• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gwangneung Forest

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Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Concentration by Type of Urban Green Space - focused on Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea - (도시녹지 유형에 따른 휘발성유기화합물 농도 특성 - 서울시 동대문구를 중심으로 -)

  • Jo, Yeseul;Park, Sujin;Roh, Gwan Pyeong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.330-339
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The occurrence characteristics of BTEXS and phytoncides were investigated by type of urban forest. Methods: Four types of urban green space (Hongneung Forest, Mt. Chunjang, residential park, and traffic island) and Gwangneung Forest were selected. Monitoring of phytoncides and BTEXS was conducted considering the activity times of urban residents (five times per day) using a Tenax TA tube and suction pump in June 2017 (one day). Results: Phytoncide concentrations were ranked as Gwangneung Forest>Hongneung Forest>Mt. Cheonjang>traffic island>residential park. Relatively high concentrations of phytoncides were also identified in the urban forest. There was no significant difference between Gwangneung Forest and the urban forest. BTEXS concentrations were ranked as traffic island>residential park>Hongneung Forest>Gwangneung Forest>Mt. Cheonjang. Traffic island and residential park showed high levels of BTEXS depending on the inflow of vehicles. The difference in concentration by time was significant for the traffic island in particular. Pollutant levels in Hongneung Forest were as low as in Gwangneung Forest. Conclusion: The concentrations of phytoncides and BTEXS were different by types of urban green space, and the potential for health and hygiene of urban forests were able to be investigated. This study is expected to provide as basic data for the creation of urban forest spaces in the future.

Bird Distribution in Relation to Forest Types in Gwangneung Forest (광릉숲의 임상별 조류의 분포 현황)

  • Kwon, Young-Soo;Park, Sung-Keun;Hwang, Geun-Yeoun;Kim, Mi-Ran
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.137-141
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted from February 2005 to October 2007 to investigate bird distribution at three types of forest (mixed, broadleaf and coniferous) in Gwangneung forest. As a result, more birds used mixed forests than broodleaf and coniferous forest. During forest was opened to public, more birds also frequently used mixed forests. When forest was closed to public, there was no preference among three forest types. We also compared the number of species and individuals between open and restricted area. More species and individuals used restricted area.

Differences in Breeding Bird Communities Between Deciduous Forests of Gwangneung and Mt. Namsan Areas

  • Rhim, Shin-Jae;Kim, Min-Jin;Lee, Ju-Young;Kang, Jeong-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.96 no.5
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    • pp.567-571
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to clarify the differences in breeding bird communities between deciduous forests of Gwangneung and Mt. Namsan areas from April to August 2006. Two 10ha area were selected for territory mapping of breeding bird community in both study area. The DBH distribution of trees and average foliage profiles were significantly different between study areas. Also, breeding bird communities were different. Number of breeding species and pairs, breeding density, and bird species diversity were higher in Gwangneung area than in Mt. Namsan area. When examining relationship between forest habitat structure and bird community, Number of bird species and breeding pairs belonged to hole and canopy guild were increase as the increase of coverstory coverage and number of large trees. Therefore, it is necessary to make vertical structure more various to plant bushes, and to make DBH distribution more diverse for enhancing bird species diversity in the degraded ecosystem.

Biomass Estimation of Gwangneung Catchment Area with Landsat ETM+ Image

  • Chun, Jung Hwa;Lim, Jong-Hwan;Lee, Don Koo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.96 no.5
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    • pp.591-601
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    • 2007
  • Spatial information on forest biomass is an important factor to evaluate the capability of forest as a carbon sequestrator and is a core independent variable required to drive models which describe ecological processes such as carbon budget, hydrological budget, and energy flow. The objective of this study is to understand the relationship between satellite image and field data, and to quantitatively estimate and map the spatial distribution of forest biomass. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) derived vegetation indices and field survey data were applied to estimate the biomass distribution of mountainous forest located in Gwangneung Experimental Forest (230 ha). Field survey data collected from the ground plots were used as the dependent variable, forest biomass, while satellite image reflectance data (Band 1~5 and Band 7), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index) were used as the independent variables. The mean and total biomass of Gwangneung catchment area were estimated to be about 229.5 ton/ha and $52.8{\times}10^3$ tons respectively. Regression analysis revealed significant relationships between the measured biomass and Landsat derived variables in both of deciduous forest ($R^2=0.76$, P < 0.05) and coniferous forest ($R^2=0.75$, P < 0.05). However, there still exist many uncertainties in the estimation of forest ecosystem parameters based on vegetation remote sensing. Developing remote sensing techniques with adequate filed survey data over a long period are expected to increase the estimation accuracy of spatial information of the forest ecosystem.

