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Relationships between the Change in Obesity Rate and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Middle School Students in Ulsan (중학생의 비만율 변화 및 대사증후군 발생 위험요소와의 상관관계)

  • Choi, Soon-Ho;Shin, Song-Woo;Yoo, Cheol-In
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5271-5283
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental materials for improving school health promotion programs by investigating the relationships between the change in obesity rate and risk factors of metabolic syndrome among middle school students in Ulsan. We analyzed the routine health check-up data in 58,298 2nd-year middle school students in Ulsan, which conducted by the Planned Population Federation of Korea from 2007 to 2011. The overall and girls obesity rates gradually decreased throughout the first four years but increased again in 2011. The boys obesity rates were highest in 2008 and lowest in 2010. Throughout the research years, the incidence rates of over-weight and obesity were statistically significantly higher in boys compared to girls(P<0.05). Prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome, assessed with the modified Cook criteria except high blood pressure, were 0.58%, 0%, 0.01%, 0.31% and 4.53%, respectively in total, low, normal, over-weight, and obese groups. It indicates that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing and directly related to the obesity rate among adolescents. Hypertriglyceridemia was the most common component (36.58%) of the metabolic syndrome among the middles school students followed by low HDL cholesterol (6.47%), abdominal obesity (3.72%), and high blood sugar (0.47%). Prevalence of the various components of the metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the obese group compared to other groups. In this study we observed the decrease in obesity rates between 2007 and 2010, and developing obesity prevention programs is essential in order to maintain the trend. Additional study should be necessary to find the cause of increase of obesity rate in 2011 and so to create more effective school health promotion programmes.

Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture (자연산 산삼 증류약침의 혈맥주입 전.후 혈장의 Proteom 분석)

  • Kang, Tae-Sik;Lee, Sun-Gu;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.5-25
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensionl electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as Transferrin, 9001 as(Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112g)deoxy) T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803), which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5. Immunoglobulin lambda chain(3105), Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112g)deoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin(9001), and human hemoglobin(9003) were increased by more than two-times after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 6. Proapolipoprotein(2013, 3010) and apolipoprotein(7104), key components of the HDL-cholesterol which plays an important role in preventing arteriosclerosis, were increased after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 7. Vitamin D binding protein(DBP, 2403), protecting the lung at the time of inflammatory response, was increased after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 8. Transthyretin(TTR, 3205), which is the main protein causing familial aimyloid polyneuropathy(FAP), was decreased after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 9. Ras-related protein Ral-A(4002) that controls phospholipid metabolism, cytoskeletal formation, and membrane traffic, was increased after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 10. Testis-specific protein Y(8006), which takes part in determination of the gender, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 11. Transferrin(8101), T-State Human Hemoblobin(9001), and Human Hemoblobin(9003) which balances the iron level in the body, were increased after the administration of herbal acupuncture. Conousion : Above results support the notion that intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture induce changes in serum proteins and this research can be a pioneer work in finding biomarkers.

Serum Adiponectin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Obese Children (비만 소아의 혈중 아디포넥틴과 인슐린저항성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hee-Sun;Lee, Jin;Kang, Min-Joo;Choi, Byung-Min;Lee, Kee-Hyoung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.481-487
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Adiponectin, adipose tissue-specific protein, has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. It has been found to have a negative correlation with obesity and to play a role in modulating glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Serum adiponectin concentrations are decreased in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the difference in adiponectin levels between obese and non-obese children, and evaluated the relationship of serum adiponectin with body mass index(BMI), serum fasting insulin, lipid profiles and homeostasis model assessment(HOMA) in children. Methods : We measured serum adiponectin levels by radioimmunoassay in 113 children(82 obese children and 31 non-obese controls) from 8 to 15 years of age, and also checked BMI, fasting serum glucose, insulin and lipid profiles. Fasting and postprandial serum adiponectin concentrations were compared by oral glucose tolerance tests in 27 obese children. The correlations of adiponectin with BMI, insulin, low density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol and HOMA were analyzed by Pearson's correlation. Results : The serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in the obese group(19.7 mg/mL) than in the non-obese group(27.5 mg/mL)(P<0.01). Serum adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with BMI(r=-0.39, P<0.01), serum insulin(r=-0.28, P<0.01), LDL-C(r=-0.20, P<0.01) and HOMA(r=-0.22, P<0.01). At oral glucose tolerance tests in obese children, postprandial 2 hours adiponectin level(19.8 mg/mL) was decreased compared to fasting level(25.8 mg/mL)(P<0.01). Conclusion : Serum adiponectin concentrations were inversely related to adiposity and insulin resistance in children. We suggest the serum adiponectin level could be used as an early marker of insulin resistance in obese children.

