• Title, Summary, Keyword: Green manure

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Nitrogen Use and Yield of Silage Corn as Affected by Hairy Vetch(Vicia villosa Roth) Soil-incorporated at Different Time in Spring

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Ho-Jin;Hur, Il-Bong;Kim, Si-Ju;Kim, Chung-Guk;Jo, Hyeon-Suk;Lee, Jung-Sam
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.272-275
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    • 2000
  • Winter green manure crops including legume increase grain yield of subsequent crop and substitute N fertilizer requirement with organic-No Hairy vetch grows vigorously and can provide N-rich green manure for corn with its soil incorporation after wintering. But, grain yield of corn as succeeding crop would be reduced if its planting time is delayed until late spring. This experiment was carried out to find the proper incorporation time of hairy vetch green manure and planting time of subsequent corn in cropping system with winter hairy vetch(green manure)-summer corn. Hairy vetch was incorporated into soil at a ten-day interval between April 10 and May 10 and corn was planted at 5 days after each hairy vetch incorporation. Soil nitrate concentration on April 10 and 20 in hairy vetch plot was slightly lower than that at winter fallow. Above-ground dry matter and organic-N of hairy vetch increased linearly with delayed hairy vetch incorporation time from April 10 to May 10. Average dry matter and organic-N produced by hairy vetch were 5.7 ton/ha and 248 kgN/ha, respectively. Corn growth and yield decreased as delayed corn planting time after May in spite of increasing dry matter and N-yield of hairy vetch. Nitrogen concentration of corn grain, stalk and whole plant at harvest were the highest in May 5 planting, but total N-uptake of May 5 planting were not different from that of April 25 planting because of lower grain yield. It was concluded that the proper incorporation time of hairy vetch and corn planting time were April 20 and April 25, respectively, because grain yield was the highest and corn could use hairy vetch-N effectively to produce dry matter.

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Tillage practices and fertilization effects on growth and nitrogen efficiency in soybean

  • Roy, Swapan Kumar;Jung, Hyun-Jin;Yoo, Jang-Hwan;Kwon, Soo Jeong;Yang, Jong-Ho;Kim, Sook-Jin;Chung, Keun-Yook;Kim, Hong-Sig;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.356-356
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    • 2017
  • A field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of tillage systems and fertilizer management on yield and nutrient uptake in Soybean. The plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of conventional tillage were much higher those observed for no-tillage. Significant differences in plant height were observed under tillage practices combined with fertilizer treatment. However, the greatest plant height (128.47 cm) was observed in conventional tillage with chemical fertilizer, and the lowest (45.4 cm) was observed in the no-tillage with green manure treatment. The highest fresh weight (172.4 g) and dry weight (44.1 g) were observed from the no-tillage chemical treatment in the late flowering stage of soybean. The plant concentration of nitrate was higher (2.29%) in no-tillage with green manure than it was with chemical fertilization. However, nitrogen increased steadily in all treatments, and the highest quantity of total nitrogen (476.7 Kg/ha) was observed in no-tillage with green manure. The N content in the soil decreased gradually just after the vegetative stage. Tillage practices and additional fertilizer application had an adverse effect on the uptake of N, P and K in soybean seeds. The nitrogen concentration in seeds was found to be increased in the no-tillage with green manure treatment. The uptake of more nitrogen induced a better yield. Thus, the no-tillage with green manure treatment had the greatest yield, although no significant difference was observed among foliar-applications and additional fertilization. Additionally, the phosphorus and potassium concentrations in seeds remained the same between the conventional tillage and no-tillage treatments. The results obtained in this study indicate that no-tillage strategies with fertilizers may influence the growth characteristics and mineral uptake in soybean.

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The Effects of Phosphorus Fertilization After Incorporation of Green Manure Crops to Jeju Volcanic Ash Soils on Potato Yields, Available Phosphate Contents in Soil, and Phosphorus Balances

  • Kang, Ho-Jun;Yang, Sang-Ho;Kim, Yu-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2017
  • The volcanic ash soils from the Jeju province have low available phosphate because of the high phosphate fixing power of the soils. Phosphorus fertilizerwas dressed after cultivating green manure crops and before cultivating potatoes in order to investigate potato yields, the available phosphate contents, and phosphorus balance in the soils. Green manure crops cultivated in this study were hairy vetch alone and hairy vetch and rye. During potato cultivation, four treatments were conducted in the experiments; NF (non fertilizer), P fertilizer ($N-P-K=0-25-0kg\;10a^{-1}$), NK fertilizer ($N-P-K=18-0-19kg\;10a^{-1}$), and NPK fertilizer ($N-P-K=18-25-19kg\;10a^{-1}$). There were no differences in the yields of potato stem and tuber from the cultivation plots of different green manure crops. However, in the plots with single-sown hairy vetch and mixed-sown hairy vetch and rye, the yields of potato stem and tuber were higher in the P fertilizer plot than in NF plot. The yield of tuber among the treatments with mixed-sown hairy vetch and rye was the highest in the NPK fertilizer plot. The available phosphate content in soils initially increased with time in all plots, but began to decrease gradually after Oct. 18. The available phosphate contents were high in the plots for phosphate fertilization, and the difference in available phosphate content between non-phosphorus fertilizer plots and phosphorus fertilizer plots increased with time. In the single-sown hairy vetch and mixed-sown hairy vetch and rye plot, the phosphorus balances in NF plot and NK fertilizer plot were very low, while those in the P fertilizer plot and NPK fertilizer plot were high. In conclusion, available phosphate contents in soil and the potato yields were increased by phosphorus fertilization when potatoes planted after cultivating hairy vetch and rye together, compared to hairy vetch alone.

