• Title, Summary, Keyword: Green manure

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Effect of Green Manure Cultivations on Yield and Anthocyanin Content in Organic Grapevine (녹비작물 재배가 유기포도 수량 및 안토시아닌 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jun-Hong;Park, Sang-Jo;Kwon, Oh-Heun;Choi, Seong-Yong;Park, So-Deuk
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2015
  • In sustainable viticulture, green manure represents a safe and non-polluting way to bring large quantities of organic matter into the soil. The cultivation of green manure crops plays an important role in soil quality and sustainability of agricultural system. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of green manure fertilization on yield and quality of the Campbell Early grape variety in the organic vineyard. Hairy vetch was the more productive green manure crop, yielding higher dry materials. Average yields of grape were significantly greater in hairy vetch+rye ($13.02ton\;ha^{-1}$) than nature weed ($11.65ton\;ha^{-1}$), respectively. The concentrations of total as well as individual anthocyanins were consistently higher with hairy vetch treatment compared with rye and nature weed, thus making the green manure cultivation is an environmentally friendly cultivation to increase the yield and anthocyanin contents in organic grape.

Effects of Green Manures and Complemental Fertilization on Growth and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Chinese Cabbages Cultivated in Organic Systems (녹비작물과 추비방법이 유기재배 배추의 생육과 질소 이용효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Jung-Lai;An, Nan-Hee;Nam, Hong-Sik;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.731-743
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of green manures and complemental fertilization with oil cake or liquid fertilizer on growth and nitrogen use efficiency of Chinese cabbage cultivated in organi systems. Field experiments were carried out at the National Institute of Agricultural Science in Suwon, South Korea from 2012 to 2014. Two green manure crops, Crotalaria and Hairy vetch, was cultivated in summer and in winter, respectively. The application methods of the green manure consisted of three tillage systems (overall tillage, partial tillage and no tillage). Oil cake and liquid fertilizer were used as complemental fertilizer. The results showed that when used as covering material in the upland soil without tillage, green manure fertilization was more effective in increasing growth and yield of Chinese cabbage than when incorporated into soil. It was possible to grow and harvest Chinese cabbage in the spring season by the application of hairy vetch as winter green manure. The higher yield of Chinese cabbage with green manure application was caused by the lower incidence rate of soft rot and tip-burn. The yield of the Chines cabbage that received green manure applications over two consecutive seasons followed by the supplemental fertilization with oil cake was similar to that of the conventional chemical fertilization. Following a single season green manure application in summer, however, the yield of cabbage was only about 70% of the conventional treatment. Green manure cultivation with additional liquid fertilization produced a yield similar to the conventional fertilization treatment, soil inorganic nitrogen concentration remained stable and the nitrogen use efficiency increased in the green manure applied soil. In conclusion, the organic cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the autumn season could be outperformed in the upland soil receiving two seasons (winter and summer) of green manure fertilization followed by the supplemental fertilization with liquid fertilizer.

Effect of Tillage and No-tillage of Winter Green Manure Crops on Yield of Red Pepper in Plastic Film House (비가림하우스 동계 녹비작물의 경운과 무경운이 고추 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Won, Jong-Gun;Jang, Kil-Su;Hwang, Ji-Eun;Kwon, Oh-Hun;Kwon, Tae-Young;Cho, Jeong-Rae
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2012
  • To determine the effect of winter green manure crops for tillage and no-tillage organic pepper cultivation in plastic film house, five different green manure crops were cultivated during winter season. In nutrition composition of green manure crops, total nitrogen contents were higher in Vicia hirsuta and Vicia angustifolia than any other crops. The average dry weights of green manure crops were 8.3 ton per ha in tillage and 7.0 ton per ha in no-tillage, among green manure crops that of Secale cereale was the highest. Fertilizer supply was depended on the biomass of the cultivated green manure crops and nutrition contents, total nitrogen supply of V. angustifolia was 226 kg and that of S. cereale was 251 kg per ha in tillage field. In no-tillage field, N-supply of V. angustifolia was 197 kg and that of S. cereale was 222 kg per ha. In yield components of red pepper, fruit numbers per plant were 55.5 in green manure crop tillage and 37.0 in no-tillage cultivation. Among green manure crops, the yield of dried red pepper was the highest for V. angustifolia in both green manure crop tillage and no-tillage cultivation.

