• Title, Summary, Keyword: HIF-$1{\alpha}$

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CaMKII Inhibitor KN-62 Blunts Tumor Response to Hypoxia by Inhibiting HIF-$1{\alpha}$ in Hepatoma Cells

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.331-336
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    • 2010
  • In rapidly growing tumors, hypoxia commonly develops due to the imbalance between $O_2$ consumption and supply. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$ is a transcription factor responsible for tumor growth and angiogenesis in the hypoxic microenvironment; thus, its inhibition is regarded as a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Given that CamKII or PARP inhibitors are emerging anticancer agents, we investigated if they have the potential to be developed as new HIF-$1{\alpha}$-targeting drugs. When treating various cancer cells with the inhibitors, we found that a CamKII inhibitor, KN-62, effectively suppressed HIF-$1{\alpha}$ specifically in hepatoma cells. To examine the effect of KN-62 on HIF-$1{\alpha}$-driven gene expression, we analyzed the EPO-enhancer reporter activity and mRNA levels of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ downstream genes, such as EPO, LOX and CA9. Both the reporter activity and the mRNA expression were repressed by KN-62. We also found that KN-62 suppressed HIF-$1{\alpha}$ by impairing synthesis of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ protein. Based on these results, we propose that KN-62 is a candidate as a HIF-$1{\alpha}$-targeting anticancer agent.

Overexpression of CD44 Standard Isoform Upregulates HIF-1α Signaling in Hypoxic Breast Cancer Cells

  • Ryu, Dayoung;Ryoo, In-geun;Kwak, Mi-Kyoung
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.487-493
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    • 2018
  • Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), a cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA), is involved in aggressive cancer phenotypes. Herein, we investigated the role of the CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) in hypoxia-inducible $factor-1{\alpha}$ ($HIF-1{\alpha}$) regulation using MCF7 overexpressing CD44s (pCD44s-MCF7). When pCD44s-MCF7 was incubated under hypoxia, levels of $HIF-1{\alpha}$, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the $HIF-1{\alpha}$ response element-derived luciferase activity were significantly increased compared to those in the control MCF7. Incubation of pCD44s-MCF7 cells with HA further increased $HIF-1{\alpha}$ accumulation, and the silencing of CD44s attenuated $HIF-1{\alpha}$ elevation, which verifies the role of CD44s in $HIF-1{\alpha}$ regulation. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was higher in hypoxic pCD44s-MCF7 cells, and $HIF-1{\alpha}$ accumulation was diminished by the pharmacological inhibitors of ERK. CD44s-mediated $HIF-1{\alpha}$ augmentation resulted in two functional outcomes. First, pCD44s-MCF7 cells showed facilitated cell motility under hypoxia via the upregulation of proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, such as SNAIL1 and ZEB1. Second, pCD44s-MCF7 cells exhibited higher levels of glycolytic proteins, such as glucose transporter-1, and produced higher levels of lactate under hypoxa. As a consequence of the enhanced glycolytic adaptation to hypoxia, pCD44s-MCF7 cells exhibited a higher rate of cell survival under hypoxia than that of the control MCF7, and glucose deprivation abolished these differential responses of the two cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that CD44s activates hypoxia-inducible $HIF-1{\alpha}$ signaling via ERK pathway, and the $CD44s-ERK-HIF-1{\alpha}$ pathway is involved in facilitated cancer cell viability and motility under hypoxic conditions.

The Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 $\alpha$ by Desferrioxamine Induces Radioresistance in Mouse Hepatoma Cell Line (쥐의 간암 세포에서 Desferrioxamine에 의해 유도된 Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 $\alpha$가 방사선 저항성을 초래함)

