• Title, Summary, Keyword: HCV

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Distribution of HCV Genotypes in Chronic Korean HCV Patients

  • Lee, Kyung-Ok;Jeong, Su-Jin;Byun, Ji-Young;Shim, Ae-Sug;Seong, Hye-Soon;Kim, Kyung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2007
  • HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus and more than 1 million new cases are reported annually worldwide. The six major HCV genotypes and numerous subtypes vary in their geographic distribution. It is thought that genetic heterogeneity of HCV may account for some of the differences in disease outcome and response to treatment observed in HCV infected persons. In this study, we determined HCV genotypes among chronic Korean HCV patients and evaluated direct sequence PCR protocols developed. For the study, 232 chronic HCV patient sera were used. HCV RNA was extracted and two pairs of consensus PCR primers were selected in 5'UTR region for amplification of HCV RNA. Amplification products obtained from the HCV positive cases were subjected to automatic sequencing. Sequences were compared with those in GenBank by using the BLAST program. From this study, five HCV genotypes, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c and 3a were found. HCV genotypes 4, 5 and 6 were not determined. HCV genotype 1b (53.9%, 125/232) and 2a (35.8%, 83/232) were most frequently found. This group was followed by 2b (3.9%, 9/232), 3a (3.4%, 8/232) and 2c (3.0%, 7/232). The data presented here suggest a complex distribution of HCV types and they were well correlated with other reports on Koreans and will be helpful for type-specific follow-up of Korean HCV patients. This study showed that 5'UTR direct sequence analysis is a sensitive and rapid method to identify HCV genotypes.

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Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replication by Hammerhead Ribozyme Which Activity Can Be Allosterically Regulated by HCV NS5B RNA Replicase (C형 간염바이러스(HCV)의 NS5B RNA Replicase에 의해 활성이 유도되는 Hammerhead 리보자임에 의한 HCV 복제 억제 연구)

  • Lee, Chang-Ho;Lee, Seong-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2011
  • As a specific and effective therapeutic genetic material against hepatitis C virus (HCV) multiplication, HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-targeting hammerhead ribozyme which activity is allosterically regulated by HCV regulatory protein, NS5B RNA replicase, was constructed. The allosteric ribozyme was composed of sequence of RNA aptamer to HCV NS5B, communication module sequence which can transfer structural transition for inducing ribozyme activity upon binding NS5B to the aptamer, and sequence of ribozyme targeting +382 nucleotide of HCV IRES. With real-time PCR analysis, the ribozyme was found to efficiently inhibit HCV replicon replication in cells. Of note, the allosteric ribozyme was shown to inhibit HCV replicon replication more efficiently than either HCV genome-targeting ribozyme or NS5B aptamer only. This allosteric ribozyme can be used as a lead genetic agent for the specific and effective suppression of HCV replication.

The Interaction between HCV-Infected huh7.5 Cells and HCV-Specific T Cells (C형 간염 바이러스 감염 간암 세포주와 T 림프구의 상호작용에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Hyojeung;Cho, Hyosun
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.169-172
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    • 2014
  • Recently, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication system has been established using human hepatoma cells (huh cell) and a variety of HCV clones. In this study, we established an infectious HCV replication system using huh7.5 cells and J6/JFH1 clone (genotype 2a). In addition, we investigated the antigen presentation capability of HCV-infected huh7.5 cells to HCV-specific T cells. Interestingly, HCV-infected huh7.5 cells were not capable of activating HCV-specific T cells. However, huh7.5 cells stimulated by exogenous HCV peptide were able to activate HCV-specific T cells, which was shown to produce TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$. We further examined if HCV infection has an inhibitory effect on the expression of MHC class I molecule of huh7.5 cells. We found that HCV infection did not change the expression level of MHC class I molecule on huh7.5 cells.

