• Title, Summary, Keyword: Guangxi

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An in vitro Actinidia Bioassay to Evaluate the Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

  • Wang, Faming;Li, Jiewei;Ye, Kaiyu;Liu, Pingping;Gong, Hongjuan;Jiang, Qiaosheng;Qi, Beibei;Mo, Quanhui
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.372-380
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    • 2019
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is by far the most important pathogen of kiwifruit. Sustainable expansion of the kiwifruit industry requires the use of Psa-tolerant or resistant genotypes for the breeding of tolerant cultivars. However, the resistance of most existing kiwifruit cultivars and wild genotypes is poorly understood, and suitable evaluation methods of Psa resistance in Actinidia have not been established. A unique in vitro method to evaluate Psa resistance has been developed with 18 selected Actinidia genotypes. The assay involved debarking and measuring the lesions of cane pieces inoculated with the bacterium in combination with the observation of symptoms such as callus formation, sprouting of buds, and the extent to which Psa invaded xylem. Relative Psa resistance or tolerance was divided into four categories. The division results were consistent with field observations. This is the first report of an in vitro assay capable of large-scale screening of Psa-resistance in Actinidia germplasm with high accuracy and reproducibility. The assay would considerably facilitate the breeding of Psa-resistant cultivars and provide a valuable reference and inspiration for the resistance evaluation of other plants to different pathogens.

Mortality of Major Cancers in Guangxi, China: Sex, Age and Geographical Differences from 1971 and 2005

  • Deng, Wei;Long, Long;Li, Ji-Lin;Zheng, Dan;Yu, Jia-Hua;Zhang, Chun-Yan;Li, Ke-Zhi;Liu, Hai-Zhou;Huang, Tian-Ren
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1567-1574
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    • 2014
  • The incidence and mortality rates of liver and nasopharyngeal cancer in Guangxi province of China have always been among the highest in the world, and cancer is one of the major diseases that pose a threat to the health of residents in Guangxi. However, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate the time trends in the structure of cancer-related deaths and cancer mortality. In this study, we reveal sex, age and geography differences of cancers mortality between three death surveys (1971 to 1973, 1990 to 1992, and 2004 to 2005). The results show that the standardized mortality rate of cancer in Guangxi residents has risen from 43.3/100,000 to 84.2/100,000, the share of cancer deaths in all-cause deaths has increased from 13.3% to 20.7%, and cancer has become the second most common cause of death. The five major cancers, liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and colorectal cancer, account for 60% of all the cancer deaths. Cancers with growing mortality rates over the past 30 years include lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and female breast cancer, of which lung cancer is associated with the sharpest rise in mortality, with a more than 600% rise in both men and women. Cancer death in Guangxi residents occurs mainly in the elderly population above 45 years of age, especially in people over the age of 65. The areas with the highest mortality rates for liver cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer, which feature regional high incidences, include Chongzuo and Wuzhou. Therefore, for major cancers such as liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and female breast cancer in Guangxi, we can select high-risk age groups as the target population for cancer prevention and control efforts in high-prevalence areas in a bid to achieve the ultimate goal of lowering cancer mortality in Guangxi.

Fumigaclavine C attenuates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

  • Yu, Wan-Guo;He, Yun;Chen, Yun-Fang;Gao, Xiao-Yao;Ning, Wan-E;Liu, Chun-You;Tang, Ting-Fan;Liu, Quan;Huang, Xiao-Cheng
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.161-169
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    • 2019
  • Fumigaclavine C (FC), an active indole alkaloid, is obtained from endophytic Aspergillus terreus (strain No. FC118) by the root of Rhizophora stylosa (Rhizophoraceae). This study is designed to evaluate whether FC has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. FC notably increased the levels of glycerol in the culture supernatants and markedly reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FC differentially inhibited the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor proteins, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. FC markedly reduced the expressions of lipid synthesis-related genes, such as the fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, FC significantly increased the expressions of lipolysis-related genes, such as the hormone-sensitive lipase, Aquaporin-7, and adipose triglyceride lipase. In HFD-induced obese mice, intraperitoneal injections of FC decreased both the body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight. FC administration significantly reduced lipid accumulation. Moreover, FC could dose-dependently and differentially regulate the expressions of lipid metabolism-related transcription factors. All these data indicated that FC exhibited anti-obesity effects through modulating adipogenesis and lipolysis.

Anisotropic Patterns of Liver Cancer Prevalence in Guangxi in Southwest China: Is Local Climate a Contributing Factor?

  • Deng, Wei;Long, Long;Tang, Xian-Yan;Huang, Tian-Ren;Li, Ji-Lin;Rong, Min-Hua;Li, Ke-Zhi;Liu, Hai-Zhou
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3579-3586
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    • 2015
  • Geographic information system (GIS) technology has useful applications for epidemiology, enabling the detection of spatial patterns of disease dispersion and locating geographic areas at increased risk. In this study, we applied GIS technology to characterize the spatial pattern of mortality due to liver cancer in the autonomous region of Guangxi Zhuang in southwest China. A database with liver cancer mortality data for 1971-1973, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005, including geographic locations and climate conditions, was constructed, and the appropriate associations were investigated. It was found that the regions with the highest mortality rates were central Guangxi with Guigang City at the center, and southwest Guangxi centered in Fusui County. Regions with the lowest mortality rates were eastern Guangxi with Pingnan County at the center, and northern Guangxi centered in Sanjiang and Rongshui counties. Regarding climate conditions, in the 1990s the mortality rate of liver cancer positively correlated with average temperature and average minimum temperature, and negatively correlated with average precipitation. In 2004 through 2005, mortality due to liver cancer positively correlated with the average minimum temperature. Regions of high mortality had lower average humidity and higher average barometric pressure than did regions of low mortality. Our results provide information to benefit development of a regional liver cancer prevention program in Guangxi, and provide important information and a reference for exploring causes of liver cancer.