Lessons from FIFE on Scaling of Surface Fluxes at Gwangneung Forest Site (광릉 산림지의 지표 플럭스 스케일링에 관한 FIFE로부터의 교훈)

  • Hong Jinkyu;Lee Dongho;Kim Joon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.4-14
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    • 2005
  • CarboKorea and HydroKorea are the domestic projects aiming to improve our understanding of carbon and water cycles in a typical Korean forest located in a complex terrain with a watershed connected to large rivers. The ultimate goal is to provide a nowcasting of these cycles for the whole Peninsula. The basic strategy to achieve such goal is through the inter- and multi-disciplinary studies that synthesize the in-situ field observation, modeling and remote sensing technology. The challenge is the fact that natural ecosystems are nonlinear and heterogeneous with a wide range of spatio-temporal scales causing the variations of mass and energy exchanges from a leaf to landscape scales. Our paradigm now shifts from temporal variation at a point to spatial patterns and from spatial homogeneity to complexity of water and carbon at multiple scales. Yet, a large portion of our knowledge about land-atmosphere interactions has been established based on tower observations, indicating that the development of scaling logics holds the key to the success of CarboKorea and HydroKorea. Here, we review the pioneering work of FIFE (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) on scaling issues in a temperate grassland and discuss the lessons from it for the application to Gwangneung forest site.

Synecological Study on the Natural Reserve Forest for Academic Research in Gwangneung, Korea (光陵의 學術硏究保存林에 關한 群集生態學的 硏究)

  • Yim, Yang-Jai;Kum Soon Kim
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 1985
  • The forest vegetation of natural reserve area (175ha) at north-eastern slope of Solibong (537m), Gwangneung, was studied by plant sociological method and two dimensional ordination technique. In the area dominated by Carpinus laxiflora, from the lower site to peak of Solibong, a zonal distribution of C. laxiflora-Quercus mongolic forest, C. laxiflora-C. cordata forest, C. laxiflora-Q. serrata forest, C. laxiflora forest and C. laxiflora-Rhododendron schlippenbachii forest were recognized by the plant sociological survey. It is seem that the optimal range of Carpinus laxiflora forest occur in mesic-warm site by two dimensiional ordination with thermal condition and soil moisture condition. The optimal range (over 100 in importance value) was the range of 76~89。C.month in warmth index and 18~45% in soil water content.

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Estimation of Specific Leaf Area Index Using Direct Method by Leaf Litter in Gwangneung, Mt. Taewha and Mt. Gariwang (광릉숲, 태화산, 가리왕산 활엽수림에서 낙엽에 의한 수종별 엽면적지수 추정)

  • Kwon, Boram;Jeon, Jihyeon;Kim, Hyun Seok;Yi, Myong Jong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2016
  • Annual litterfall production and leaf area index (LAI, $m^2/m^2$) were estimated using litter traps in Gwangneung, Mt. Taewha and Mt. Gariwang. Annual total litter fall production including branch, bark, others was the highest in Gwangneung($7497.3{\pm}326.5kg/ha/yr$), which had the highest basal area at late successional stage, and followed by Mt. Taewha($5929.1{\pm}225.8kg/ha/yr$) and Mt. Gariwang($3,210.1{\pm}220.1kg/ha/yr$). Mt. Gariwang had the lowest litterfall production due to high elevation and short growing season even with the higher stand density and basal area than Mt. Taewha. Similarly, LAI, which was calculated by multiplying the mass of leaf litter with specific leaf area, was the highest in Gwangneung($5.99{\pm}0.69$) and followed by Mt. Taewha($5.20{\pm}0.24$) and Mt. Gariwang($4.06{\pm}0.42$) and the upper canopy species had the highest leaf area index in every sites (Gwangneung : 4.72, Mt. Taewha : 3.08, Mt. Gariwang : 2.19). However, species specific LAI estimation based on the relationship between basal area and leaf area was limited due to upper canopy species non-proportionality of basal area with LAI. In addition, the comparison between direct and indirect LAI measurement showed the importance of canopy clumping, especially at high density. Our study emphasized the necessity of direct LAI measurement using litter fall traps especially at temperate deciduous forest with diverse species.