Development of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genome-Targeting Hammerhead Ribozyme Which Activity Can Be Allosterically Regulated by HCV NS5B RNA Replicase (C형 간염바이러스(HCV)의 NS5B RNA Replicase에 의해 그 활성이 조절되는 HCV지놈 표적 Hammerhead 리보자임 개발)

  • Lee, Chang-Ho;Lee, Seong-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2007
  • For the development of basic genetic materials for specific and effective therapeutic approach to suppress multiplication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-targeting hammerhead ribozyme which activity is allosterically regulated by HCV regulatory protein, NS5B RNA replicase, was developed. The ribozyme targeted most effectively to +382 nucleotide (nt) site of HCV IRES RNA. The allosteric ribozyme was designed to be composed of sequence of RNA aptamer to HCV NS5B, communication module sequence which can transfer structural transition for inducing ribozyme activity upon binding NS5B to the aptamer, and sequence of ribozyme targeting +382 nt of HCV IRES. Noticeably, we employed in vitro selection technology to identify the most appropriate communication module sequence which can induce ribozyme activity depending on the US5B protein. We demonstrated that the ribozyme was nonfunctional either in the absence of any proteins or in the presence of control bovine serum albumin. In sharp contrast, the allosteric ribozyme can induce activity of cleavage reaction with HCV IRES RNA in the presence of the HCV NS5B protein. This allosteric ribozyme can be used as lead compound for specific and effective anti-HCV agent, tool for highthroughput screening to isolate lead chemicals for HCV therapeutics, and ligand for biosensor system for HCV diagnosis.

Intrafamilial Transmission of HCV: Comparison with HBV (HCV의 가족내 감염양상: HBV의 가족내 감염양상과 비교)

  • Lee, Heon-Ju
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.407-415
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    • 1992
  • Among 85 patients with anti-HCV positive chronic liver disease, only 21.2% have past history of blood transfusion and over half the cases, they do not have any suspicious risk factors for HCV infection, 3 of 85 families show anti-HCV positive family members. On the other hand, 40 of 60 patients with HBsAg positive chronic liver disease show HBsAg positive family members. In Korea, HBV is transmitted mainly through vertical and intrafamilial infection but HCV disease might be rather horizontal and sporadic than vertical. To define the evident source of infection in sporadic hepatitis C, first of all, simple test with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of HCV infection would be needed.

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Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Children: Updated Review

  • El-Guindi, Mohamed A.
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.83-95
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    • 2016
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children. Acute and chronic HCV infection is diagnosed through the recognition of HCV RNA. The main objective for treatment of chronic HCV is to convert detected HCV viremia to below the detection limit. Children with chronic HCV infection are usually asymptomatic and rarely develop severe liver damage. Therefore, the benefits from current therapies, pegylated-Interferon plus ribavirin, must be weighed against their adverse effects. This combined treatment offers a 50-90% chance of clearing HCV infection according to several studies and on different HCV genotype. Recent direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs which are well established for adults have not yet been approved for children and young adults below 18 years. The most important field for the prevention of HCV infection in children would be the prevention of perinatal and parenteral transmission. There are areas of focus for new lines of research in pediatric HCV-related disease that can be addressed in the near future.

Meaning of Anti Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Detection in Patients Treated with Intravenous Immunoglobulin (인민역 글로불린 제재를 투여받은 환아에서 C형 간염바이러스 항체(anti-HCV) 검출의 의의)

  • Lee, Myong-Gyun;Lee, Young-Hwan;Shin, Son-Moon;Hah, Jeong-Ok
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.306-312
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    • 1993
  • To evaluate the meaning of anti-HCV detection in patients treated with IVIG, serum levels of aspartate aminotranstferase(AST), alanine aminotransterase(ALT), HCV Ab titer were measured after treatment with IVIG in 36 patients diagnised of Kawasaki disease or neonatal sepsis. Also polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of HCV was done in 8 patients with persistent HCV Ab positivity at 3 months after IVIG treatment. The results were as follows 1) HCV Ab was positive in all 36 patients at 1 week after IVIG treatment, but in only 8 cases it was positive at 3 months after IVIG treatment. 2) AST, ALT were elevated in 9 cases at 1 week after IVIG treatment, but they were normalized in all cases at 3 months after IVIG treatment. 3) PCR for the detection of HCV was done in 8 patients with persistent HCV Ab positivity at 3 months after IVIG treatment, but HCV was not isolated in any cases. These results suggested that detection of anti-HCV was merely transitory phenominon of HCV Ab transmission, did not show any evidence of HCV infection due to HCV transmission.