Effects of Incorporation of Green Manure Crops on Growth and Quality in Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley (녹비작물 토양환원이 백수오 생육 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn, Cheol Ku;Kim, Ki Hyun;Kim, In Jae;Hong, Song Taeg;Hong, Eui Yon;Kim, Young Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2017
  • Background: The study aimed to obtain data on the effects of cultivation and soil reduction of green manure crop on the quantity and quality of organically cultivated Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley. Methods and Results: The experiment comprised four treatments: control, hairy vetch, barley, and hairy vetch + barley (3 : 2). The plant height in the hairy vetch treatment (86.3 cm) was significantly different from that in the other treatments, whereas the stem diameter leaf area, and special product analysis division (SPAD) value did not differ across the treatments. The largest soil reduction of green manure crop was recorded in the barley treatment (440 kg/10 a), whereas the smallest was recorded in the single treatment with hairy vetch (80 kg/10 a). The hairy vetch + barley (60 : 40) treatment showed 63% more soil microorganisms than control. Radical scavenging activity estimation revealed that the total polyphenol content was highest (1,740 mg/kg), and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 92.6% in the barley treatment. The 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) activation was highest in the control (51.1%), and the root yield was the highest in the barley treatment (310 kg/10 a). Conclusions: The root yield, total polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity of Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsley increased in presence of the green manure crop barley.

Antimicrobial Activity against Potato Common Scab (Streptomyces scabiei) of Green Manure Crop Extracts (녹비작물 추출물의 감자 더뎅이병균에 대한 항균력 검정)

  • Park, Jong-In;Jung, Hee-Jeong;Bae, Yong-Hui;Kang, Kwon-Kyoo;Nou, Ill-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.622-627
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to investigate the possible role of 10 green manure crop extracts in antimicrobial activity against potato common scab (Streptomyces scabiei). Ten green manure crops were extracted with hexane, ether, ethylacetate, methanol and water. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of ether, methanol and water was higher than those of hexane and ethylacetate fractions. The fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, ether and water showed antimicrobial activity against Streptomyces scabiei from the concentration of 0.25 mg/mL. Methanol fraction of Sorghum showed the highest antimicrobial activity against this microorganism. This result suggests the sorghum extract was the best as good green manure crop with antimicrobial activity against Streptomyces scabiei.

Soil Physico-chemical Properties of Organic Grapes Farms with Different Culture Facilities and Soil Management Practices

  • Kim, Sun-Kook;Kim, Byeong-Sam;Kang, Beom-Ryong;Yang, Seung-Koo;Kim, Byeong-Ho;Kim, Hee-Kwon;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Choi, Kyeong-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 2013
  • Organic grape was generally produced in rainshield or plastic greenhouse culture while most of fruits were produced in open field. But little attention has been given to soil properties with different culture facilities in organic grape cultivation. This study was conducted to investigate soil physico-chemical properties of organic grapes farms with different culture facilities and soil management practices. Organic fertilizer was main resource to manage soil at organic grapes farms. Organic grapes farms were applied with total amount of organic fertilizer at one time, either at basal or additional fertilization, whereas conventional grapes farms applied with split fertilization. Bulk density and penetration resistance of soil were lower at both rainshield and green manure-applied plastic greenhouse cultures than those at clean plastic greenhouse culture. Especially, in plastic greenhouse, sod culture with natural weed after green manure application was more effective than general sod culture in improving physical properties of the rhizosphere. The contents of organic matter, available phosphate and exchangeable potassium tended to increase in the soils applied with green manure, and the difference of soil chemical properties were significant between rainshield and plastic greenhouse cultures. The optimum soil management was required in plastic greenhouse because pH, available phosphate and exchangeable cations reached over optimum range. Consequently, the ground cover management is the key factor to affect the chemical properties as well as soil physical properties extensively in plastic greenhouse. It is found that sod culture with natural weed after green manure application resulted in enhancement of utilization efficiency of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium in soil in comparison with general sod culture.