Monoculture and Mixture Effects of Green Manure Crops on Soil Quality, Weed Suppression and Organic Red-pepper Production

  • Lee, Sang-Min;Jung, Jung-Ah;Choi, Bong-Su;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Lee, Jong-Sik;Song, Beom-Heon;Sung, Jwa-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.581-590
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    • 2011
  • Organic farming is rapidly expanding worldwide. Crop growth in organic systems greatly depends on the functions performed by soil microbes, and nutrient supply weed suppression by green manure crops input. Four red-pepper production systems were compared: 1) bare ground (conventional system); 2) hairy vetch monoculture; 3) rye monoculture; and 4) hairy vetch-rye mixture. Soil inorganic N reached the peak at 30 DAI and hairy vetch monoculture was the highest ($192mg\;kg^{-1}$) and soil total carbon was fluctuated sporadically during the experiment. Carbohydrate and phenolic compounds in soil kept significantly higher in green manure crops systems from 10 DBI to 30 DAI, however the level was the maximum at 10 DBI (carbohydrate) and 30 DAI (phenolic comounds). Incorporation of green manure crops residue enhanced soil microbial biomass C and N throughout the growing season except that MBN in rye was reduced after incorporation. Green manure crops systems suppressed weed occurrence and, in particular, it was prominent in rye monoculture. Mineral elements composition and production in red-pepper fruits were markedly decreased in green manure crops systems although hairy vetch monoculture has come close to bare ground (NPK-applied). Therefore, it was suggested that higher biomass production should be performed not only to improve soil quality and suppress weeds but to yield suitable red-pepper fruits in green manure crops-based organic farming.

Effects of Green Manure Crops on Red-pepper Yields and Soil Physico-chemical Properties in the Vinyl House (시설재배지 녹비작물 재배가 고추의 수량과 토양 이화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seung-Koo;Seo, Youn-Won;Lee, You-Seok;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Ma, Kyung-Cheel;Lim, Kyeong-Ho;Kim, Hong-Jae;Kim, Jung-Guen;Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.215-228
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    • 2011
  • To establish the organic cultivation of pepper using green manure crops, this work studied the growth characteristics and yield of green manure crops, mineral composition of green manure crops, mineral uptake in shoots of green manure crops, chemical composition in soil of green manure crops, and the growth characteristics and yield of pepper in vinyl house. Shoot dry weight of green manure crops was higher level in Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum than in Crotalaria juncea and Glycine max. Also, the roots were spread deeply into soil in Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum. Density of root-knot nematodes in rhizosphere of green manure crops was significantly more decrease in Crotalaria juncea and Sorghum than in Glycine max and Sorghum bicolor. Total nitrogen and CaO content of green manure crops was significantly higher in Crotalaria juncea and Glycine max than in Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum. $K_2O$ content was significantly higher in Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum than in Crotalaria juncea and Glycine max. MgO content was not significant difference at all green manure crops. Cations content ratio of $K_2O$ : CaO : MgO was 3.4 : 1.4 : 1. Total nitrogen uptake in shoots of green manure crops was high level in Glycine max, Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum compared with in Crotalaria juncea. $K_2O$ and MgO uptake was significantly higher in Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum than in Crotalaria juncea and Glycine max. Value of pH in soil of green manure crops was more increase in Crotalaria juncea and Glycine max than in Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum and control, but after cultivation of pepper pH in soil was recovered with initial soil pH before seeding of green manure crops. EC value in control, green manure crops, and pepper cultivation decreased by 44%, 15~18%, and 38~61% level, respectively, compared with initial soil of green manure crops treatment. K content in soil of control, Crotalaria juncea and Glycine max cultivation was increased by 14%, but the K content in soil of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum decreased by 24~38%. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) in soil of Crotalaria juncea and Sorghum bicolor decreased by 11%, but CEC in soil of Glycine max, Sorghum and control increased by 11%. Harvest fruit yield was higher in Crotalaria juncea, Glycine max, and Sorghum bicolor cultivation than in control and Sorghum.