  • Kwon, Byung-Hyun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: It is well known that the radiosensitivity of tumor cells can be significantly reduced under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 $\alpha$ (HIF-1 $\alpha$) plays a pivotal role in the essential adaptive responses to hypoxia. Therefore this study investigated the relationship between HIF-1 $\alpha$ expression and radiosensitivity. M Mouse hepatoma cell line hepafcic7 and HIF-1 $\beta$-deficient mutant cell line hepa1C4 were used to analyze the role of HIF-1 a. on radiosensitivity. These cells were exposed for 6 h to desferrioxamine (DFX) before radiation. HIF-1$\alpha$. expression was examined by Western blot. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, propidium iodide staining, and apoptotic cell death detection ELISA kit. Radiation sensitivity was determined using MTT assay. The radiobioiogical parameters, surviving fractions at 2 Gy and 8 Gy, and mean inactivation dose (MID) from the linear-quadratic model were used to assess radiation sensitivity in the statistical analyses. Results: The expression of HIF-1 $\alpha$. was Increased, whereas apoptosis was decreased, by radiation In the presence of DFX In hepal cl c7, but not In hepal C4. The radlosensitivity of hepal C4 cells was not significantly affected by DFX treatment. The radiosensitivlty of hepal cl c7 cells was significantly decreased in the presence of DFX Conclusion: The expression of HIF-1 w by hypoxia-mimic agent DFX reduced apoptosls and radiosensitlvity in mouse hepatoma cell line hepafclc7. These results suggested that HIF-1 u could be Induced by irradiation in hypoxic ceils of tumor masses, and that this mlght Increase radioresistance in hypoxic cells.

Novel Dioxygenases, HIF-α Specific Prolyl-hydroxylase and Asparanginyl-hydroxylase: O2 Switch for Cell Survival

  • Park, Hyun-Sung
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2008
  • Studies on hypoxia-signaling pathways have revealed novel Fe(II) and $\alpha$-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that hydroxylate prolyl or asparaginyl residues of a transactivator, Hypoxia-Inducible $Factor-\alpha(HIF-\alpha)$ protein. The recognition of these unprecedented dioxygenases has led to open a new paradigm that the hydroxylation mediates an instant post-translational modification of a protein in response to the changes in cellular concentrations of oxygen, reducing agents, or $\alpha$-ketoglutarate. Activity of $HIF-\alpha$ is repressed by two hydroxylases. One is $HIF-\alpha$ specific prolyl-hydroxylases, referred as prolyl-hydroxylase domain(PHD). The other is $HIF-\alpha$ specific asparaginyl-hydroxylase, referred as factor-inhibiting HIF-1(FIH-1). The facts (i) that many dioxygenases commonly use molecular oxygen and reducing agents during detoxification of xenobiotics, (ii) that detoxification reaction produces radicals and reactive oxygen species, and (iii) that activities of both PHD and FIH-1 are regulated by the changes in the balance between oxygen species and reducing agents, imply the possibility that the activity of $HIF-\alpha$ can be increased during detoxification process. The importance of $HIF-\alpha$ in cancer and ischemic diseases has been emphasized since its target genes mediate various hypoxic responses including angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, glycolysis, pH balance, metastasis, invasion and cell survival. Therefore, activators of PHDs and FIH-1 can be potential anticancer drugs which could reduce the activity of HIF, whereas inhibitors, for preventing ischemic diseases. This review highlights these novel dioxygenases, PHDs and FIH-1 as specific target against not only cancers but also ischemic diseases.

Expression of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-$1{\alpha}$ in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Relationship to Prognosis and Tumor Biomarkers (비소세포 폐암에서 HIF-$1{\alpha}$의 발현: 예후 및 종양표지자와의 관련성)

