• Title, Summary, Keyword: Growth

Search Result 56,752, Processing Time 0.159 seconds

Evaluation of Grassland Grade by Grassland Vegetation Ratio (초지식생비율에 의한 초지등급평가 연구)

  • Lee, Bae Hun;Kim, Ji Yung;Park, Hyung Soo;Sung, Kyung Il;Kim, Byong Wan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.40 no.1
    • /
    • pp.29-36
    • /
    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to suggest the new grassland grade system on evaluating the grassland status. The grassland status has been evaluated based on the forage yield (good, fair and poor) by municipal authorities. The grassland grades by current system were 19 good, 11 fair and 11 poor among the 41 grassland farms from 6 provinces. This evaluation result differed greatly from the result of actual measurement of forage yields which showed all poor. The big difference was resulted from failing the reflection of the various characteristics, such as different seasonal growth and harvest frequency. Furthermore, the lack of consistent examining date and method added the inaccuracy of current grassland grade system. The new grassland grade system based on the grassland vegetation ratio (grass, weed and bare soil) was initially designed into 6-grade system (1st; 100~80%, 2nd; 79~60%, 3rd; 59~40%, 4th; 39~20%; 5th; 19~1% and 6th; 0% on the basis of grasses proportion), but later was changed into 4-grade system (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades are 70% or more, 50% or more, 50% or less, and 0% of forage proportion, respectively) after reflecting the opinion of grassland farms and municipal authorities. Re-evaluation on the grassland status using the 4-grade system resulted in the total 80% consisted of 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade which means most grasslands needs the partial reseeding or the rehabilitation of entire grassland. Pictures and schematic diagrams depicting the 4-grade system were presented to improve the objectivity of evaluation. The optimal time for assessing grassland status is fall when plant height 20~30 cm. Conclusively, the 4-grade system is an efficient method for all non-professionals including grassland farms or municipal authorities in assessing the grassland status. To apply this system to the field, the institutional arrangements such as amendment of grassland act should take place in advance.

Methods of Application and Beneficial Effects of Silicate-Coating Rice Seeds (볍씨의 규산코팅방법에 따른 이용특성과 육묘효과)

  • Kang, Yang-Soon;Kim, Wan Joong;Hwang, Duck Sang;Kim, Hee Kyu
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.65 no.1
    • /
    • pp.30-39
    • /
    • 2020
  • A new silicate coating technology was developed which reduces the impact of dust and loosening during seeding compared to existing silicate-coatings (Seed/Si/Zeolite), and therefore can lower the production costs of rice cultivation. In this method, 100 g of rice seed is coated with 18 mL of liquid silicic acid and then dressed with a mixture containing 80 g of dolomite and 5 g of iron. To determine the most effective method of application and ensure that seedlings developed healthily, a series of experiments were carried out. Infected seeds scattered in seedling boxes and pots (soil and hydroponic) were coated dry, without disinfection. In comparison to the seed which were not treated with the silicate-coating, the new seed (A) were 1.84 times heavier in weight, and were also improved in terms of coating strength and coating color. Compared to the seedlings grown from the non-coated seed, those grown from the new silicate-coated seed were of significantly higher quality (weight/length) and had erect, dark greenish leaves, which are ideal plant characteristics. This was most likely due to increased silicate uptake. The symptoms of bakanae disease in the non-coated seed peaked after 38 days to 54.2%, whereas the control value was 68.8% in the new silicate-coated seed (A). In the infected seedlings grown from the new silicate-coated rice seed, subnormal macro-conidia, namely, a sickle shape spore without a septum; a straight oblong shape spore without a septum and with a thick cell wall; and inter-septal necrosis of a normal spore were detected. It is believed that the strong alkalinity of silicic acid have acted as unfavorable conditions for pathogenicity. In seedlings grown from the new silicate coated rice seed under hydroponic conditions without nutrients, normal root activity and growth was maintained without leaf senescence. Therefore, it was possible to reduce the rate of fertilization. In the future, a new silicate-coated rice seed was required for the study of minimal nutrition for anti-aging of seedlings.