In vitro differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells using testicular cells from Guangxi Bama mini-pig

  • Zhao, Huimin;Nie, Junyu;Zhu, Xiangxing;Lu, Yangqing;Liang, Xingwei;Xu, Huiyan;Yang, Xiaogan;Zhang, Yunkai;Lu, Kehuan;Lu, Shengsheng
    • Journal of Veterinary Science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.592-599
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we attempted to establish a culture system for in vitro spermatogenesis from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) of Bama mini-pig. Dissociated testicular cells from 1-month-old pigs were co-cultured to mimic in vivo spermatogenesis. The testicular cells were seeded in minimum essential medium alpha (${\alpha}-MEM$) supplemented with Knockout serum replacement (KSR). Three-dimensional colonies formed after 10 days of culture. The colonies showed positive staining for SSC-associated markers such as UCHL1, PLZF, THY1, OCT4, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, and alkaline phosphatase. Induction of SSCs was performed in ${\alpha}-MEM$ + KSR supplemented with retinoic acid, bone morphogenetic protein 4, activin A, follicle-stimulating hormone, or testosterone. The results showed that STRA8, DMC1, PRM1, and TNP1 were upregulated significantly in the colonies after induction compared to that in testis from 1-month-old pigs, while expression levels of those genes were significantly low compared to those in 2-month-old testis. However, upregulation of ACROSIN was not significant. Replacement of ${\alpha}-MEM$ and KSR with Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium and fetal bovine serum did not upregulate expression of these genes significantly. These results indicate that SSCs of Bama mini-pig could undergo differentiation and develop to a post-meiotic stage in ${\alpha}-MEM$ supplemented with KSR and induction factors.

Incidence of the Rice Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, in Guangxi, China

  • Luo, Man;Li, Bing Xue;Wu, Han Yan
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2020
  • Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are the most destructive group of plant-parasitic nematodes. Plants infected by Meloidogyne spp. develop above-ground symptoms, stunting, yellowing, nutrient deficiencies, and gall formations with typical hook-shaped root tips. Infected plants experience yield losses. During 2018-2019 survey, leaf chlorosis rice plants were found in 206 fields of 67 counties in Guangxi, China, around 30 days after transplanting. Galls and hooked tips on the roots and pear-shaped females were observed. About 32.04% of fields were infested with the nematode. The nematodes were identified as Meloidogyne graminicola base on morphological and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of M. graminicola on rice plants in Guangxi, China. The results of this study urge the discovery of resistant cultivars and the development of management strategies.

Comparison of leaf transcriptomes of cassava "Xinxuan 048" diploid and autotetraploid plants

  • Yin, Ling;Qu, Junjie;Zhou, Huiwen;Shang, Xiaohong;Fang, Hui;Lu, Jiang;Yan, Huabing
    • Genes and Genomics
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.927-935
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    • 2018
  • Polyploidy breeding of cassava has been used to improve cassava traits over the past years. We previously reported in vitro induction of tetraploids in the cassava variety "Xinxuan 048" using colchicine. Significant differences in morphology and anatomy were found between the diploid and tetraploid plants. However, very little is known about the transcriptome difference between them. In this study, morphological and physiological characteristics including leaf thickness, plant height, internode length, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic capacity were measured. Further, we investigated and validated the difference in gene expression patterns between cassava "Xinxuan 048" tetraploid genotype and its diploid plants using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Significant differences in morphology and physiology were observed during tetraploidization. A comparison revealed that tetraploidy induced very limited changes in the leaf transcriptomes of cassava "Xinxuan 048" diploid and autotetraploid plants. However, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between $2{\times}$ and $4{\times}$ plants, especially those upregulated in $4{\times}$ plants, were strongly associated with hormonal and stress responses. Large changes in morphology and physiology between the diploid cassava "Xinxuan 048" and its autotetraploid were not associated with large changes in their leaf transcriptomes. Moreover, the differently expressed genes related to the regulation of gibberellin and brassinosteroids potentially explained why the plant height and internode length of $4{\times}$ plants became shorter. Collectively, our results suggest that $4{\times}$ cassava is potentially valuable for breeding strains with improved stress resistance.

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bacterium Burkholderia gladioli Bsp-1 Producing Alkaline Lipase

  • Zhu, Jing;Liu, Yanjing;Yanqin, Yanqin;Pan, Lixia;Li, Yi;Liang, Ge;Wang, Qingyan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.1043-1052
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    • 2019
  • Active lipase-producing bacterium Burkholderia gladioli Bps-1 was rapidly isolated using a modified trypan blue and tetracycline, ampicillin plate. The electro-phoretically pure enzyme was obtained by purification using ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular weight was 34.6 kDa and the specific activity was determined to be 443.9 U/mg. The purified lipase showed the highest activity after hydrolysis with $p-NPC_{16}$ at a pH of 8.5 and $50^{\circ}C$, and the $K_m$, $k_{cat}$, and $k_{cat}/K_m$ values were 1.05 mM, $292.95s^{-1}$ and $279s^{-1}mM^{-1}$, respectively. The lipase was highly stable at $7.5{\leq}pH{\leq}10.0$. $K^+$ and $Na^+$ exerted activation effects on the lipase which had favorable tolerance to short-chain alcohols with its residual enzyme activity being 110% after being maintained in 30% ethanol for 1 h. The results demonstrated that the lipase produced by the strain B. gladioli Bps-1 has high enzyme activity and is an alkaline lipase. The lipase has promising chemical properties for a range of applications in the food-processing and detergent industries, and has particularly high potential for use in the manufacture of biodiesel.