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Effect of Mixed Cultivation with Green Manure Crops and Liquid Pig Manure on Rice Growth (녹비작물과 돈분액비의 혼용재배가 벼 생육에 미치는 효과)

  • Kang, Se-Won;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Han, Jong-Hak;Seo, Young-Jin;Lee, Sang-Gyu;Choi, Ik-Won;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Kang, Ui-Gum;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1095-1102
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    • 2011
  • The effect of mixed cultivation with green manure crops and liquid pig manure on rice growth was investigated. Field experiment in site 1 (Astragalus sinicus L.) and site 2 (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were designed with control (non-green manure crop), PLM 100 (non-green manure crop + liquid pig manure 100%), A(L)PLM 0 (green manure crop + PLM 0%), A(L)PLM 50 (green manure crop + PLM 50%), A(L)PLM 75 (green manure crop + PLM 75%), and A(L)PLM 100 (green manure crop + PLM 100%). The results of 1,000 grain in rice plant were in the order of APLM 100 ${\geqq}$ APLM 75 ${\fallingdotseq}$ PLM 100 ${\fallingdotseq}$ APLM 0 ${\fallingdotseq}$ APLM 50 ${\fallingdotseq}$ control for site 1 and LPLM 100 ${\geqq}$ LPLM 75 = LPLM 50 = PLM 100 ${\geqq}$ LPLM 0 ${\fallingdotseq}$ control for site 2. The yields of rice in site 1 and site 2 were $636kg\;10a^{-1}$ (increasing yield 10%) for APLM 100 and $775kg\;10a^{-1}$ (increasing yield 12%) for LPLM 100, respectively.

Evaluation of Legume Green Manure Crops for Spring-Sowing in the Central Regions of Korea (중부지역에서 이용 가능한 춘파용 두과 녹비작물 선발)

  • Cho, Hyeoun-Suk;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Seong, Ki-Yeung;Kim, Min-Tea;Lee, Jong-Ki;Kim, Chung-Guk;Jeong, Kwang-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.333-338
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    • 2010
  • The use of green manure crop for sustainable agriculture can reduce the use of chemical fertilizer and herbicides, and the cultivation area of the green manure crop has gradually increased. However, there has been little information about appropriate use of spring-sown green manure crop in the central regions of Korea. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different legume crops on application of sown green manure in spring. Each of the green manure crops including alfalfa, chinese milk vetch, crimson clover, crotalaria, hairy vetch, lupin, red clover and white clover was grown in upland soil of silt loam. The dry weight and C/N ratio of all crops increased throughout the growing period, while C/N ratio of all crops during growing period was lower than 25. The highest value of dry weight among the green manure crops was observed in crimson clover, followed by red clover, lupin, chinese milk vetch and alfalfa. Also, the highest value of contents of nitrogen, phosphous and potassium of green manure crops were observed in hairy vetch, alfalfa and crimson clover, respectively. And the values were 41.3, 4.3 and 35.9 g $kg^{-1}$, respectively. In terms of nitrogen yield, crimson clover that showed 71 kg N $ha^{-1}$ was the highest yield among the green manure crops, followed by chinese milk vetch of 51 kg $ha^{-1}$, red clover of 46 kg $ha^{-1}$, and hairy vetch of 41 kg $ha^{-1}$. These results suggest that crimson clover, chinese milk vetch, red clover, and hairy vetch could be a suitable green manure crop for spring sowing.

Reset of Cultivation Zones of Green Manure Crops under Paddy Field in South Korea: Focused on Minimum Temperature and Drainage Class (국내 주요 녹비작물 논재배 적지 재설정: 1월 평균 최저기온 및 배수등급을 기준으로)