Effect of Seed Priming and Pellet Coating Materials on Seedling Emergence of Aster koraiensis (프라이밍과 펠렛코팅 소재가 벌개미취 종자의 유묘 출현율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Won Sik;Kim, Min Geun;Kim, Soo Young;Han, Sim Hee;Kim, Du Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.109 no.1
    • /
    • pp.41-49
    • /
    • 2020
  • In this study, the effect of seed pre-treatments and pellet coating materials to enhance the efficiency of large-scale propagation of Aster koraiensis seeds were investigated. Seeds were immersed in water for one day, and only those that sank were used for pre-treatment to use filled seeds. Pre-treatments were divided into hormone treatments, with gibberellic acid (GA3; 200 and 500 ppm) and 24-epibrassinolide (10-6, 10-7, and 10-8M), and priming with potassium nitrate (100 mM of KNO3). To produce pellet-coated seeds, pellet materials (DTCS or DTK) were applied to control (unprimed) and primed seeds with binders (PVA or CMC). The maximum germination percent (GP) of seeds before pellet coating was 65% (with the priming treatment), and there was no difference in the GP of seeds among hormone treatments. For seeds sown in a growth chamber on filter paper, GP was 41% for control (unprimed/uncoated) seeds, 65% for uncoated primed seeds, 71% for DTCS/PVA-pellet-coated seeds, and 42% for DTK/CMC-pellet-coated seeds. Seeds that were primed first and then pellet-coated showed greatly improved GP, mean germination time (MGT), and germination rate than seeds that were only pellet-coated. For seeds sown in commercial soil in a greenhouse, control seeds had a GP of 27%, whereas primed seeds had the highest GP (58%), and their MGT and GT were 9.4 days and 7.0%·day, respectively. In addition, DTK/PVA-pellet-coated seeds (40%) also had a GP higher than the control (27%), and their MGT was 15-27 days. For seeds sown in sandy-loam soil in a greenhouse, unprimed-pellet-coated seeds and primed-pellet-coated seeds both had GPs ranged of 39%, which were lower than that of control seeds. In general, the seeds that were pellet-coated with DTK had a higher GP than those pellet-coated with DTCS. Furthermore, the MGT of unprimed-pellet-coated seeds was 15.0-19.8 days, which was longer than the MGT of primed-pellet-coated seeds. These results suggest that priming enhances seedling emergence of Aster koraiensis seeds. Moreover, when priming is combined with pellet coating, DTK is a more suitable pellet material than DTCS, and PVA and CMC are equally suitable adhesives.

Occurrence and Chemical Composition of White Mica and Ankerite from Laminated Quartz Vein of Samgwang Au-Ag Deposit, Republic of Korea (삼광 금-은 광상의 엽리상 석영맥에서 산출되는 백색운모와 철백운석의 산상 및 화학조성)

  • Yoo, Bong Chul
    • Korean Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.53-64
    • /
    • 2020
  • The Samgwang deposit has been one of the largest deposits in Korea. The deposit consists of series of host rocks including Precambrian metasedimentary rocks and Jurassic Baegunsa formation, which unconformably overlies the Precambrian metasedimentary rocks. The deposit consists of eight lens-shaped quartz veins which filled fractures along fault zones in Precambrian metasedimentary rock, which feature suggest that it is an orogenic-type deposit. Laminated quartz veins are common in the deposit which contain minerals including quartz, ankerite, white mica, chlorite, apatite, rutile, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. The structural formulars of white micas from laminated quartz vein and wallrock alteration are determined to be (K1.02-0.82Na0.02-0.00Ca0.00)(Al1.73-1.58Mg0.26-0.16Fe0.23-0.10Mn0.00Ti0.03-0.01Cr0.01-0.00)(Si3.35-3.22Al0.79-0.65)O10(OH)2 and (K0.75-0.67Na0.01Ca0.00) (Al1.78-1.74Mg0.16-0.15Fe0.15-0.13Mn0.00Ti0.04-0.02Cr0.01-0.00)(Si3.33-3.26Al0.74-0.67)O10(OH)2, respectively. It suggest that white mica from laminated quartz vein has higher interlayer cation (K+Na+Ca) and Fe+Mg+Mn+Ti content in octahedral site compared to the white mica from the wallrock alteration. Compositional variations in white mica from laminated quartz vein can be caused by phengitic or Tschermark substitution ((Al3+)VI+(Al3+)IV <-> (Fe2+ or Mg2+)VI)+(Si4+)IV) and (Fe3+)VI <-> (Al3+)VI substitution. Ankerite from laminated quartz vein has compositional variations of FeO and MgO contents along crystal growth direction. The geochemical and textural features suggest that laminated quartz vein from the Samgwang gold-silver deposit was formed during ductile shear stage, which is an important main gold-silver ore-forming event in orogeinc deposit.

