• Title, Summary, Keyword: HPV

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Multifaceted Usage of HPV Related Tests and Products in the Management of Cervical Cancer - a Review

  • Nalliah, Sivalingam;Karikalan, Barani;Kademane, Kumaraswamy
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2145-2150
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    • 2015
  • HPV viruses are integral to the development of cervical cancer. The pathogenesis has been extensively studied. To date, numerous HPV tests and products have been developed and successfully utilized in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cervical cancer. The HPV DNA test, when combined with other routine cervical cancer screening and diagnostic tests namely exfoliative cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and colposcopy has increased the detection rate of cervical cancer. HPV DNA products could also be measured in other body fluids like urine, lymph node tissue, and serum. HPV association could also be quantified by measuring other parameters like HPV mRNA, viral load, viral integration and methylation status. Vaccination against HPV has been found to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. Further, therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer against HPV continue to evolve. All these findings pertaining to HPV could possibly decrease the incidence of cervical cancer in the near future. This review aims to give an overview of the HPV tests and products in use and those under trial currently.

Cervical Pathology in Cytology-Negative/HPV-Positive Women: Results from Lampang Cancer Hospital, Thailand

  • Paengchit, Kannika;Kietpeerakool, Chumnan;Wangchai, Warunee;Pouraeng, Saifon;Lalitwongsa, Somkiet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7951-7954
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    • 2014
  • Background: To evaluate the cervical pathology of cytology-negative/high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) positive-women. Materials and Methods: This study recruited 4,583 women aged 30-70 years who had undergone cervical screening by liquid-based cytology and HR-HPV test (14 HR-HPV types) at Lampang Cancer Hospital during October 2012 to July 2013. Colposcopy was carried out in all women. Results: One hundred and ninety-two (4.19%) women were found to be cytology-negative/HR-HPV-positive. However, 23 cases were excluded because of incomplete information, leaving 169 women for further analyses. Of these 169, 45 (26.6%) were infected with HPV 16/18 and 49 (29.0%) with multiple genotypes of HR-HPV. Nineteen of 169 (11.24%) women were found to have CIN 2-3. No women in the present study had AIS or invasive cervical lesions. Prevalence of CIN 2-3 among women infected with HPV 16/18 was 15.6% which was higher than the 9.68% in those with non-HPV 16/18 oncogenic types. Conclusions: Overall, 11% of cytology-negative/HR-HPV-positive women had significant cervical lesions. Risk of harboring such lesions was substantially increased among those who were HPV 16/18 positive.

Human Papilloma Virus Detection by INNOLiPA HPV in Prostate Tissue from Men of Northeast Mexico

  • Rodriguez, Martha I Davila;Morales, Cesar V Ignacio;Tovar, Anel R Aragon;Jimenez, Delia Olache;Maldonado, Edmundo Castelan;Miranda, Sandra Lara;Gutierrez, Elva I Cortes
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.4863-4865
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    • 2016
  • Background: Prostatic adenocarcinoma by Prosate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death among men in the Western world. Human papilloma virus (HPV) may be considered as a preventable risk factor. In this study, we assessed the frequencies of HPV infection in prostatic adenocarcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases in Northeast Mexico. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 paraffin-embedded blocks (from 25 and 62 patients with definite diagnoses of BPH and adenocarcinoma, respectively) were selected and subjected to INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping to detect 28 high- and low-risk HPV types. The rates of infection were compared in the two studied groups. Results: INNOLiPA HPV demonstrated great sensitivity for HPV detection on paraffin-embedded tissue. Global prevalence was 14.9% (13/87). HPV infection was positive in 19.4% (12/62) of patients with adenocarcinoma and 4.0% (1/25) of patients with BPH. HPV-11, which is considered to be low risk, was more prevalent. Interestingly, one patient with BPH and six with prostate cancer showed examples considered to be high risk (HPV-18, -51, -52, and -66). Conclusion: A higher rate of HPV infection among Mexican patients with prostatic carcinoma than among those with BPH was observed. HPV infections may thus contribute to the risk of prostate cancer. Further studies are required to elucidate any roles of HPV infection in prostate disease in Mexico and the effect of prevention and treatment of HPV infection on prostatic adenocarcinoma.

The Prevalence and Genotype of Human Papillomavirus from Patients with Genital Warts in Eastern Guangdong Province

  • Luo, Zhao-Yun;Chen, Qiang;Yang, Hui;Lin, Min;Chen, Chan-Yu;Yang, Chun;Yang, Li-Ye
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5675-5679
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    • 2015
  • Background: Low-risk human papillomavirus (LR-HPV) infection is the main cause of genital warts. LRHPV genotypes 6 and 11 are associated with genital warts, but there have only been a few published studies about the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV in genital warts in China. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes for clinical cases involving both men and women and to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent (genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18) HPV vaccine in eastern Guangdong province of China. Materials and Methods: A total of 696 eligible patients with genital warts were enrolled during the period Aug 2009 through Oct 2014. Specimens were collected from genital warts, the HPV GenoArray test was used for HPV detection and genotyping, which could detect 21 HPV genotypes, including genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18. Results: Among the 696 cases, 675 samples were successfully genotyped. The median age of patients was 32.1 years (range, 16-67 years). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (285/675, 42.2%), HPV-11 (265/675, 39.3%), HPV-52 (52/675, 7.7%), HPV-16 (51/675, 7.56%), HPV-81 (50/675, 7.40%) and HPV-58 (37/675, 5.48%). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 96.59%. The cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6 and 11 was 78.7% (531/675), the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 16 and 18 was 11.6% (78/675), and the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 was 82.5% (557/675). Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence that, in eastern Guangdong, different from Western countries, the most prevalent low risk HPV genotypes in patients with genital warts are 6, 11 and 81. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine could prevent 82.5% of genital warts in eastern Guangdong.

