18 was 11.6% (78/675), and the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 was 82.5% (557/675). Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence that, in eastern Guangdong, different from Western countries, the most prevalent low risk HPV genotypes in patients with genital warts are 6, 11 and 81. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine could prevent 82.5% of genital warts in eastern Guangdong.

Comparison of p16INK4a Immunocytochemistry with the HPV Polymerase Chain Reaction in Predicting High Grade Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

  • Indarti, Junita;Fernando, Darrell
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.4989-4992
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    • 2013
  • Aim: To compare p16INK4a immunocytochemistry with the HPV polymerase chain reaction in predicting high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Materials and Methods: This diagnostic case-control study was conducted from January 2010 until December 2010. We obtained 30 samples, classified according to the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): 11 samples for CIN 1, 9 samples for CIN 2, and 10 samples for CIN 3. HPV PCR, p16INK4a immunocytochemistry, and histopathological examination were performed on all samples. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Results: In predicting CIN 2-3, we found p16INK4a to have similar specificity and positive predictive value as HPV PCR (95%, 97.2% vs 96.7%), but better sensitivity (87.5% vs 72.5%) and negative predictive value (82.1% vs 67.6%). The most prevalent types of high-risk HPV in our study were HPV 33, 35, 58, 52, and 16. Conclusions: p16INK4a has better diagnostic values than HPV PCR and may be incorporated in the triage of ASCUS and LSIL to replace HPV PCR. Genotype distribution of HPV differs in each region, providing a challenge to develop HPV vaccines based on the epidemiology of HPV in that particular region.

Prevalence and Genotype Analysis of High Risk-human Papillomavirus Infection in Busan Women (부산지역 여성의 고위험군 인유두종 바이러스 유병률과 유전자형 분석)

  • Kang, Chang-Soo;Lee, Kyung Eun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1267-1272
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    • 2019
  • The main cause of cervical cancer is the human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV DNA has been reported in 99.7% of patients with cervical cancer. The worldwide prevalence is highest for the HPV 16 and 18 genotypes, but HPV 52 and 58 have the highest prevalence in Asian countries, including Korea. The purpose of this study was to obtain basic data for the prevention of cervical cancer by analyzing the prevalence of HPV and the genotypes of high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in women in Busan, Korea. We analyzed 1,995 cases of HPV in women who visited a Busan obstetrics and gynecology hospital from January 2016 to December 2017. The prevalence of HPV among these women was 28.3% (565/1995), and the HR-HPV infection rate was 75.4% (426/565). The HR-HPV genotype with the highest prevalence was HPV-52 (63/565, 11.2%), followed by HPV-58 (56/565, 9.9%), HPV-53 (55/565, 9.7%), and HPV-16 (53/565, 9.4%). The HR-HPV infection rate of young women 18-39 years old was 60.3% (257/426), so this age group should undergo continuous monitoring. The cytological results revealed a high infection rate for HPV-16 in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, further evaluation of more samples is needed to confirm the HR-HPV genotypes related to the development of cervical epithelial neoplasias.

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Women in South Korea -Incidence of Positive HPV DNA and anti-VLPs in Residents of Busan City- (한국인 일반 여성의 HPV 감염 유병율 -부산지역 일반 여성에서의 HPV DNA 및 항 VLPs 항체 양성 빈도 -)

  • Hong, Sook-Hee;Lee, Duk-Hee;Shin, Hai-Rim
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2004
  • To investigate a population-based survey of the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in South Korea, we performed Papanicolaou smears and tests for HPV DNA and anti-HPV antibody detection in 909 sexually active general women (age range; 20-74 years, median 44 years) who were randomly selected residents from S district of Busan City. The presence of DNA of 36 different HPV types was detected by means of a GP 5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR enzyme immunoassay in cervical exfoliated cells, and IgG antibodies against L1 virus-like particles (anti-VLPs) of 5 HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 58 were tested by means of enzyme linked immunoassay. The incidence of cytologic abnormality was 5.2% in Pap smear. The positive rate of HPV DNA was 10.4%, high in young women younger than 35 years old and proportionally increased according to the cytologic grades. The most often found HPV type was HPV 70, followed by HPV 16 and 33, and high-risk HPV types were more frequent in women younger than 35 years old. The most common HPV type in abnormal cytologic smears was HPV 16, followed by HPV 58 and 66. Anti-VLPs was positive in 19.7% and the frequent anti-VLPs type was against HPV 18, followed by HPV 31 and 16. The concordance between the markers for each specific HPV type was noted in 10 women and HPV 16 was the most frequent one. The incidence of multiple HPV infection was 18.9% and that of multiple anti-VLPs antibodies was 31%. Among 103 self-reported virgins, 4.9% had anti-VLP antibodies.