Spatio-Temporal Incidence Modeling and Prediction of the Vector-Borne Disease Using an Ecological Model and Deep Neural Network for Climate Change Adaption (기후 변화 적응을 위한 벡터매개질병의 생태 모델 및 심층 인공 신경망 기반 공간-시간적 발병 모델링 및 예측)

  • Kim, SangYoun;Nam, KiJeon;Heo, SungKu;Lee, SunJung;Choi, JiHun;Park, JunKyu;Yoo, ChangKyoo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.58 no.2
    • /
    • pp.197-208
    • /
    • 2020
  • This study was carried out to analyze spatial and temporal incidence characteristics of scrub typhus and predict the future incidence of scrub typhus since the incidences of scrub typhus have been rapidly increased among vector-borne diseases. A maximum entropy (MaxEnt) ecological model was implemented to predict spatial distribution and incidence rate of scrub typhus using spatial data sets on environmental and social variables. Additionally, relationships between the incidence of scrub typhus and critical spatial data were analyzed. Elevation and temperature were analyzed as dominant spatial factors which influenced the growth environment of Leptotrombidium scutellare (L. scutellare) which is the primary vector of scrub typhus. A temporal number of diseases by scrub typhus was predicted by a deep neural network (DNN). The model considered the time-lagged effect of scrub typhus. The DNN-based prediction model showed that temperature, precipitation, and humidity in summer had significant influence factors on the activity of L. scutellare and the number of diseases at fall. Moreover, the DNN-based prediction model had superior performance compared to a conventional statistical prediction model. Finally, the spatial and temporal models were used under climate change scenario. The future characteristics of scrub typhus showed that the maximum incidence rate would increase by 8%, areas of the high potential of incidence rate would increase by 9%, and disease occurrence duration would expand by 2 months. The results would contribute to the disease management and prediction for the health of residents in terms of public health.

The Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Quality of Cheese and Upcoming Technologies for Manufacturing Reduced-Sodium Cheeses: A Review (Sodium Chloride가 치즈의 품질에 미치는 영향과 저염치즈 개발 기술: 총설)

  • Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Kim, Hong-Seok;Song, Kwang-Young;Jeong, Dong-Gwan;Kim, Soo-Ki;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.47-57
    • /
    • 2015
  • Sodium is an essential nutrient with very important functions, including regulation of the extracellular fluid volume and active transport of molecules across the cell membranes. Since high levels of dietary sodium are associated with a high prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, and other adverse effects on health, many national and international health organizations (WHO, FAO, etc.) recommend that sodium intake should be significantly decreased. In developed nations, cheese products, from among many processed foods, can cause high salt intake. Hence, there is an urgent need to reduce the content of salt in cheese processing, using various substitutes of sodium chloride (NaCl). In general, salt (NaCl) has been used as a food preservative to limit and (or) kill the growth of foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms by decreasing the water activity, and to improve texture and flavor. To maintain public health, the salt content in cheese should be decreased without influencing the physicochemical properties of cheese. Therefore, the objective of this review is to outline the upcoming technologies used to reduce the salt content in different types of cheese using various substitutes.

