• Title, Summary, Keyword: HCV

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Expression and Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Core Proteins: Effects of Single Amino Acid Substitution on Protein Conformation and Subcellular Localization

  • Hwang, Soon-Bong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 1998
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core proteins from two different isolates (HCV-1 and HCV-RH) were expressed in Spotioptera Jrugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. The RH core consisted of two major species of proteins (21 kDa and 19 kDa). On the other hand, the HCV-1 core was approximately 16 kDa in a SDS-PAGE gel. Both core proteins were phosphorylated in vivo on serine residues. Furthermore, the RH core but not HCV-1 core formed dimers, indicating that the protein conformation of the core in these two isolates is dfferent from one another. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the RH core was present in the cytoplasm, whereas the HCV-1 core was localized predominantly to the nucleus in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Since the major difference between the two isolates is the codon 9 of the core protein, a single amino acid substitution appears to play a major role in the protein conformation and these properties may reflect the different biological functions of core proteins in HCV-infected cells.

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Analysis of In Vivo Interaction of HCV NS3 Protein and Specific RNA Aptamer with Yeast Three-Hybrid System

  • HWANG BYOUNGHOON;LEE SEONG-WOOK
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.660-664
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    • 2005
  • We have previously isolated specific RNA aptamers with high affinity against the helicase domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). The RNA aptamers competitively and efficiently inhibited the helicase activity, partially impeding HCV replicon replication in human hepatocarcinoma cells. In this study, the RNA aptamers were tested for binding to the HCV NS3 proteins in eukaryotic cells, using a yeast three-hybrid system. The aptamers were then recognized by the HCV NS3 proteins when expressed in the cells, while the antisense sequences of the aptamers were not. These results suggest that the in vitro selected RNA aptamers can also specifically bind to the target proteins in vivo. Consequently, they could be potentially utilized as anti-HCV lead compounds.

The Natural Killer Cell Response to HCV Infection

  • Ahlenstiel, Golo
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.168-176
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    • 2013
  • In the last few years major progress has been made in better understanding the role of natural killer (NK) cells in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This includes multiple pathways by which HCV impairs or limits NK cells activation. Based on current genetic and functional data, a picture is emerging where only a rapid and strong NK cell response early on during infection which results in strong T cell responses and possible subsequent clearance, whereas chronic HCV infection is associated with dysfunctional or biased NK cells phenotypes. The hallmark of this NK cell dysfunction is persistent activation promoting ongoing hepatitis and hepatocyte damage, while being unable to clear HCV due to impaired IFN-${\gamma}$ responses. Furthermore, some data suggests certain chronically activated subsets that are $NKp46^{high}$ may be particularly active against hepatic stellate cells, a key player in hepatic fibrogenesis. Finally, the role of NK cells during HCV therapy, HCV recurrence after liver transplant and hepatocellular carcinoma are discussed.

Nonstructural NS5A Protein Regulates LIM and SH3 Domain Protein 1 to Promote Hepatitis C Virus Propagation

  • Choi, Jae-Woong;Kim, Jong-Wook;Nguyen, Lap P.;Nguyen, Huu C.;Park, Eun-Mee;Choi, Dong Hwa;Han, Kang Min;Kang, Sang Min;Tark, Dongseob;Lim, Yun-Sook;Hwang, Soon B.
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.469-478
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    • 2020
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) propagation is highly dependent on cellular proteins. To identify the host factors involved in HCV propagation, we previously performed protein microarray assays and identified the LIM and SH3 domain protein 1 (LASP-1) as an HCV NS5A-interacting partner. LASP-1 plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and protein-protein interactions. Alteration of LASP-1 expression has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the functional involvement of LASP-1 in HCV propagation and HCV-induced pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we first verified the protein interaction of NS5A and LASP-1 by both in vitro pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. We further showed that NS5A and LASP-1 were colocalized in the cytoplasm of HCV infected cells. NS5A interacted with LASP-1 through the proline motif in domain I of NS5A and the tryptophan residue in the SH3 domain of LASP-1. Knockdown of LASP1 increased HCV replication in both HCV-infected cells and HCV subgenomic replicon cells. LASP-1 negatively regulated viral propagation and thereby overexpression of LASP-1 decreased HCV replication. Moreover, HCV propagation was decreased by wild-type LASP-1 but not by an NS5A binding-defective mutant of LASP-1. We further demonstrated that LASP-1 was involved in the replication stage of the HCV life cycle. Importantly, LASP-1 expression levels were increased in persistently infected cells with HCV. These data suggest that HCV modulates LASP-1 via NS5A in order to regulate virion levels and maintain a persistent infection.