Comparisons of Chemical Composition and Forage Yield Among Winter Green Manure Crops (동계 녹비작물 초종별 화학성분 및 생산성 비교)

  • 서정호;이호진;허일봉;김시주;김충국;조현숙
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2000
  • Plant characteristics of four winter crop hairy vetch, red clover, crimson clover and rye as green manure were evaluated at three harvesting time(Apri1 23, May 9, May 28) in spring to select superior winter green manure crop. Rye and hairy vetch had superior wintering ability and produced high dry matter compared with crimson clover and red clover. But N amount of rye was small because of its low plant N% despite of early dry matter accumulation. Wintering ability of crimson clover was very poor, so its dry matter decreased rapidly with low seeding rate. Hairy vetch had high N % (4%, C:N ratio 11) and produced high N yield among four plant. It is estimated that hairy vetch have high N-fixing ability because its N% was not changed largely despite of dry matter accumulation at late harvesting time contrast to the other legume. It was thought that hairy vetch was superior green manure crop in considering yield of dry matter and N. (Key words : Winter legumes, Hairy vetch, Green manure yield, Nitrogen concentration)

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Use of Hairy Vetch Green Manure as Nitrogen Fertilizer for Corn Production

  • Seo, Jong-ho;Lee, Ho-jin;Hur, Il-bong;Kim, Si-ju;Kim, Chung-kuk;Jo, Hyeon-suk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.294-299
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    • 2000
  • Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) winter annual is very effective on reducing chemical nitrogen fertilizer for subsequent com by fixed organic green manure nitrogen fixed during hairy vetch growth. In this experiment, hairy vetch produced above-ground dry matter of 5 ton/ha, nitrogen yield 200 kgN/ha, at com planting on the average during 1997 and 1998. Changes in com yield and nitrogen uptake for two years were investigated after application of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kgN/ha on plot of winter fallow and hairy vetch green manure, respectively. Nitrogen status such as ear-leaf N%, SPAD value at silk and dough stage, and com yield decreased in proportion to reduction of nitrogen fertilizer at winter fallow, but nitrogen status and yield of com were not different among nitrogen fertilizer rate at hairy vetch green manure. Com yield (total dry matter) at 0 kgN/ha plot of hairy vetch was 22, 20 ton/ha in 1997, 1998, respectively and com could produce more dry matter 9, 13 ton/ha by hairy vetch green manure compared with winter fallow under the condition of no nitrogen fertilizer in 1997, 1998, respectively. Com yield (total dry matter) at 60kgN/ha of hairy vetch green manure was higher than that of high N fertilizer rate such as 180, 240 kgN/ha of winter fallow. Nitrogen uptake of com at plot of hairy vetch-no nitrogen fertilizer slightly decreased than at plot of hairy vetch - nitrogen fertilizer, but com absorbed more nitrogen of 141, 159 kgN/ha by hairy vetch green manure compared with winter fallow under no nitrogen fertilizer condition in 1997, 1998, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer reduction for com by hairy vetch green manure was 149, 161kgN/ha in 1997, 1998, respectively. Still more, com could absorb more soil nitrogen by nitrogen fertilizer 60kgN/ha of hairy vetch green manure than by high nitrogen fertilizer such as 180, 240 kgN/ha at winter fallow. It is concluded that nitrogen fertilizer for corn could be reduced by winter cultivation and soil incorporation of hairy vetch at com planting.

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Effects of Green Manure Crops on Improvement of Chemical and Biological Properties in Soil (토양 화학성 및 생물학성 변화에 대한 녹비작물 시용 효과)