  • PDF

Potentials of Synbiotics for Pediatric Nutrition and Baby Food Applications: A Review (소아 영양 및 유아식 응용을 위한 신바이오틱스의 잠재력: 총설)

  • Jung, Hoo Kil;Kim, Sun Jin;Seok, Min Jeong;Cha, Hyun Ah;Yoon, Seul Ki;Lee, Nah Hyun;Kang, Kyung Jin
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.111-118
    • /
    • 2015
  • Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic substances as well as microorganisms were added to infant formula in an attempt to influence the intestinal microflora with an aim to stimulate the growth of lactic acid bacteria, especially bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Over the last 10 years, new synbiotic infant formulas containing probiotics and prebiotics have been proposed in order to simulate the effect of breast-feeding on the intestinal microflora. Owing to their synergistic effect, the new synbiotics are expected to be more helpful than using probiotics and prebiotics individually. Maintenance of the viability of the probiotics during food processing and the passage through the gastrointestinal tract should be the most important consideration, since a sufficient number of bacteria ($10^8cfu/g$) should reach the intended location to have a positive effect on the host. Storage conditions and the processing technology used for the manufacture of products such as infant formula adversely affect the viability of the probiotics. When an appropriate and cost-effective microencapsulation methodology using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and substances with high biological value are developed, the quality of infant formulas would improve. The effect of probiotics may be called a double-effect, where one is an immunomodulatory effect, induced by live probiotics that advantageously alter the gastrointestinal microflora, and the other comprises anti-inflammatory responses elicited by dead cells. At present, a new terminology is required to define the dead microorganisms or crude microbial fractions that positively affect health. The term "paraprobiotics" (or ghost probiotics) has been proposed to define dead microbial cells (not damaged or broken) or crude cell extracts (i.e., cell extracts with complex chemical composition) that are beneficial to humans and animals when a sufficient amount is orally or topically administered. The fecal microflora of bottle-fed infants is altered when the milk-based infant formula is supplemented with probiotics or prebiotics. Thus, by increasing the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, prebiotics modify the fecal microbial composition and accordingly regulate the activity of the immune system. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused on the improvement of infant formula quality such that its beneficial effects are comparable to those of human milk, using prebiotics such as inulin and oligosaccharides and potential specific probiotics such as bifidobacteria, which selectively stimulate the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the microflora and the indigenous intestinal metabolic activity of the microflora.

  • PDF

The Structure of Plant Community in Jungdaesa-Birobong Area, Odaesan National Park (오대산국립공원 중대사-비로봉 구간 식물군집구조)

  • Han, Bong-ho;Choi, Jin-woo;Noh, Tai-hwan;Kim, Dong-wook
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.764-776
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study aims to identify the structure of the plant community, and the ecological succession sere and the change in the forest ecosystem in Jungdaesa-Birobong area, Odaesan National Park_(i._e., located at high altitudes(over 1,000m)). It seeks to offer the basic data for the planning of vegetation management. In order to verify the status of the forest vegetation between Jungdaesa-Birobong, seventeen plots(size is $20m{\times}20m$) were set up as research sites at high altitudes. Importance value, distribution by diameter at breast height(DBH), the growth volume and age of the sample trees, similarity index and species diversity index of each survey plot were analysed. According to the results of DCA(Detrended Correspondence Analysis), one of the multivariate statistical techniques. It was found that the plant communities were classified into five groups: community I_(Quercus mongolica-Tilia amurensis community), community II_(Q. mongolica-Deciduous broad-leaved community), community III_(Q. mongolica-Pinus koraiensis community), community IV_(Abies holophylla-Q. mongolica community) and community V_(A. holophylla-Deciduous broad-leaved community). Community I which is dominated by Quercus mongolica and Deciduous broad-leaved communities is located at an altitude of over 1,300 meters(ranging from 1,335m to 1,495m), the community IV and V which are dominated by Abies holophylla are located at an altitude of under 1,200 meters(ranging from 1,115m to 1,175m) and the community II and III which include the main species of Quercus mongolica, Pinus koraiensis and Abies holophylla are located at an altitude of between 1,160 meters and 1,300 meters. The results showed that Quercus mongolica tends to have a higher importance value of woody species at a higher altitude while Abies holophylla tends to have higher importance value at a lower altitude. For the importance value woody species and -DBH class distribution, the communites I, II and III are expected to continuously maintain the present status. Whereas, for the influence of communities IV and V, Q. mongolica is predicted to be weakened. The age of sample trees was between 85 and 161; the average age was 123. The index of Shannon's Species diversity (H') showed heterogeneity was found among community I_(i._e., located at high altitude) and communities IV and V_(i._e., located at low altitude). As a results of analysing the index of Shannon's Species diversity (H': unit: $400m^2$), community III showed the highest diversity intex with 1.1109 followed by community II with 1.0475, community I with 1.0125, community IV with 0.9918 and community V with 0.8686. This study verified that the index of Shannon's species was significantly different by plant communities. For instance, when comparing the index of Shannon's species diversity in Quercus mongolica communities of this study and that of past relevant research, the value of index is very similar. However, the diversity index for the community which is dominated by Abies holophylla showed lower value when compared to the results from past relevant research.

