• Title, Summary, Keyword: HCV

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Experimental Study on Oil Separation from Fry-dried Low-rank Coal

  • Ohm, Tea-In;Chae, Jong-Seong;Lim, Jae-Ho;Moon, Seung-Hyun
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.30-37
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    • 2013
  • Low-rank coal with high water content (32.3 wt%) was dried by fry drying, and the fuel characteristics of the dried coal from which the oil was separated by using a high-speed centrifugal separator were analyzed. After fry drying for 6 min and 10 min, the water content decreased to 5.0 wt% and 4.2 wt% respectively. The higher calorific value (HCV) of the coal increased remarkably after fry drying, from 11,442.0 kJ/kg-wet. The oil content of the fry-dried coal was 15.0 wt% and it decreased with an increase in the reheating temperature: 9.7 wt% at $80^{\circ}C$ to 9.3 wt% at $100^{\circ}C$, and then to 8.5 wt% at $120^{\circ}C$. The recovered oil could then be reused. According to of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), there was no difference in the weight loss patterns of the coal samples with different coal diameters at a reheating temperature of $120^{\circ}C$. This was because the amount of oil separated by the centrifugal separator was affected by the reheating temperature rather than the coal diameter. And derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves of raw coal before the fry-drying process, a peak is formed at $400^{\circ}C$ in which the volatile matter is gasified. In case of the fry-dried coal, the first peak is generated at $350^{\circ}C$, and the second peak is generated at $400^{\circ}C$. The first peak is caused by the oil that is replaced with the water contained in the coal during the fry-drying process. Further, the peaks of the coal samples in which the oil is separated at a reheating temperature of $80^{\circ}C$, $100^{\circ}C$, $120^{\circ}C$, respectively are smaller than that of the coal in which the oil is not separated, and this is caused by that the oil is separated by the centrifugal separator.

Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with HCV Infection in Egyptian Patients

  • Zekri, Abdel-Rahman;Youssef, Amira Salah El-Din;Bakr, Yasser Mabrouk;Gabr, Reham Mohamed;El-Rouby, Mahmoud Nour El-Din;Hammad, Ibtisam;Ahmed, Entsar Abd El-Monaem;Marzouk, Hanan Abd El-Haleem;Nabil, Mohammed Mahmoud;Hamed, Hanan Abd El-Hafez;Aly, Yasser Hamada Ahmed;Zachariah, Khaled S.;Esmat, Gamal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1281-1287
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    • 2015
  • Background: Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma using serological markers with better sensitivity and specificity than alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is needed. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum sICAM-1, ${\beta}$-catenin, IL-8, proteasome and sTNFR-II in early detection of HCC. Materials and Methods: Serum levels of IL-8, sICAM-1, sTNFR-II, proteasome and ${\beta}$-catenin were measured by ELISA assay in 479 serum samples from 192 patients with HCC, 96 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), 96 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and 95 healthy controls. Results: Serum levels of proteasome, sICAM-1, ${\beta}$-catenin and ${\alpha}FP$ were significantly elevated in HCC group compared to other groups (P-value<0.001), where serum level of IL-8 was significantly elevated in the LC and HCC groups compared to CHC and control groups (P-value <0.001), while no significant difference was noticed in patients with HCC and LC (P-value=0.09). Serum level of sTNFR-II was significantly elevated in patients with LC compared to HCC, CHC and control groups (P-value <0.001); also it was significantly higher in HCC compared to CHC and control groups (P-value <0.001). ROC curve analysis of the studied markers between HCC and other groups revealed that the serum level of proteasome had sensitivity of 75.9% and specificity of 73.4% at a cut-off value of $0.32{\mu}g/ml$ with AUC 0.803 sICAM-1 at cut off value of 778ng/ml, the sensitivity was 75.8% and the specificity was 71.8% with AUC 0.776. ${\beta}$-catenin had sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 68.6% respectively at a cut off value of 8.75ng/ml with an AUC of 0.729. sTNFR-II showed sensitivity of 86.3% and specificity of 51.8% at a cut off value of 6239.5pg/ml with an AUC of 0.722. IL-8 had sensitivity of 70.4% and specificity of 52.3% at a cut off value of 51.5pg/ml with AUC 0.631. Conclusions: Our data supported the role of proteasome, sICAM-1, sTNFR-II and ${\beta}$-catenin in early detection of HCC. Also, using this panel of serological markers in combination with ${\alpha}FP$ may offer improved diagnostic performance over ${\alpha}FP$ alone in the early detection of HCC.