• Title/Summary/Keyword: Growth and development

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A Study on Growth and Development Information and Growth Prediction Model Development Influencing on the Production of Citrus Fruits

  • Kang, Heejoo;Lee, Inseok;Goh, Sangwook;Kang, Seokbeom
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to develop the growth prediction model that can predict growth and development information influencing on the production of citrus fruits. The growth model was developed to predict the floral leaf ratio, number of fruit sets, fruit width, and overweight fruits depending on the main period of growth and development by considering the weather factors because the fruit production is influenced by weather depending on the growth and development period. To predict the outdoor-grown citrus fruit production, the investigation result for the standard farms is used as the basic data; in this study, we also understood that the influence of weather factors on the citrus fruit production based on the data from 2004 to 2013 of the outdoor-grown citrus fruit observation report in which the standard farms were targeted by the Agricultural Research Service and suggested the growth and development information prediction model with the weather information as an independent variable to build the observation model. The growth and development model for outdoor-grown citrus fruits was assumed by using the Ordinary Least Square method (OLS), and the developed growth prediction model can make a prediction in advance with the weather factors prior to the observation investigation for the citrus fruit production. To predict the growth and development information of the production of citrus fruits having a great ripple effect as a representative crop in Jeju agriculture, the prediction result regarding the production applying the weather factors depending on growth and development period could be applied usefully.

Development of Yield Forecast Models for Autumn Chinese Cabbage and Radish Using Crop Growth and Development Information (생육정보를 이용한 가을배추와 가을무 단수 예측 모형 개발)

  • Lee, Choon-Soo;Yang, Sung-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.279-293
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    • 2017
  • This study suggests the yield forecast models for autumn chinese cabbage and radish using crop growth and development information. For this, we construct 24 alternative yield forecast models and compare the predictive power using root mean square percentage errors. The results shows that the predictive power of model including crop growth and development informations is better than model which does not include those informations. But the forecast errors of best forecast models exceeds 5%. Thus it is important to establish reliable data and improve forecast models.

Correlations of Litter Size and Maternal Serum Progesterone Concentration during Pregnancy with Mammary Gland Growth and Development Indices at Parturition in Javanese Thin-Tail Sheep

  • Manalu, W.;Sumaryadi, M.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.300-306
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    • 1998
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate correlations of litter size and average serum progesterone concentrations during pregnancy with mammary gland growth and development at parturition. Twenty ewes (5, 9, 4, and 2 ewes carrying 0, 1, 2, and 3 lambs, respectively) were used to measure weekly serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy. At parturition, the experimental ewes were slaughtered for determination of mammary gland growth and development at parturition (mammary dry fat-free tissue [DFFT], DNA, RNA, collagen, protein, and glycogen). Correlation of mammary DFFT with litter size and averages serum progesterone concentrations were 0.75 and 0.72, respectively. Litter size or maternal serum progesterone concentrations did not correlate with the mammary DNA concentration. However, litter size or maternal serum progesterone concentrations positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the mammary RNA and protein concentrations, but negatively correlated with the mammary collagen (p < 0.01) and. glycogen (p < 0.05) concentrations. Litter size or maternal serum progesterone positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the total mammary DNA, RNA, collagen, protein and glycogen contents. These results implied that the increased concentrations of progesterone with the increased litter size during pregnancy improved mammary gland growth and development at parturition.

Growth and Development of Platycodon grandiflorus under Sensor-based Soil Moisture Control on Open Farmland and Pot Conditions

  • Lee, Ye-Jin;Kim, Kyeong-Soo;Lim, So-Hee;Yu, Young-Beob;Bae, Chang-Hyu
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.608-615
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    • 2021
  • Soil moisture control system including soil sensing and automatic water supply chain was constructed on open farmland and pot conditions. Soil moisture was controlled by the system showing over the soil moisture contents except 40% treatment. EC was gradually decreased by increasing cultivation days. On applying this system to control soil moisture, the growth and development characters of the bellflower were improved compared with control, cultivation without the automatic irrigation. Of the growth and development characters, plant height with water treatments was higher than that of control in 1st-year plants. Moreover, numbers of branch were increased by the increased soil moisture on farmland and pot condition. Capsule numbers for seed were best at 20%, 30% soil moisture treatment in 1st-year plants, and 20% to 50% treatment in 2nd-year plants. The construction of automatic soil moisture control system provide fundamental data for plant growth and development on open farmland soil condition.