Change of Butterfly Communities After Clear Cutting in Gwangneung Forest (광릉숲에서 개벌 후 나비군집의 변화)

  • Lee, Cheol Min;Kwon, Tae-Sung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to clarify the change of butterfly community after clear cutting. Butterfly survey was conducted in clear cutting area, forest road, and forest using line transect method from May to November in 2011. A total of 32 species and 398 individuals of butterflies were observed. Abundance of food niche breadth and habitat type was significantly higher in clear cutting area than in forest. Estimated species richness and species diversity were significantly higher in clear cutting area than in forest. In clear cutting area, Leptidea amurensis and Argynnis niobe, vulnerable species, were abundant. This result suggests that grasslands formed by clear cutting play an important role to increase butterfly diversity in forest ecosystem.

Community Characteristics and Biological Quality Assessment on Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Bongseonsa Stream in Gwangneung Forest, South Korea (광릉숲 내 봉선사천의 저서성 대형무척추동물의 군집 특성 및 생물학적 하천평가)

  • Jung, Sang-Woo;Cho, Yong-Chan;Lee, Hwang-Goo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.508-519
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    • 2017
  • There have been many studies on monitoring of biodiversity changes and preservation of Gwangneung Forest Biosphere Reserve (GFBR) in South Korea in recognition of the rare ecosystem that has been preserved for a long period. However, there are few studies on diversity and community characteristics of benthic macroinvertebrates as an indicator of stream health of GFBR. The purpose of this study was to assess the water quality of Bongseonsa Stream that penetrated through Gwangneung Forest and the nearby torrents by analyzing the benthic macroinvertebrates community during April to September 2016. The investigation collected a total of 114 species of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 56 families, 17 orders, 8 classes, and 5 phyla from the Bongseonsa Stream and Kwangneung Stream. Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera were the largest groups in species diversity with 30 species (32.3%) and 16 species (17.2%), respectively, and Tubificidae sp., Baetis fuscatus, Antocha KUa, and Cheumatopsyche brevilineata, which usually habit in contaminated streams, appeared frequently. Among the feeding function groups, the gatherers and hunters appeared relatively frequently, and the shredders and scrapers appeared frequently in the torrents. Among the habitat oriented groups, the clingers and burrower appeared more frequently and represented the microhabitats in the shallow areas. The result of the analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates community showed that the dominant index was $0.48{\pm}0.10$ in average while it was lowest with 0.33 in GS 8 of the Gwangneung Forest torrent and highest in BS 1 of Bongseonsa Stream. The diversity and richness indices were inversely proportional to the dominant index and were 2.53 and 4.22, respectively, in GS 8 where the dominant index was low. The result of the analysis of community stability showed that area I, which had high resistance and restoration, was high in Bongseonsa Stream while the area III, which had low resistance and restoration, was high in Gwangneung Forest, indicating that the water system in Gwangneung Forest had a wider distribution of specifies sensitive to agitation. The biological water quality assessment showed ESB of $50.88{\pm}17.69$, KSI of $1.11{\pm}0.57$, and BMI of $78.55{\pm}11.05$. GS 8 of Gwangneung Forest torrent was judged to be the highest priority protective water area with the best water environment and I class water quality with ESB of 63, KSI of 0.55, and BMI of 89.9. On the contrary, BS 1 of Bongseonsa Stream was judged to be the high priority improvement area that had the lowest water quality rating of III with ESB of 25, KSI of 2.13, and BMI of 62.7. Although the diversity of water beetle was higher in the water system of nearby Bongseonsa Stream than the water system inside the Gwangneung Forest, the annual community structure appeared to have distinct differences.

Comparing of Hydrograph Separation in deciduous and coniferous catchments using the End-Member Mixing Analysis (End-Member Mixing Analysis를 이용한 산림 소유역의 임상별 유출분리 비교)

  • Kim, Su-Jin;Choi, Hyung Tae
    • Journal of The Geomorphological Association of Korea
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2016
  • To understand the difference of runoff discharge processes between Gwangneung deciduous and coniferous forest catchments, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge) and conducted hydrochemical analyses in the deciduous and coniferous forest catchments in Gwangneung National Arboretum in the northwest part of South Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the three storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the hillslope runoff in the deciduous forest catchment was higher 20% than the coniferousforest catchment during the firststorm event. Howerver, hillslope runoff increased from the second storm event in the coniferous catchment. We conclude that low soil water contents and topographical gradient characteristics highly influence runoff in the coniferous forest catchment during the first storm events. In general, coniferous forests are shown high interception loss and low soil moisture compared to the deciduous forests. It may also be more likely to be a reduction in soil porosity development when artificial coniferous forests reduced soil biodiversity. The forest soil porosity is an important indicator to determine the water recharge of the forest. Therefore, in order to secure the water resources, it should be managed coniferous forests for improving soil biodiversity and porosity.