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The Activation of HCV-specific CD8 T Cells by HCV Peptide Pulsed Huh7.5 Cells (Huh7.5 간암 세포주의 HCV 항원제시에 의한 HCV 특이 T 림프구의 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2011
  • T cells play a key role in viral infection. However, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV-specific T cells are dysfunctional and impaired in the liver, which is the primary site for HCV replication. There are multiple potential mechanisms for HCV-specific T cell dysfunction including induction of immune inhibitory pathways (program death-1; PD-1, cytotoxic t lymphocyte associated antigen-4; CTLA-4) and immune tolerance induced specific for the liver. However, the interaction between hepatocytes and HCV-specific CD8 T cells has not clearly established. In this study, we confirmed huh (human hepatoma) 7.5 cells expressing HLA (human leukocyte antigen) A2 presented antigen to activate HCV-specific CD8 T cells in HLA A2-restricted manner and expression of PD-L (program death ligand) 1 on huh7.5 cells reduced HCV-specific CD8 T cell activation, suggesting an immune modulatory activity. Loss of HCV-specific tetramer responses following antigenic stimulation correlated with increased caspase-3 activity. In addition, PD-L1 on huh7.5 cells rescued HCV-specific CD8 T cells from apoptosis. Our results suggest that the interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 can recover the function of HCV-specific CD8 T cells in the liver, which could be applied in therapy of HCV chronic infection.

Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Northeastern Thai Blood Samples

  • Barusrux, Sahapat;Sengthong, Chatchawan;Urwijitaroon, Yupa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8837-8842
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    • 2014
  • Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of liver cancer in Thailand. The highest prevalence of anti-HCV positive among Thai blood donors is found in the northeastern region. The present analysis of the genotype distribution among anti-HCV positive northeastern-Thai blood donors was conducted to provide a base for the epidemiological pattern of HCV infection in this region. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 HCV seropositive healthy blood donors were randomly selected and tested for the presence of HCV-RNA by RT-PCR. HCV-RNA positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing at core region genomes and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Results: HCV viremia was found in 94.6% (106/112) of HCV seropositive blood donors. There were 3 major genotypes distributed among this population. HCV genotype 3a was the most prevalent (71.7%) followed by genotypes 1a (7.5%), 1b (7.5%), 6i (3.8%), 6f (2.8%) and 6n (1.9%). Conclusions: HCV genotype 3a in asymptomatic infections in northeastern Thailand is significantly higher than other previous reports. Subgenotype 6 prevalence is less than in neighboring countries and distribution patterns differ. The findings are relevant as predictors for using interferon therapy in this population.

A Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Reliable HCV RNA Detection Method for Plasma-Derived Products (핵산증폭시험을 이용한 혈장분획물질에서 HCV RNA 검출)

  • Hong, Seung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2008
  • HCV is transmitted via various plasma derived products. Current methods to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV) are based on its antibody detection in the donated blood and plasma. Viral contamination can potentially escape such detection during the window period of infection, when no antibody is present or the level of antibody is too low to detect. It is trying to application of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT) for the direct detection of HCV. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable NAT for the HCV RNA detection from plasma-derived products. The most useful primers was selected for NAT among 5 sets of primers. We have also found that QIAamp viral RNA isolation kit was the most efficient for HCV RNA isolation. The highest sensitivity and specificity was appeared in $48^{\circ}C$ annealing temperature and 30 pmol of primers. With a spiking of HCV to albumin, immunoglobulins and coagulation factors, NAT can detect up to 100 IU/ml. Meanwhile, COBAS amplicor HCV 2.0 afforded a lower sensitivity in high concentrated intramuscular immunoglobulins to below 500 IU/ml. Our results suggested that NAT appears to be a highly sensitive and specific method for HCV RNA detection in plasma-derived products.