Effect of Maternal Undernutrition during Late Pregnancy on Growth and Development of Ovine Fetal Visceral Organs

  • Gao, F.;Liu, Y.C.;Hou, X.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1633-1639
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the effect of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on the growth and development of ovine fetal visceral organs. One hundred Mongolian ewes were mated at a synchronized oestrus and divided into three groups and offered 0.175 MJ ME $kgw^{-0.75}\;d^{-1}$ (Restricted Group1; RG1), 0.33 MJ ME $kgw^{-0.75}\;d^{-1}$ (Restricted Group2; RG2) and ad libitum access to feed (Control Group; CG) during late pregnancy (90 days). Selected animals in each group were slaughtered immediately at d 90 of pregnancy and after parturition (neonatal lambs), and major visceral organs were removed and weighed separately. The results indicated that the weights of lung (p<0.01), spleen (p<0.01), heart (p<0.05), liver (p<0.05) and abomasum (p<0.01) in RG1 were significantly lighter than those of CG. For RG2, only the weights of the lung (p<0.05) and spleen (p<0.01) were significantly lighter than those of CG; when expressed as a percentage of body weight, significance was retained in the spleen (p<0.01) for both restricted groups, but the percentage of brain in RG1 was significantly higher than that in CG (p<0.01). For lung and spleen, the amount of DNA was significantly lower (p<0.01) in both groups of restricted neonatal lambs compared to CG; however, there was a significant difference only between RG1 and CG for protein: DNA ratio (p<0.01). The DNA content of kidney, abomasum and jejunum were decreased (p<0.05) in RG1 neonatal lambs, but protein: DNA ratio in the liver was decreased compared with that of CG (p<0.05). The plane of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy had a significant effect on the growth and development of fetal visceral organs, which altered ontogeny of fetal organ growth and development. These perturbations in fetal visceral development may have significant implications on postnatal growth and adult health.

Growth and Development of Infants Fed Soy- Based Formulas over 3 Months (액상 대두 유아식을 3개월 이상 섭취한 영유아의 성장과 발달)

  • 조상운;신해철;손헌수;정재원;남희정;박혜련
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.555-565
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was conducted to investigate growth and development status of infants fed soy-based formulas over 3 months. The height and weight were measured and Z-scores were calculated by using standard of the same age groups. Their mothers were interviewed using questionnaires including general and environmental characteristics, total food intakes, soy based formula intakes and Ewha infant development screening test. Main results were as follows: 1) Nutrient intake levels of subjects were similar to or more than the level of Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances except for intakes of vitamin E (79.89% RDA), and the average status of nutrient intakes of infants were fairly good. 2) Z-scores of height for age (HAZ) and Z-scores of weight for age (WAZ), Kaup index, WLI and Ewha Infant Developmental Screening Test score of subjects were in the normal growth range. 3) There were no significant differences among soy based formula intake percentile groups in HAZ, WAZ, Kaup index, WLI and Ewha Infant Developmental Screening Test score. 4) Total energy intake was positively correlated with HAZ (p < 0.00, WAZ (p <0.00, and WLI (p < 0.05) in infants less than 12 month. Also, soy based formula energy intake was positively correlated with HAZ (p < 0.05) in infants less than 12 month. However, energy and soy based formula intake levels of infants over 12 month were not significant among variables. Considering results of this study, infants fed soy-based formulas over 3 months showed normal growth and development status. Further studies are needed to evaluate longterm growth and development in infants fed soy based formulas.

Effects of LED Light Quality of Urban Agricultural Plant Factories on the Growth of Daughter Plants of 'Seolhyang' Strawberry

  • Lee, Kook-Han
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.821-829
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to examine the influence of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) light quality in urban agricultural plant factories on the growth and development of Seolhyang strawberry daughter plants in order to improve the efficiency of daughter plant growth and urban agriculture. LED light quality by demonstrated that above-ground growth and development were greatest for daughter plant 2. Daughter plant 1 showed the next highest growth and development, followed by daughter plant 3. Among the different qualities of LED light, the stem was thickest and growth rate of leaves was highest for R + B III (LED quality: red 660 nm + blue 450 nm/photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD): $241-243{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$) and lowest for R (red $660nm/115-117{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$). Plant height, leaf width, petiole length, and the leaf growth rate were highest for W (white fluorescent lamp/$241-243{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$) and lowest for R + B I (red 660nm+blue 450nm/$80-82{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$). For above-ground growth and development, as the plants surpassed the seedling age, mixed light (red + blue), rather than monochromatic light (red or blue), and higher PPFD values tended to increase development. Regarding the quality of the LED light, daughter plant 2 showed the highest chlorophyll content, followed by daughter plant 1, and daughter plant 3 showed the least chlorophyll content. When the wavelength was monochromatic, chlorophyll content increased, compared to that when PPFD values were increased. Mixed light vitality was highest in daughter plant 2, followed by 1, and 3, showed increased photosynthesis when PPFD values were high with mixed light, in contrast to the results observed for chlorophyll content.