Knowledge and Awareness of Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccine among Women in Two Distinct Nepali Communities

  • Johnson, Derek Christopher;Bhatta, Madhav Prasad;Gurung, Santosh;Aryal, Shilu;Lhaki, Pema;Shrestha, Sadeep
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8287-8293
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    • 2014
  • Background: This study assessed human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine knowledge and awareness among women in two sub-populations in Nepal - Khokana, a traditional Newari village in the Lalitpur District about eight kilometers south of Kathmandu, and Sanphebagar, a village development committee within Achham District in rural Far-Western Nepal. Methods: Study participants were recruited during health camps conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center, a Nepali non-governmental organization. Experienced staff administered a Nepali language survey instrument that included questions on socio-demographics, reproductive health and knowledge on HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Results: Of the 749 participants, 387 (51.7%) were from Khokana and 362 (48.3%) were from Sanphebagar. Overall, 53.3% (n=372) of women were aware of cervical cancer with a significant difference between Khokana and Sanphebagar (63.3% vs 43.0%; p=0.001). Overall, 15.4% (n=107) of women had heard of HPV and 32% (n=34) of these women reported having heard of the HPV vaccine. If freely available, 77.5% of the women reported willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Factors associated with cervical cancer awareness included knowledge of HPV (Khokana: Odds Ratio (OR)=24.5; (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-190.2, Sanphebagar: OR=14.8; 95% CI: 3.7-58.4)) and sexually transmitted infections (Khokana: OR=6.18; 95% CI: 3.1-12.4; Sanphebagar: OR=17.0; 95% CI: 7.3-39.7) among other risk factors. Conclusions: Knowledge and awareness of HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine remains low among women in Khokana and Sanphebagar. Acceptance of a freely available HPV vaccine for children was high, indicating potentially high uptake rates in these communities.

Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology in an Esophageal Carcinoma High Incidence Area of China

  • Mai, Rui-Qin;Huang, Bo;Shen, Ling;Zhang, Guo-Hong;Hong, Liang-Li;Cai, Ying-Mu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.4945-4950
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    • 2014
  • Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) could affect genesis of both cervical and esophageal cancers. The type-specific distribution of HPV in cervical cytology abnormalities of women has remained unclear in Shantou, an esophageal cancer high-incidence area of China. Data from 22,617 women who were subjected to cervical HPV DNA testing with simultaneous cervical cytological examination during 2009-2013 were therefore here retrospectively evaluated in a hospital-based study. Overall, 16.2% (3,584/22,114)of women with normal cytology were HR-HPV positive, with HPV-52 (4.07%) as the most common type followed by -16 (3.63%), and -58 (2.46%). Prevalence of HR-HPV was 50.3% (253/503) in women with cervical cytological abnormalities, of which in ASC-H 71.4%, ASC-US 39.1%, HSIL 80.3% and LSIL 73.7%. HPV-58 (14.12%) was the most common type for all cervical cytological abnormalities, followed by HPV-16 (13.72%), and -52 (12.72%), while the more common HPV-16 type in ASC-H (42.9%) and HSIL (36.1%), HPV-52 and -58 were the most common types for ASC-US (10.3%) and LSIL (25%), respectively. Multiple HPV co-infections were identified in 33.2% (84/253) cytology abnormalities with positive HR-HPV, and the highest prevalence of HPV-58/16 combination in HSIL (28.6%, 6/21) was observed. Our data indicated a relative high prevalence of HPV-58 and -52 in women with cervical cytological abnormalities, which should be considered in the development of next-generation vaccines for Shantou.

Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Genotype Distribution in Normal and ASCUS Specimens: Comparison of a Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay with a DNA Chip Test