  • Choi, Bong-Su;Jung, Jung-Ah;Oh, Mi-Kyung;Jeon, Sang-Ho;Goh, Hyun-Gwan;Ok, Yong-Sik;Sung, Jwa-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.650-658
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    • 2010
  • We used green manure crops such as hairy vetch, crimson clover, rye, sorghum, and sudan grass by mixing with soils to assess the effects of green manure crops on nutrient supply and soil quality improvement. Temporal changes in soil inorganic nitrogen, carbohydrate, microbial biomass, and humus content were determined as soil quality indicators. Inorganic nitrogen content of the control maintained similar level during the whole period, but it had continually increased until 4 weeks after incorporation (WAI) of green manure crops. Especially, inorganic nitrogen content sharply increased in sudan grass. After incorporation of green manure crops, temporal change of soluble sugar in soils was as follows: it had gradually increased in legume green manure crops-incorporated soils until 7 WAI, which was the highest, and then showed the tendency to be reduced. Meanwhile, it in non-legume green manure crops-incorporated soils rapidly increased after the incorporation, and reached the maximum around 4 WAI. Humic acid by the decomposition of crop residues in green manure crops-incorporated soils was greatly enhanced with the elapsed time of 4 WAI, although it was low at the same level as the control until 2 weeks. In addition, there was a difference in fulvic acid by incorporated crops, fulvic acid in hairy vetch, sorghum and sudan grass showed a similar tendency with the change in humic acid. Our results suggest that soluble sugar, microbial activity and humic acid could be available indicators to evaluate the fertility of green manure crops-incorporated soils.

Differences in Soil Improvement Effects of Four Green Manure Crops in Greenhouse Cultivation (녹비작물 도입에 따른 토마토 시설재배지 연작장해 토양 개량 효과)

  • Son, Cho-Yee;Jung, Yu-Jin;Lee, In-Hye;Kang, Ui-Gum;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Nou, II-Sup;Kang, Kwon-Kyoo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.636-641
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    • 2011
  • Four different green manure crops, hairy vetch, Italian ryegrass, crimson clover, orchard grass were cultivated to test the differences in their effects on soil improvement. After plowing to incorporate the green manure crops, tomato plants were grown as a succeeding crop to investigate the effects of green manure on the soil physical properties and plant growths. The experimental results showed that green manure could decrease the soil hardness. Italian ryegrass and hairy vetch as the green manure were especially effective in decreasing the soil hardness. Orchard grass and Italian ryegrass provided more void in soil matrix, resulting increased soil moisture contents. After two months, bulk density was decreased in the plots of Italian ryegrass and orchard grass. However, there were no significant differences between green manure plots and control after the cultivation of the succeeding crop. The results indicated that the growing Italian ryegrass and hairy vetch as green manure helped growing tomato plants. Orchard grass also improved the soil characteristics, comparable to Italian ryegrass in spite of their relatively small biomass.

Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance in Green Manure-Rice Cropping Systems without Incorporation of Green Manure Crops (녹비작물 무 환원-벼 작부체계에서 질소와 인산수지 평가)

  • Kim, TaeYoung;Daquiado, Aileen Rose;Alam, Faridul;Lee, YongBok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.308-312
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: The nutrient balance in Korea during 1985-2006 had continually increased and maintained the highest levels among OECD countries. The use of green manure crops such as barley and hairy vetch is common practice for reducing chemical fertilizer application and maintaining soil fertility. However, green manure crops can also be used as a livestock feeding material which may reduce nutrient balance in the national scale. We calculated nitrogen and phosphate balance under green manure-rice cultivating system where all green manure was removed and used for feeding livestock. METHODS AND RESULTS: The barley and hairy vetch grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing rates were tested for rice cultivation without chemical fertilization. The conventional fertilization (NPK) for rice cultivation was selected to compare nutrient balance with green manure-rice cultivation. Nitrogen and phosphate balance were calculated according to the surface balance method of the PARCOM guidelines. Total aboveground biomass of mixture (barley and hairy vetch) was higher compared to that of pure barley or hairy vetch. Among the mixture with barley and hairy vetch, the highest aboveground biomass was observed in B75H25 (barley 75%+hairy vetch 25%). The nitrogen and phosphate balance in the B75H25 mixture was-104 kg N/ha and-50.3 kg P/ha, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The barley and hairy vetch mixture proved to be a very effective strategy for biomass production of green manure. The amount of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer to be applied is estimated to be 104 kg N/ha and 50.3 kg P/ha in order to maintain soil fertility if all green manure and rice straw were removed from rice field for livestock feeding.