  • Kim, Min-Tae;Kim, Kwang Seop;Park, Ki Do;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Choi, Jong-Seo;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Kim, Suk-Jin;Lee, Choon-Woo;Lee, Kyungdo;Kang, Hang-Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2015
  • Stable production of green manure crop is one of the critical factor for successful implementation of environmental-friendly agriculture in South Korea. Most green manure crops including hairy vetch cultivated in South Korea must be passed cold winter season. This study was conducted to establishment of cultivation zones on green manure crops under paddy field in South Korea using on minimum temperature and drainage class. In order to build the spatial distribution map, hairy vetch, triticale, barley, rye, and clover as green manure crop were selected and mean of daily minimum temperature and drainage class in paddy field were considered as limiting factor for stable growth of green manure crop. And cultivation zone on green manure crops was divided into two categories; 'Availability area' and 'Safety area'. Low limit temperature on green manure crops in this study was the following. Temperature on 'Availability area' was $-10^{\circ}C$, $-8^{\circ}C$, $-6^{\circ}C$, and $-20^{\circ}C$ for hairy vetch (including triticale), barley, clover, and rye respectively. And temperature on 'Safety area' was lower $-2^{\circ}C$ compared to that of 'Availability area' exception rye which was the same degree. Rye was expected to safely cultivated the almost whole paddy field (99.71%) of South Korea. 'Safety area' among the whole paddy field for hairy vetch, barley, and clover were 86.58, 53.06, and 15.76% respectively. The spatial distribution map of green manure crops reestablished in this study could be used the policy and agricultural management for environmental-friendly agriculture using green manure crops in South Korea.

Effects of Application of Liquid Pig Manure on Yield of Green manure in Single and Companion Cropping (청보리와 헤어리베치 단작 및 혼작 재배지에서 돈분액비 시용이 녹비생산량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Gyu;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kang, Se-Won;Seo, Young-Jin;Choi, Ik-Won;Jeon, Won-Tai;Kang, Ui-Gum;Kang, Hang-Won;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.805-809
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    • 2012
  • To evaluate the effects of liquid pig manure (LPM) on green manure crop yields, plant height and biomass of green manure crops were investigated in single and companion cropping. Green manure crops used for this experiment were Hordeum vulgare L. (green barley) and Vicia villosa roth (hairy vetch). Field experiment was designed with LPM 1.65 (LPM of $1.65ton\;10a^{-1}$ + single and companion green crops), LPM 3.3 (LPM of $3.3ton\;10a^{-1}$ + single and companion green crops) and LPM 6.6 (LPM of 6.6$6.6ton\;10a^{-1}$ + single and companion green crops). In single cropping, plant height were high in LPM 3.3. In companion cropping, plant height were high in LPM 6.6. Thus, we found that application of LPM is general enough to reduce use of chemical fertilizer. Also, optimum application level in single cropping would be LPM 3.3 and in companion cropping would be higher than LPM 3.3.

Establishment of suitable rice cultivar in relation to improvement soil physical and chemical properties on paddy field

  • Jo, Won-Sam;Kim, Kyung-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.137-137
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    • 2017
  • Rice has important role as a primary food resource in especially the Asia, Korea, China, India, Indonesia and Japan. After development and increasingly using artificial chemical fertilizer, rice is getting high quality and quantity to satisfy ever-increasing people. On the other hand, the earth environment is more polluted each day. Nowadays consumers are looking for the organic crops or foods that were grown with eco-friendly method and in pure farmland. With the immergence of this trend, it is time to development environmentally-friendly agriculture. One of the methods is growing green manure crops in winter or spring on the fields. For this reasons, growing rye and Italian ryegrass are useful to use green manure to enhance rice production without chemical fertilizers and make the property of the soil eco-friendly. To know how improve the quality and quantity of rice with green manures, rye and Italian ryegrass, first the characteristics of green manure corps were measured. Dry matter yields of the rye and Italian ryegrass were 2.21 and $1.81t\;Ha^{-1}$. And the percentages of the dry matter were 28 and 32%. And, analyzed mineral components in rye and Italian ryegrass were nitrogen, organic matter, $P_2O_5$, CaO, $C_2O$ and MgO. Specially, the percentages of the organic matter and the CaO between rye and Italian ryegrass have difference appreciably. the height of the rice on the Italian ryegrass-fertilized field was the highest among the variant fields. The height of the rice on the non-fertilized field was the lowest. Yield of the Italian ryegrass-, rye- and non-fertilized rice are 805.2, 639.9 and $415.3kg\;10a^{-1}$. At the result, Italian ryegrass is the most effective green manure among the 3 treated-fertilized.