The effects GeongshinhaeGihwan 1(GGT1) has on the hGHTg (human growth hormone transgenic) obese male rats' blood-antiobestic index (형질전환 비만모델 수컷 hGHTg rats에서 경신해지환(輕身解脂丸)이 혈중 항비만지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Yang-Sam;Tsung, Pei-Chin;Choi, Seung-Bae;Kim, Gyeong -Cheol;Shin, Soon-Shik
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: To find out the effects GGTl, an antiobestic drug widely used in clinics, has on the blood-antiobestic index and the toxicity index using the data from the hGHTg obese male rats. We looked closely into both of the two indices because GGTl antiobestic effect can happen not only by pharmacological action, but also by its toxicity. Also, we verified the difference in effect between GGTl and reductil (sibutramine), which has been approved by the FDA of the United States. Methods: After performing the experiments for 8 weeks on the hGHTg obese male rats divided into three groups: the control group, the GGTl group, and the reductil (RD) group, we anesthetized the rats with Diethyl ether and took a 3ml blood sample from the heart. Then, after coagulating the blood in room temperature by using the plasma separator, we centrifuged it for 25 minutes in 3,000rpm using the high-speed refrigerated centrifuge. We kept the separated plasma in a deep freezer at $-80^{\circ}C$, and repeatedly measured the antiobestic index and the toxicity index twice using the hematology biochemistry analyzer. Also, in order to judge the indirect toxicity index, we separated liver from kidney and observed them. Results: When we looked at the results of the analysis of covariance on the measuring elements related to the antiobestic index (TC, HDL, LDL, TG, and GLU), there was no significant difference among the groups in all measuring elements. Also, the results of the analysis of covariance on the two roups (RD group and GGTl group) showed that the p-values had no significant difference under the level of significance 0.05. When we looked at the result of the analysis of covariance on the measuring elements related to the toxicity index (GOT, GPT, GGT, CREA, UA, ALB, and TP), we could see that the p-values in GPT, ALB, and TP have a significant difference among the groups. Also, the results of the analysis of covariance about the measuring elements related to the toxicity index on both groups, RD group and GGTl group, showed no significant difference in the p-values of all of the measuring elements in the two groups, RD and GGTl group. Conclusions: In conclusion, through this experiment, the safety of GGTl has been approved, and although the verification on its medical effect has not been clearly approved, when we consider the fact that it belongs to the same group as reductil, an antiobestic drug approved by the FDA of the United States, we could indirectly verify that GGTl has an antiobestic effect. We believe that when doing a sample design for a future experiment, it needs to be performed on a greater sample size based on the power analysis that needs to be performed primarily in experiments, and a more accurate verification is needed through more systematic experiment plans.

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Effect of Pinus densiflora Extract on Blood Glucose Level, OGTT and Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats (솔잎증류액의 투여가 Streptozotocin으로 유도한 당뇨쥐에서 혈당, 구강내당능검사, 혈액 성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Shin-Hee;Hwang, Seock-Yeon;Park, Oh-Sung;Kim, Moo-Kang;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.973-979
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the effect of Pinus densiflora on biochemical parameters in type I diabetic rats, we evaluated the changes of body weight, fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and biochemical parameters after the intraperitoneal injection of distilled solution of Pinus densiflora in streptozotocin (STZ)­induced rats. Thirty-seven male Sprague Dawley rats $(180\pm10g)$ were divided into four groups; diabetic mellitus (DM) group received STZ (50 mg/kg BW, i.v.); low level of pine extract (LP) group received Pinus densiflora (5 mg/kg BW, i.p.), high level of pine extract (HP) group received Pinus densiflora (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.) after the single injection of STZ (50 mg/kg BW, i.v.), respectively. Normal control (NC) group received saline. The change of fasting blood glucose level and OGTT were measured using glucocard II, and the change of biochemical parameter were measured by Automatic Chemistry Analyzer (Hitach-747, Japan). Mean body weight change of DM group was retarded greatly by STZ-exposure. While, body weights of LP and HP groups were progressively increased with some fluctuation, although the increase rates were slower than that of NC group. Fasting blood glucose levels of LP and HP groups were reduced by Pinus densiflora injection, although the fasting blood glucose levels were higher than that of NC group. The results of OGTT was significantly improved in both of LP and HP group compared to DM group. Increases of blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels by STZ-exposure were attenuated by the Pinus densiflora treatment (p<0.05). From the results, it was suggested that Pinus densiflora has a tendency to decrease STZ-induced toxicity in terms of monitoring fasting blood glucose, OGTT and some biochemical parameters of rat.