중학생의 성장 발육과 기생충 보유 현황에 관한 조사 연구

  • 신재신
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 1970
  • A survey was conducted on 2,321 Chung Rhang Middle School boys to check out their physical growth, development and the number of parasite carriers during the period from June 16. to June 23. 1970 As the results of this study, the following conclusions were revealed. A) Physical Growth and Development State. 1. Direct curve in physical growth and development was observed during the period from 13 to 16 years of age. 2. The age and quantity of maximum growth and development. Height; 13~14 years of age 6.1cm Body weight; 14~15 years of age 5.1kg Chest circumference; 13~14 years of age 9.9cm Sitting height; 14~15 years of age 3.4cm 3. Comparison with Japanese students Most Korean students are shorter than Japanese students, though the standard of height became higher than before. The standard of body weight is visibly lower than Japanese students. The standard of chest circumference of the students of age 14 is higher than counter part of Japanese students and the all boys are lower than Japanese students except at the age of 14. The standard of the sitting heights of the Korean students are growing steadily, but every students are shorter than Japanese students. 4. The greatest differences in physical growth and development were shown in 13~14 years of age. 5. The students of 13~15 years of age developed their bodies most highly according to index of Rohrer. 6. Body weight and chest circumference have not grown enough compared with height. The development of sitting height was made highly and the development is steadily growing as they grow old. B. The Number of Parasite Carriers The number of parasite carriers was shown 79.4 per cent among all the student checked out. The number of trichuris was shown 79.7 per cent. The number of parasite carriers was shown higher per cent as the grow old.

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A Study on Physical Growth and Development of High School Students in an Urban Area (일부도시지역(一部都市地域)의 중고교생(中高校生)들의 성장(成長) 발육(發育) 및 체격지수(體格指數)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Park, Yang-Won;Lee, Pyong-Kap;Park, Soon-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 1971
  • A survey on 4,117 (Boys:2,004, Girls:2,113) High School students in an urban area was conducted for assessing their physical growth, development and nutritional status from may throuth june 1971, and the following results were obtained. 1. Physical Growth and Development. a) Maximum growth was seen during the period from 12 to 16 years of age. b) The Maximum annual growth rates were as follows; Height: Boys-8.1cm from 14 to 15 years of age Girls-4.7cm from 13 to 14 Weight: Boys-8.0kg from 14 to 15 Girls-4.5kg from 13 to 14 Chest Girth: Boys-6.1cm from 14 to 15 Girls-4.2cm from 13 to 14 Sitting Height: Boys-4.6cm from 14 to 15 Girls-2.5cm from 13 to 14 c) The greatest individual differences in growth and development were observed during 12-15 years of age. d) Korean students were shorter than Japanese in 12-16 years of age group but after 17, Korean students become taller than Japanese. e) The standards of growth of rescent urban korean students show much improved than that of 1955. 2. Various Indices about Physical Growth and Development. a) Relative body weight was increased steadily annually and the crossing point of boys and girls appeared at age 11 at which girls surpassed boys and at 14, boys surpassed girls. b) Relative chestgirth showed narrow chest style in boys from 11 to 15 and from 11 to 14 in girls. c) The average relative sitting height was 54.0 in both sexes. d) The $R\ddot{o}hrer$ index was 1.1 in boys and 1.2-1.3 in girls. e) The Kaup index was lower than 2.0 in boys from 11 to 16 and in girls from 11 to 14. It becomes higher than 2.0 after 17 in boys but in girls after 15.

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Growth and Development of Grafted Cucumber Transplants as Affected by Seedling Ages of Scions and Rootstocks and Light Intensity during Their Cultivation in a Closed Production System

  • Kwack, Yurina;Park, Seon Woo;Chun, Changhoo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.600-606
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of seedling ages of scions and rootstocks for grafting and light intensity during their cultivation in a closed transplant production system on the growth and development of grafted cucumber transplants. Cucumber scions and rootstocks were cultivated under 5 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) levels: 100, 140, 180, 230, and $280{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ in a closed transplant production system. The scions were grafted onto the rootstocks at 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 days after sowing (DAS). Hypocotyl length of scions and rootstocks decreased significantly as PPF increased, and an increase in dry weight with increasing PPF was more pronounced in scions. After grafting, cucumber transplants were grown in a greenhouse until 22 DAS and were then transplanted for investigation of their growth and development. Plant height, leaf area, and fresh weight of cucumber transplants grafted at 8, 9, and 10 DAS were greater, but light intensity during cultivation of scions and rootstocks did not significantly affect the early growth of cucumber transplants after grafting. The number of female flowers in grafted cucumber after transplanting was highest when scions and rootstocks were cultivated under PPF 140 and $180{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ and were grafted at 8 DAS. These results indicate that controlling environmental conditions in a closed transplant production system during the production of scions and rootstocks can advance grafting time and promote the growth and development of grafted cucumber transplants.