  • Cho, Sung-Rae;Byun, Joung-Hun;Kim, Jong-In;Lee, Bong-Geun;Chun, Bong-Kwon
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.828-837
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    • 2006
  • Background: Tissue hypoxia is characteristic of many human malignant neoplasm, and hypoxia inducible factor-1(HIF-1) plays a pivotal role in essential adaptive response to hypoxia, and activates a signal pathway for the expression of the hypoxia-regulated genes, resulting in increasing $O_2$ delivery or facilitating metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. Increased level of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ has been reported in many human malignancies, but in non-small cell lung carcinoma the influence of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ on tumor biology, including neovascularization, is not still defined. In present study the relationship of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression on angiogenetic factors, relationship between the tumor proliferation and HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression, interaction of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression and p53, and relationship between HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression and clinico-pathological prognostic parameters were investigated. Material and Method: Archival tissue blocks recruited in this study were retrieved from fifty-nine patients with primary non-small cell lung carcinoma, who underwent pneumonectomy or lobectomy from 1997 to 1999. HIF-$1{\alpha}$, VEGF(vascular endothelial growth factor), and p53 protein expression and Ki-67 labeling index in tumor tissues were evaluated, using a standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex(ABC) immunohistochemistry. Relationship between the HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression and VEGF, p53 overexpression and correlation between the HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expresseion and Ki-67 index were analyzed. Clinico-pathologic prognostic parameters were also analyzed. Result: HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression in cancer cells was found in 24 of 59 cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma(40.7%). High HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression was significantly associated with several pathological parameters, such as pathological TMN stage(p=0.004), pT stage(p=0.020), pN stage (p=0.029), and lymphovascular invasion(p=0.019). High HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression was also significantly associated with VEGF immunoreactivity(p<0.001), and aberrant p53 expression(p=0.040). but was marginally associated with Ki-67 labeling index(p=0.092). The overall 5-year survival rate was 42.3%. The survival curve of patients with a high HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression was worse than that of patients with low-expression(p=0.002). High HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression was independent unfavorable factors with a marginal significance in multivariate analysis performed by Cox regression. Conclusion: It is suggested that high HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression may be associated with intratumoral neovascularization possibly through HIF-VEGF pathway, and high HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression could be associated with lymph node metastasis and post operative poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Expression and Significance of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Lysyl Oxidase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Ping, Wei;Jiang, Wen-Yang;Chen, Wen-Shu;Sun, Wei;Fu, Xiang-Ning
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3613-3618
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    • 2013
  • Object: To detect expression of hypoxia inducible factor-$1{\alpha}$ (HIF-$1{\alpha}$) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore their roles in prognosis. Methods: The mRNA levels of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX were investigated by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 40 cases of tumour and paired normal tissues. In addition, protein expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX was examined by immunohistochemistry in 82 cases of tumour and 45 paired normal tissues. The relationship between HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX and clinicopathologic characteristics, as well as the correlation between HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX, were also examined. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were used to analyze progression-free survival. Results: HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX mRNA levels in tumor tissues was significantly higher than those in paired normal tissues (p<0.01). Positive HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX protein expression in tumor tissues was noted in 46/82 (56.1%) and 49/82 (59.8%) of the cases, respectively, being significantly higher than those in paired normal tissues (p<0.05). There was significant correlation between the expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX and tumor size, lymph node metastasis and pathological stage (p<0.05). The expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX had a significant inverse impact on survival of patients with NSCLC. Conclusion: HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX may play a pivotal role in the development of NSCLC, and may act in synergy to promote the progression of NSCLC.

HIF-1α-Dependent Gene Expression Program During the Nucleic Acid-Triggered Antiviral Innate Immune Responses

  • Hong, Sun Woo;Yoo, Jae Wook;Kang, Hye Suk;Kim, Soyoun;Lee, Dong-ki
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.243-250
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    • 2009
  • Recent studies suggest a novel role of $HIF-1{\alpha}$ under nonhypoxic conditions, including antibacterial and antiviral innate immune responses. However, the identity of the pathogen-associated molecular pattern which triggers $HIF-1{\alpha}$ activation during the antiviral response remains to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that cellular administration of double-stranded nucleic acids, the molecular mimics of viral genomes, results in the induction of $HIF-1{\alpha}$ protein level as well as the increase in $HIF-1{\alpha}$ target gene expression. Whole-genome DNA microarray analysis revealed that double-stranded nucleic acid treatment triggers induction of a number of hypoxia-inducible genes, and induction of these genes are compromised upon siRNA-mediated $HIF-1{\alpha}$ knock-down. Interestingly, $HIF-1{\alpha}$ knock-down also resulted in down-regulation of a number of genes involved in antiviral innate immune responses. Our study demonstrates that $HIF-1{\alpha}$ activation upon nucleic acid-triggered antiviral innate immune responses plays an important role in regulation of genes involved in not only hypoxic response, but also immune response.