Changes in Ear and Kernel Characteristics of Colored Waxy Corn Hybrids During Ripening with Different Sowing Dates (파종시기에 따른 유색찰옥수수 품종의 등숙 중 이삭 및 종실 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Mi-Jung;Lee, Jae-Eun;Kim, Jung-Tae;Jung, Gun-Ho;Lee, Jin-Seok;Kim, Sun-Lim;Youn, Kyoung-Jin;Kim, Wook-Han;Chung, Ill-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.60 no.3
    • /
    • pp.308-317
    • /
    • 2015
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the ear and kernel characteristics of colored waxy corn hybrids during ripening according to different sowing dates. Heukjinjuchal and Eolrukchal 1 were sown at April 20 (first cropping) and July 20 (second cropping) in 2011~2012. The accumulated temperature from silking to harvesting was about $590{\sim}610^{\circ}C$. It takes 23~24 days when Heukjinjuchal and Eolrukchal 1 were sown in April 20, but July 20 sowing takes 32~35 days. Ear weight, ear diameter, 100-kernel weight and starch content of colored waxy corn were increased as ears matured (p<0.05). Growth temperature was getting decreased during the ripening stage of second cropping, the rate of ear and kernel development had slowed. Starch granules started to accumulate in the cells around the pericarp, then developed in the cells around the embryo. In the second cropping, starch granules in the kernel of colored waxy corn were less compact than the first cropping. The contents of total anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were increased according to ripening (p<0.05). These results will be helpful to farmers for double cropping of colored waxy corn cultivation and management.

Transitional Patterns of Vegetation in Reclaimed Land Applied with Solidified Sewage Sludge (하수슬러지 고화물을 처리한 매립예정 간척지토양의 잡초발생 양상변화)

  • Um, Kyoung Ran;Jang, Yun-Hui;An, Gi Hong;Cha, Young-Lok;Yu, Gyeong-Dan;Lee, Ji-Eun;Moon, Youn-Ho;Ahn, Joung Woong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.60 no.3
    • /
    • pp.381-387
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was firstly conducted to investigate changes of vegetation and soil characteristics in reclaimed land applied with solidified sewage sludge for the cultivation of bioenergy crops. Each vegetation survey site was approximately $15m{\times}3m$ on the inside of each experimental plot that consisted of 50% (A-1), 30% (A-2), 15% (A-3), and 5% (A-4) mixture of solidified sewage sludge, and original reclaimed soil (ORS). After the application of solidified sewage sludge, we monitored the changes of vegetation and soil properties for three years. In first year, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and exchangeable $Ca^{2+}$ content was 9.4~10.8, $9.10{\sim}14.41\;dS\;m^{-1}$, and $62.1{\sim}204.2\;cmol\;kg^{-1}$, respectively, while three years later, it decreased to 8.1~8.4, $1.65{\sim}5.98\;dS\;m^{-1}$, and $21.9{\sim}43.1\;cmol\;kg^{-1}$, respectively. These results indicated that several of soil chemical elements which have nagative impacts on the plant growth in the plots of mixtures of solidified sewage sludge, steadily declined as the years go by. The vegetations in each survey site were recorded as 6 families and 12 species in 2014, while the vegetations were not occurred at all survey sites in 2012, and only halophytes as Phragmites australis and Suaeda asparagoides were observed in 2013. Diversity of vegetation, which was calculated by shannon index (H'), increased as the season progressed at each experimental plot applied with solidified sewage sludge. In original reclaimed soil, however, there was showed the high community similarity of vegetation due to the fact that P. australis and S. asparagoides were only occurred for survey periods.