  • Kim, Sunghyun;Lee, In-soo;Lee, Dongsup
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2015
  • High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are strongly associated with cervical cancer, whereas other HPV genotypes are not. To identify the various HPV genotypes in clinical samples, we conducted HPV genotyping using a DNA chip test and reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) in normal cytology samples and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cytology samples. We also investigated the HPV infection rate and HPV genotype prevalence in women with normal cytology and ASCUS cytology. Liquid-based cytology preparations were used for the initial screening of 205 subjects with normal cytology and ASCUS cytology. The HPV infection rate was 49.8% when using the DNA chip assay and 61.0% when using the REBA test. In patients with normal cytology, the HR-HPV positive rate was 21.9% with the DNA chip assay and 43.9% with the REBA test. In contrast, 8.3% of patients with ASCUS were HR-HPV positive when using the DNA chip assay, and 13.6% were positive when tested with the REBA test. The infection rate of HR-HPV in the 40~50-year age group was significantly higher than that of the other age groups. Based on the cytological analysis of the normal and ASCUS samples, the five most prominent HPV genotypes were HPV 16, 18, 68, 33, and 58 using the DNA chip test, and they were HPV 16, 18, 53, 33, and 66 when using the REBA test. In conclusion, the findings show that the results of the REBA test are comparable to those of the DNA chip test. Most strikingly, the REBA test detected the HR-HPV genotype associated with cervical carcinoma similar to that detected with the DNA chip method. Therefore, the REBA test is a useful method to detect clinically important HR-HPV genotypes.

Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Infections in Women Attending Hospitals in Chaozhou of Guangdong Province

  • Chen, Qiang;Luo, Zhao-Yun;Lin, Min;Lin, Qi-Li;Chen, Chan-Yu;Yang, Chun;Xie, Long-Xu;Li, Hui;Zheng, Jia-Kun;Yang, Li-Ye;Ju, Gui-Zhi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1519-1524
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    • 2012
  • Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer. Limited epidemiologic data of HPV prevalence are available for women attending hospitals in southern China. This study aimed to evaluate the profiles of HPV infection and cytology status in gynecological outpatients in Chaozhou City. Methods: A total of 2833 eligible women were enrolled. The HPV GenoArray test was used for HPV detection and genotyping. Nearly one half of the HPV positive women received liquid-based cytology test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the predictable effects of age and genotype for categories of abnormal cytology. Results: The prevalence of overall, high-risk, and low-risk HPV infection were 24.5%, 19.5% and 8.4%, respectively. A U-shaped age-specific prevalence curve was observed in overall HPV and high-risk HPV, but not in low-risk HPV, which declined with age increasing. The 6 most common high-risk HPV type in descending order, were types 52, 16, 58, 18, 68, and 33. Age and HPV genotype were both important determinants of abnormal cytology incidence, the older women (>45 years) and those infected with HPV type 16 and/or 18 having the highest risk for abnormal cytology. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines including HPV-52 and -58 may offer higher protection for women residing in Chaozhou and neighboring cities in Guangdong.

Integration Sites and Genotype Distributions of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  • Wang, Li;Dai, Shu-Zhen;Chu, Hui-Jun;Cui, Hong-Fei;Xu, Xiao-Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3837-3841
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To analyse HPV integration prevalence and genotype distributions in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in east part of China, furthermore to assess preferential sites for common HPV integrations and provide baseline information for cervical abnormality screening and prevention. Methods: Integration of HPV in 113 paraffin-embedded cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples was assessed using Gencap technology in Key Laboratory of Biotechnologies in BGI-Shenzhen. Results: 64 samples were HPV-integrated and as the cervical lesions increased, the integration rate became higher significantly (P=0.002). Fifteen different HPV genotypes were detected, 14 high-risk (16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, 56, 58, 66, 68) and 1 low-risk (11). The most common genotypes were HPV-16, 58, 33, 52, 66, and 56. Thirteen patients had co-integration involving mainly HPV-16 and 58. The frequency of HPV gene disruption was higher in L1 and E1 genes than in other regions of the viral genomes. Conclusion: Some 56.6% of CIN lesions in Qingdao had HPV integrations, and 67.2% of HPV-integrated patients were HPV-16 and 58, more prone to be integrated in younger patients below 45 years old. There exist preferential sites for HPV-16 and HPV-58 integration, and they are more likely to be disrupted in the L1 and E1 loci.

Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection with Different Cervical Cytological Features among Women Undergoing Health Examination at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand

  • Laowahutanont, Piyawat;Karalak, Anant;Wongsena, Metee;Loonprom, Komson;Pukcharoen, Phuttalak;Jamsri, Paphawin;Sangrajrang, Suleeporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5879-5882
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    • 2014
  • High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is important in cervical cancer screening for triage colposcopy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR HPV infection with different cervical cytological features among women undergoing health examination. A total of 2,897 women were retrospectively evaluated between May 2011 to December 2011. DNA was extracted from residual specimens collected during routine liquid-based cytology tests at the National Cancer Institute. Overall, HR HPV prevalence was 9.3% including 1.6% of HPV-16 and 0.4% of HPV-18. Of all 270 HPV positive samples, 211 (78.1% were HR-HPV non 16/18; 47 (17.4%) were HPV-16 and 12 (4.4%) were HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV infection was similar in all age groups, although a higher rate was observed in women age 31-40 years. Among women with normal cytology, HR HPV positive were found in 6.7%. In abnormal cytology, HR HPV were found 46.7% in atypical squamous cells (ASC), 54.8% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 80.0% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV-16 was detected in 8.6%, 6.4% and 12.0% of ASC, LSIL and HSIL, respectively. The results of this study provide baseline information on the HPV type distribution, which may be useful for clinicians to decide who should be monitored or treated more aggressively.