Identification of the Most Accessible Sites to Ribozymes on the Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site

  • Ryu, Kyung-Ju;Lee, Seong-Wook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.538-544
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    • 2003
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of alternative antiviral therapies is warranted because current treatments for the HCV infection affect only a limited number of patients and lead to significant toxicities. The HCV genome is exclusively present in the RNA form; therefore, ribozyme strategies to target certain HCV sequences have been proposed as anti-HCV treatments. In this study, we determined which regions of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of HCV are accessible to ribozymes by employing an RNA mapping strategy that is based on a trans-splicing ribozyme library. We then discovered that the loop regions of the domain IIIb of HCV IRES appeared to be particularly accessible. Moreover, to verify if the target sites that were predicted to be accessible are truly the most accessible, we assessed the ribozyme activities by comparing not only the trans-splicing activities in vitro but also the trans-cleavage activities in cells of several ribozymes that targeted different sites. The ribozyme that could target the most accessible site identified by mapping studies was then the most active with high fidelity in cells as well as in vitro. These results demonstrate that the RNA mapping strategy represents an effective method to determine the accessible regions of target RNAs and have important implications for the development of various antiviral therapies which are based on RNA such as ribozyme, antisense, or siRNA.

Identification of Hepatitis C Virus Core Domain Inducing Suppression of Allostimulatory Capacity of Dendritic Cells

  • Kim, Ho-Sang;Lee, Jae-Kwon;Yang, In-Ho;Ahn, Jeong-Keun;Oh, Yoon-I;Kim, Chul-Joong;Kim, Young-Sang;Lee, Chong-Kil
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.364-369
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    • 2002
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is remarkably efficient at establishing chronic infection. One of the reasons for this appears to be the suppression of the accessory cell function of professional antigen presenting cells. In the present study, the immunosuppressive activity of HCV protein was examined on dendritic cells (DCs) generated from mouse bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro. We found that the DCs forced to express HCV protein have defective allostimulatory ability. DCs expressing HCV protein were phenotypically indistinguishable from normal DCs. However, they were unable to produce IL-12 effectively when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The functional domain of the HCV protein essential for immunosuppression was determined using a series of ${NH_2}-and$ C-terminal deletion mutants of HCV core protein. We found that amino acid residues residing between the 21 st and the 40th residues from the ${NH_2}-terminus$ of HCV core protein are required for immunosuppression. These findings suggest that HCV core protein suppresses the elicitation of protective Th1 responses by the inhibition of IL-12 production by DCs.

Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Is Efficiently Released into the Culture Medium in Insect Cells

  • Choi, Soo-Ho;Kim, So-Yeon;Park, Kyu-Jin;Kim, Yeon-Joo;Hwang, Soon-Bong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.735-740
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    • 2004
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causal agent of the chronic liver infection. To understand HCV morphogenesis, we studied the assembly of HCV structural proteins in insect cells. We constructed recombinant baculovirus expression vectors consisting of either HCV core alone, core-E1, or core-E1-E2. These structural proteins were expressed in insect cells and were examined to assemble into particles. Neither core-E1 nor core-E1-E2 was capable of assembling into virus-like particles (VLPs). It was surprising that the core protein alone was assembled into core-like particles. These particles were released into the culture medium as early as 2 days after infection. In our system, HCV structural proteins including envelope proteins did not assemble into VLPs. Instead, the core protein itself has the intrinsic capacity to assemble into amorphous core-like particles. Furthermore, released core particles were associated with HCV RNA, indicating that core proteins were assembled into nucleocapsids. These results suggest that HCV may utilize a unique core release mechanism to evade the hosts defense mechanism, thus contributing to the persistence of HCV infection.