Effects of hypoxia inducible factors-$1{\alpha}$ on autophagy and invasion of trophoblasts

  • Choi, Jong-Ho;Lee, Hyun-Jung;Yang, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Gi Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2012
  • Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$ on the cell death, autophagy, and invasion of trophoblasts. Methods: To understand the effect of HIF-$1{\alpha}$, we inhibited HIF-$1{\alpha}$ using siRNA under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Invasion assay and zymography were performed to determine changes in the invasion ability of HIF-$1{\alpha}$. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were performed to determine some of the signal events involved in apoptosis and autophagy. Results: There was no difference in cell death through the inhibition of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression by siRNA; however, the expression of LC3 and autophagosome formation increased. On the other hand, autophagy was increased, and the invasive ability of trophoblast cells decreased according to the inhibition of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ expression by siRNA. These experimental results mean that HIF-$1{\alpha}$ genes regulate the invasive ability of trophoblasts by increasing autophagy. Conclusion: This study contributes important data for understanding the mechanism of early pregnancy implantation and the invasive ability of trophoblasts by defining the relationship between the roles of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and autophagy.

The novel peptide F29 facilitates the DNA-binding ability of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

  • Choi, Su-Mi;Park, Hyun-Sung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.11
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    • pp.737-742
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    • 2009
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-$1{\alpha}/{\beta}$ (HIF-$1{\alpha}/{\beta}$) is a heterodimeric transcriptional activator that mediates gene expression in response to hypoxia. HIF-$1{\alpha}$ has been noted as an effective therapeutic target for ischemic diseases such as myocardiac infarction, stroke and cancer. By using a yeast two-hybrid system and a random peptide library, we found a 16-mer peptide named F29 that directly interacts with the bHLH-PAS domain of HIF-$1{\alpha}$. We found that F29 facilitates the interaction of the HIF-$1{\alpha/\beta}$ heterodimer with its target DNA sequence, hypoxia-responsive element (HRE). The transient transfection of an F29-expressing plasmid increases the expression of both an HRE-driven luciferase gene and the endogenous HIF-1 target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, we conclude that F29 increases the DNA-binding ability of HIF-$1{\alpha}$, leading to increased expression of its target gene VEGF. Our results suggest that F29 can be a lead compound that directly targets HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and increases its activity.

Pyrithione-zinc Prevents UVB-induced Epidermal Hyperplasia by Inducing HIF-$1{\alpha}$

  • Cho, Young-Suk;Lee, Kyung-Hoon;Park, Jong-Wan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2010
  • Epidermal keratinocytes overgrow in response to ultraviolet-B (UVB), which may be associated with skin photoaging and cancer development. Recently, we found that HIF-$1{\alpha}$ controls the keratinocyte cell cycle and thereby contributes to epidermal homeostasis. A further study demonstrated that HIF-$1{\alpha}$ is down-regulated by UVB and that this process is involved in UVB-induce skin hyperplasia. Therefore, we hypothesized that the forced expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ in keratinocytes would prevent UVB-induced keratinocyte overgrowth. Among several agents known to induce HIF-$1{\alpha}$, pyrithione-zinc (Py-Zn) overcame the UVB suppression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ in cultured keratinocytes. Mechanistically, Py-Zn blocked the degradation of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ protein in keratinocytes, while it did not affect the synthesis of HIF-$1{\alpha}$. Moreover, the p21 cell cycle inhibitor was down-regulated after UVB exposure, but was robustly induced by Py-Zn. In mice repeatedly irradiated with UVB, the epidermis became hyperplastic and HIF-$1{\alpha}$ disappeared from nuclei of epidermal keratinocytes. However, a cream containing Py-Zn effectively prevented the skin thickening and up-regulated HIF-$1{\alpha}$ to the normal level. These results suggest that Py-Zn is a potential agent to prevent UVB-induced photoaging and skin cancer development. This work also provides insight into a molecular target for treatment of UVB-induced skin diseases.