Effect of cooling water and inverse lighting on short chain fatty acid and blood lipid of broiler chickens in closed poultry house during hot weather (혹서기 무창계사에서 육계의 혈액지질 및 짧은 사슬지방산에 관한 역전점등과 냉각수 효과)

  • Park, Sang-Oh;Park, Byung-Sung;Hwangbo, Jong;Choi, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 2014
  • This experiment evaluated the interaction effect of extreme heat diet(EHD), inverse lighting, and cool water on the growth performance of broiler chickens under extreme heat stress. There were 4 experimental groups (T1: EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cold water $9^{\circ}C$; T2: EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cold water $9^{\circ}C$; T3: EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cold water $14^{\circ}C$; T4: EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cold water $14^{\circ}C$), each group composed of 25 broilers and the experiment was repeated 3 times. EHD 1 contained soybean oil, molasses, methionine and lysine. EHD 2 contained all nutrients of EHD 1 and vitamin C additionally. As a result, T1 and T2 displayed higher body weight increase and diet intake compared to T3 and T4 (p<0.05). The weights of their liver and gizzard were similar but the weights of the thymus and bursa F were higher for T1 and T2 compared to that of T3 and T4 (p<0.05). It was observed that T1 and T2 displayed higher concentrations of blood triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and blood sugar compared to that of T3 and T4 but LDL-C level was higher for T3 and T4 compared to that of T1 and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T2 displayed higher levels of immunity substances such as IgG, IgA and IgM compared to T3 and T4 but the blood level of corticosterone displayed to be lower for T1 and T2 compared to T3 and T4 (p<0.05). The T1 and T2 contained a higher amount of fecal lactobacillus compared to that of T3 and T4 but the T3 and T4 contained a higher amount of fecal E. coli, total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria compared to that of T1 and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T2 displayed higher concentrations of cecal acetic acid, propionic acid and total short chain fatty acids compared to T3 and T4 but T3 and T4 displayed higher concentrations of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid compared to T1 and T2 (p<0.05). These results have been observed that broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress with feeding EHD, inverse lighting and cold water would improve blood lipid, and elevate the production of immunity substance, beneficial microorganisms, and short chain fatty acids. This provision would also reduce the blood sugar consumption rate as energy sources and these effects will improve the growth performance of the broilers exposed to extreme heat.

The relationship of ready-to-eat cereal consumption with nutrition and health status in the Korean population based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012 (한국인의 시리얼 섭취실태와 영양 및 건강상태와의 관련성 연구 - 2012년도 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여 -)

  • Chung, Chin-Eun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.258-268
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) consumption with nutrition and health status. Examination of health status for this project included obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low-HDL-cholesterolemia, diabetes, anemia, and metabolic syndrome. Methods: Two groups, RTEC consumers and those who did not consume RTEC, were identified using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Nutritional intakes and risk factors of the two groups were compared using covariates-adjusted statistical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS survey procedures, and strata, cluster, and weight were considered. Subjects of analysis of nutritional intake were between the ages of 1 and 75, and those considered in the risk factor analysis were between the ages of 19 and 75. Results: Results showed that 3.8% of the Korean population was RTEC consumers. Compared to the subjects who did not intake RTEC, RTEC consumers exhibited significantly higher intakes of calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin C. It was also discovered that the percentage of people whose intakes were less than EAR decreased with RTEC consumption. RTEC consumption showed significant association with decreased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum triglyceride, and serum total cholesterol. Consequently, prevalence of hypertension among RTEC consumers was significantly lower than that among non-consumers, and the odds ratio for hypertension was 0.19 after adjusting the models for covariates. Conclusion: Results of this study clearly suggest an association of RTEC consumption with improved nutritional status and cardiometabolic risk profile in Korean adults. Conduct of additional studies will be necessary in order to determine the nature of these relationships.