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Estimated Nutrient Production in Green Manure Crops as Affected by Seeding of Orchardgrass and Various Clovers in a Pear Orchard (배 과수원에서 오차드그라스와 여러 종류의 클로버 혼파에 따른 녹비작물의 양분공급량 추정)

  • Lim, Kyeong-Ho;Kim, Wol-Soo;Choi, Hyun-Sug;Hwang, In-Taek;Lee, Jin-Woo;Lee, You-Seok;Choi, Kyeong-Ju;Lee, Youn;Song, Jang-Hoon;Cho, Young-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.543-551
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate nutrient production of both orchardgrass and several clovers as a green manure in a 'Niitaka' pear (Pyrus pyriforia) orchard. The experiment was conducted at diligent farmer in Boseong in Chonnam on March 26 of 2010, and the treatments included; 1) orchard grass (2.0kg/$1,000m^2$), 2) orchard grass (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$)+ladino clover (1.0 kg/$1,000m^2$), 3) orchard grass (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$)+red clover (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$), and 4) orchard grass (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$) +white clover (1.0kg/$1,000m^2$). Lengths of orchardgrass and clovers were greater in July than those of June and September. Seeding of orchardgrass without clovers in June and July increased dry weight of green manure crops compared with the seeding of orchardgrass with clovers, resulting in greater annual total dry weight. Various green manure treatments produced different amounts of total N and $P_2O_5$ from each raw materials and did not satisfy amounts of those nutrients for proper annual growth of ten- to twelve-year-old pear tree. Amounts of $K_2O$ producing from green manures, however, satisfied for proper growth of the pear trees.

Effect of Green Manure Crop on Growth and Medicinal Ingredients of Platycodon grandiflorum Radix (풋거름작물에 따른 도라지의 생육 및 약용성분 변화)

  • Jeon, Seung-Ho;Rho, Il-Rae;Kim, Young-Guk;Shim, Doo-Bo;Cho, Young-Son
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.233-243
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of green manure crop on growth characteristics and saponin contents of Platycodin grandiflorum Ridix roots for organic farming. Rye, hairy vetch and rye+hairy vetch were cultivated as green manure crops with several different methods before transplanting P. grandiflorum Radix. In root width and number of fine-roots, when the highest scores (23.9 mm, 25.7) was recorded in rye pre-cultibated plot in $2^{nd}$ year cultivation. Fresh weight of the Platycodin grandiflorum Ridix root was no significant difference among the different green manure crop treatments, but fresh weights of the Platycodin grandiflorum Ridix root of all green manure crop treatments were higher than that of control. The total content of saponin was highest detected in Platycodin grandiflorum Ridix roots of the hairy vetch plot (1,106 mg/100 g) and rye plot (1,693 mg/100 g) in $1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ year cultivation, respectively. Therefore, we confirmed that precultivation of the green manure crops showed significant differences in the growth characteristics and saponin contents of the Platycodin grandiflorum Ridix root, and growth and saponin contents in the Platycodin grandiflorum Ridix root of rye precultivated plot was much higher in $2^{nd}$ year cultivation than $1^{st}$ year cultivation.