A Case of Familial Clustering of Hepatitis C Virus (C형 간염의 가족 내 집단 감염 1례)

  • Jeung, Hoon;Jang, Hyeun Sub;Lee, Yun Jin;Lee, Kyun Woo;Kim, Hye Young;Park, Jae Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.91-95
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    • 2005
  • The familial environment may also play an important role in the epidemiology of HCV infection through vertical and horizontal transmission by infected household members. However, it is still controversial whether familial clustering of HCV occurs. We experienced a case of familial clustering of hepatitis C virus. A 10-year old girl presented with nausea, vomiting and anorexia for a month was diagnosed as hepatitis C. Her mother, grandmother, a maternal aunt and her daughter had contracted with HCV. Her laboratory findings showed AST/ALT 63/122 IU/L, positive anti-HCV Ab and HCV RNA ($3.54{\times}10^5copies/mL$). Pathologic findings of the liver biopsy revealed chronic hepatitis with minimal lobular activity, mild porto-periportal activity and mild portal fibrosis. After treatment with interferon-${\alpha}$ 2b for 6 months, the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were normalized.

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Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Hepatitis C Virus in Clinical Blood Samples Using Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Spiral Reaction

  • Sun, Wenying;Du, Ying;Li, Xingku;Du, Bo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.459-468
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    • 2020
  • This study established a new polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) that combines with reverse transcription reactions for HCV detection targeting 5'UTR gene. To avoid cross-contamination of aerosols, an isothermal amplification tube (IAT), as a separate containment control, was used to judge the result. After optimizing the RT-PSR reaction system, its effectiveness and specificity were tested against 15 different virus strains which included 8 that were HCV positive and 7 as non-HCV controls. The results showed that the RT-PSR assay effectively detected all 8 HCV strains, and no false positives were found among the 7 non-HCV strains. The detection limit of our RT-PSR assay is comparable to the real-time RT-PCR, but is more sensitive than the RT-LAMP. The established RT-PSR assay was further evaluated for detection of HCV in clinical blood samples, and the resulting 80.25% detection rate demonstrated better or similar effectiveness compared to the RT-LAMP (79.63%) and real-time RT-PCR (80.25%). Overall, the results showed that the RT-PSR assay offers high specificity and sensitivity for HCV detection with great potential for screening HCV in clinical blood samples.

A Case-Control Study on Association Between Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Infection of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus (B형간염바이러스 및 C형간염바이러스의 표식자 양성율과 원발성 간세포 암의 연관성에 대한 환자-대조군 연구)

  • Ahn, Hyeong-Sik;Kim, Min-Ho;Kim, Young-Sick;Kim, Joung-Soon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 1997
  • To investigate the association between hepatocellular carcinema(HCC) and infection of hepatitis B virus(HBV) and hepatitis C virus(HCV) in an HBV endemic area, a case-control study of 254 patients with HCC and of 1,270 age and sex matched health control subjects was done. Among the 254 HCC patients 166(65.4%) were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), 49(19.3%) were positive for HCV antibody (anti-HCV Ab). The crude odd ratio of patients with HBsAg was 36.1(95% CI :22.4-58.2) and with anti-HCV Ab was 9.0(95% CI :5.5-14.6). In an analysis, which HBsAg(-), HBcAb(-), anti-HCV Ab(-) group was chosen as referent group, odd ratio of HBsAg(+) group was 14.4(95% CI: 7.2-28.9) and of anti- HCV Ab(+) was 10.7(95% CI: 2.9-40.0). odd ratio of anti-HCV Ab(+), HBsAg(+) group and anti-HCV Ab(+), HBsAg(-), HbcAb(+) group for HCC were elevated to 27.3(95% CI : 9.0-82.9), 15.9(95% CI:7.1-35.8) respectly, The odd ratio of anti-HCV Ab(-), HBsAg(-), HBcAb(+) group was 2.4(95% CI : 1.1-5.0). These result suggested that HBV and HCV were associated with HCC. In HBV endemic area patients with HBcAb alone should be considered risk group for HCC.

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