Monitoring for Change of Soil Characteristics by repeated Organic Supply of Comport and Green Manures in Newly reclaimed Organic Upland Field (신규 개간 유기농경지에서 가축분 퇴비와 녹비작물 연용에 따른 밭 토양의 이화학적 특성 변화 모니터링)

  • Ok, Jung-Hun;Cho, Jung-Lai;Lee, Byung-Mo;An, Nan-Hee;Shin, Jae-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.813-827
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic inputs on soil properties in a newly reclaimed organic soils. The soil of the experiment site was very low in soil fertility and the physico-chemical properties were poor. Several organic input treatments with different source of nutrient were placed, including compost in combination with green manures for organic agricultural practices, chemical fertilizers for conventional agricultural practices, and control without fertilizer. The experiment was conducted with continuous cropping system during 3 years. The chemical properties concentration in compost+green manure treatment was increased continually compare to control and chemical fertilizer treatment, and closed to the recommended rate of fertilizer. The organic matter value for compost+green manure treatment was increased from 0.86~0.96% to 2.00~2.29% by continuous nutrient supply of compost and green manure. However, further investigation on increasing of organic matter value for 3 years is necessary to monitor carefully during the long-term because it will help to clarify the all mechanisms of organic matter on organic input application way. The available phosphate value for compost+green manure treatment was generally increased from 21.9~27.1 mg/kg to 182.0~394.1 mg/kg. In case of exchange cation, the concentration for compost+green manure treatment was increased during 2 years within the range to the recommended rate of fertilizer, however, it is expected to cause a rather over supply for 3 years.

Effects of Green Manure Crops and Rotational Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.) (참깨의 연작장해 경감 녹비작물 선발 및 윤작효과)

  • Nam, Sang-Young;Kim, In-Jae;Kim, Min-Ja;Kang, Hyo-Jung;Yun, Tae;Rho, Chang-Woo;Min, Kyeong-Beom;Lee, Cheol-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.404-408
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    • 2007
  • The green manure crops such as rye, hairy vetch and scotch oat were applied to reduce the injury by continuous cropping system(CCS) of sesame(Sesamum indicum L.) cultivation, which manure crops was sowed in latter-September or mid-October and returned to soil in the next year of May. The growth and yields were increased as 33%(65.0kg/10a) in the rotational cropping system(RCS) compared to continuous cropping system of 48.9kg/10a. In the CCS of sesame, it was increased as $10{\sim}15%$ in the green manure crop cultivation, and rye cultivation was the most effective crop to reduce the injury of continuous cropping in the green manure crops. The RCS displayed lower disease outbreak and Fussarium oxysporum density in the soil compared with the CCS, and the green manure crop showed good effect in the CCS of sesame. In the RCS, the porosity was most high in the RCS and CCS of rye cultivation, while rye and hairy vetch was effective way to reduce the injury of continuous cropping. The outbreaks of wilt disease and phytophthora blight were increased as the CCS years, however displayed lowest outbreaks of disease and the yields showed highest in the rye cultivation.

Effects of Green Manure on Soil Properties and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) (수수 재배 시 풋거름작물 이용이 토양특성 변화와 수수의 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Kook;Jung, Gun-Ho;Shin, Sung-Hyu;Kim, Min-Tae;Kim, Chung-Guk;Shim, Kang-Bo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.290-296
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    • 2016
  • Green manure has been used as alternative to chemical fertilizer. To evaluate the effect of green manure on the chemical properties of top-soil and sorghum yield, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, HV), manure barley (MB), and a mixture of hairy vetch and manure barley (HV+MB) were incorporated into the soil at a rate of $100kg-N\;N\;ha-1$ before the sorghum was transplanted. Total biomass of sorghum grown in the HV, MB, and HV+MB treatments was 13.1, 31.6, and $25.2t\;ha^{-1}$, respectively, and the nitrogen production of the treatments was 81, 74, and $145kg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively. The SPAD value of the uppermost leaf of sorghum plants grown in the soils with HV, MB, or HV+MB were very similar until heading stage; however, at maturity, the SPAD value of sorghum cultivated in the soils with HV was lower than that of sorghum in the soils with MB or HV+MB. This could be because the nitrogen release from HV was too rapid to supply nitrogen to sorghum during the later stage of grain filling. Compared with chemical fertilizers, the incorporation of green manure increased the pH, exchangeable cations ($K^+$, $Mg{^{+}^{+}}$, and $Ca{^{+}^{+}}$), and total nitrogen in soil postharvest, indicating an improvement in soil chemical properties. Total carbon content increased in soil with green manure incorporated, but decreased in the chemical fertilized soil, suggesting that sorghum cultivation using green manure may sequester carbon in soils. The yield of sorghum cultivated with green manure was not different from the yield of sorghum cultivated with chemical fertilizers. These results suggest that the mixture of hairy vetch and manure barley can be a useful chemical fertilizer alternative in sorghum cultivation.