Estimation of Soybean N Fraction Derived from N Sources by $^{15}N$ in Soybean Cultivation with Rye as Green Manure (호밀녹비 이용 시 중질소($^{15}N$)를 이용한 질소원 유래별 콩의 집적질소 분획추정)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Seong-Hee;Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Jae-Eun;Lee, Chung-Keun;Kwon, Young-Up
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2008
  • Winter season cultivation of rye as green manure for soybean have been a favorite with farmer because it could remove a risk of injury by continuous cropping and increase N uptake and yield of soybean. Effects of rye green manure on soybean N uptake, $N_2$ fixation and yield were investigated with $^{15}N$ as pot experiment in greenhouse in 2004 and field in 2005, respectively. The N derived from N fertilizer ($^{15}N$) in rye green manure increased with increasing of N fertilizer rate compared to N derived from soil. N uptake and DM yield of soybean at the pot with paddy soil was higher than those at the pot with upland soil mainly due to the increase of N uptake from paddy soil. Total $^{15}N$ recovery in soil was higher at rye green manure than no green manure because $^{15}N$ applied to rye plant was remained highly as soil organic N compared to chemical N fertilizer. $^{15}N$ recovery in soybean plant increased in proportion to amounts of N fertilizer applied to rye. The N fractions from $N_2$ fixation of soybean plant at the pot experiment in 2004 ranged from 92% to 95%, on the other hand those in field experiment in 2005 ranged from 82% to 84%. Estimation of amount of $N_2$ fixation was not different between Difference method and $^{15}N$ method in 2004 and 2005.

Treatment Effect of Green Manure Crops on Content of γ-Oryzanols from Korean Rice Variety, Unkwangbyeo (녹비 작물 처리에 따른 운광벼 중 감마오리자놀 변화)

  • Kim, Heon-Woong;Shin, Jae-Hyeong;Lee, Min-Ki;Lee, Sung-Hyeon;Jang, Hwan-Hee;Cho, Hyun-Suk;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Kim, Jung-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are a nutritionally important group of rice secondary metabolites. The ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol content and composition were found to vary with enviromental factors such as growth temperature, varietal origin, and cultivation method. Therefore, the effect of green manure treatments will be also be an important factor in their content. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ${\gamma}$-Oryzanols extracted using dichloromethane/methanol were analyzed equipped liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. A total of ten components of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol including ${\Delta}7$-stigmastenyl ferulate were isolated of which, cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and sitosteryl ferulate were identified as the major components in Korean rice variety, Unkwang. The ${\gamma}$-oryzanol content in rice, in the presence of nitrogen fertilization using green manure was similar to conventional nitrogen fertilization, but was higher than the control(no fertilizations). The ${\gamma}$-oryzanol ontent in rice, in the presence of hairy vetch as green manure crop was the highest compared to other crops (opium-poppy, crimson clover, cornflower). As a result of PLS-DA using SIMCA 11.0 ver. as multivariate analysis program on the basis of total data, in all samples, the specific pattern and cluster of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol scores according to green manure crops and conditions were confirmed with possible distinguishing nitrogen effects. CONCLUSION: The nitrogen contained in the green manure crops is considered to play a major role in the formation of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol. Hairy vetch which contains higher nitrogen increased the concentration of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol in rice.

Effects of Winter Cover Crop of Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Soil Conservation Practices on Soil Erosion and Quality in the Sloping Uplands

  • Kim, Su-Jung;Yang, Jae-E.;Park, Chol-Soo;Jung, Yeong-Sang;Cho, Byong-Ok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2007
  • Most of the uplands in alpine regions during off-season are left as bare soil and thus vulnerable to severe erosion due to the inherent topographical conditions. Appropriate management strategy to cope with this problem is urgently needed, yet few researches have been reported on the effects of winter cover crop and management on soil erosion. We assessed effects of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) as cover crop, green manure or mulching residue on soil erosion and quality through field and segment plot lysimeter experiments in alpine uplands. Ryegrass successfully adopted to winter in alpine region based on biomass, nutrient contents, and vigors of top and root systems. Incorporation of ryegrass into soil maintained soil fertility, nutrient uptake, and yield of cabbage exerting potential use as green manure. Cultivation of ryegrass suppressed occurrence of Chinese cabbage pests. Surface coverage by ryegrass as cover crop and mulching residue significantly reduced soil loss up to 96%, when combined with soil conservation management practices. Results revealed maintaining cover crop over winter was beneficial in reducing soil erosion, and sustaining soil quality and Chinese cabbage productivity. This study suggested winter cover crop, followed by green manure and mulching, and conservation tillage system could be one of the best management practices in alpine sloping uplands cultivating Chinese cabbage.