Effect of Diet Containing Whole Wheat Bread with Capsosiphon fulvescens and Lindera obtusiloba Ethanol Extracts on Plasma Glucose and Lipid Levels in Rats (매생이와 생강나무잎 에탄올 추출물이 첨가된 통밀빵을 섭취한 랫트의 혈당과 지질수준에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Ah-Ram;Kim, Se-Wook;Chun, Su-Hyun;Nam, Mi-Hyun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Kim, Bok Hee;Kim, Tae Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of whole wheat bread with added Lindera obtusiloba (LO) and Capsosiphon fulvescens (CF) ethanol extracts on serum glucose and lipid levels in Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were divided into five groups depending on the diet administered: normal bread (NC), whole wheat bread (W), whole wheat bread with LO leaves extract (WL), whole wheat bread with CF extract (WC), and whole wheat bread with freeze-drying CF (WDC). After 4 weeks of consuming the experimental diet, the blood glucose level and hemoglobin A1c contents were found to be significantly lower in the W, WL, WC, and WDC groups than in the NC group. The high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased in the WL group when compared to those in the NC group and triglycerides levels decreased in all wheat groups compared to those in the NC group. These results suggest that wheat breads containing LO and CF extracts are effective for preventing hypercholesterolemia and obesity.

Anti-obesity effect of Korean Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) powder on high-fat diet-induced obese rats (고지방식이로 유도한 비만 흰쥐에서 함초 (Salicornia herbacea L.) 분말의 항비만 효과 탐색)

  • Kim, Mi Joung;Jun, Hyun Young;Kim, Jung Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.123-132
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine whether Hamcho freeze-dried powder and Hamcho freeze-dried nano powder have an anti-obese effect on high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 different groups, each of which was bred for 8 weeks with a different experimental diet: normal diet group (NC), high fat diet group (HFC), high fat diet + 2% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried powder group (2% HS), high fat diet + 5% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried powder group (5%HS), high fat diet + 1% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried nano powder group (1% HSN), high fat diet + 2% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried nano powder group (2% HSN). Results: The 5% HS group showed a weight loss effect in body weight, liver and adipose tissue by reducing the amount of dietary intake and food efficiency ratio. In addition, the 5% HS group showed a significant reduction of serum leptin concentration, while having a beneficial effect on the improvement of lipid metabolism such as increase the serum concentration of adiponectin. However, Hamcho freeze-dried nano powder did not show a weight loss effect. Conclusion: Overall data indicated that Hamcho seemed to have anti-obesity effects. In particular, consumption of 5% Hamcho freeze-dried powder might have beneficial effects on body weight, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profiles since it led to reduced body weight and growth of adipose tissues by suppressing dietary intakes. However conduct of further research studies is needed for analysis of active components and biochemical action mechanism of Hamcho.

Effect of Medicinal Herb Composites on Antioxidative and Cognition-Enhancing Activities in Rats (생약복합물이 흰쥐의 체내에서 항산화 및 인지개선활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Jin-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.382-391
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this experiment was designed to investigate the effects of medicinal herbs (MH) extracts on dementia induced by trimethyltin chloride (TMT) in rats. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups; normal group (group 1), control group (group 2), MH extracts group (250, 500 mg/kg) (group 3, group 4) and positive control group (tacrine group, group 5). In the control group to induce dementia, a 2.5 mg/kg of TMT intraperitoneal injection was used for 14 days (1 per day) in the rats. In the MH extracts group 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of MH extracts were medicated in an oral inoculation for 20 days (1 per day). After 30 minutes, a 2.5 mg/kg of TMT intraperitoneal injection, which causes dementia, was used for 14 days (1 per day). In the positive control group (Tacrine group) 10 mg/kg of Tacrine, the dementia treatment, was medicated in an oral inoculation. After 30 mintues, 1 mg/kg of TMT intraperitoneal injection, which causes dementia, was used for 14 days (1 per day). The present author observed the passive avoidance performance test, and memory ability test (Y maze test), the values of MDA, acetlycholinesterase (AchE) activity in the brain and antioxidant enzyme in serum. MH extracts significantly improved memory of AD model rats in the Y-maze test, and also significantly improved memory of AD model rats in the passive avoidance test. MH extracts significantly reduced AChE activity, and significantly increased the SOD level, but not catalase and MDA. From the results above, MH extracts is thought to be effective in the improvement of antioxidant enzymes and memory ability.