• Title, Summary, Keyword: Green Rice$^{(R)}$

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Effect of Harvesting Time on the Yield, Color, and Proximate Compositions of Jinbu Variety Green Rice®

  • Kim, Hoon;Lee, Se-Eun;Kim, Dong-Chul;Keum, Dong-Hyuk;Park, Soo-Jin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.381-385
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    • 2011
  • The degree of maturity of rice greatly affects the quality of the rice, including factors such as the integrity of grains, color, and the nutritive components. Green Rice$^{(R)}$ is rice (Oryza sativa L.) that has been harvested earlier than brown rice and appears green in color. To determine suitable harvesting time of the Jinbu variety of Green Rice$^{(R)}$ in Gyeonggido, rice samples harvested on 23, 26 and 42 days after heading (DAH) were compared on their yield, color intensity, and proximate compositions. The maximum paddy yield of Green Rice$^{(R)}$ was 61.4% at 23 DAH, which decreased to 45.4%, 5.5% at 26 and 42 DAH, respectively. Greenness was darker at 23 DAH ($-0.27{\pm}0.03$), and significantly weaker (p<0.05) at 26 DAH ($0.07{\pm}0.01$) and at 42 DAH ($5.25{\pm}0.08$). All proximate compositions, except carbohydrate, including moisture, crude fat, protein, ash and total minerals were higher in the earlier-harvested Green rice$^{(R)}$ than in brown rice, without variations among the 23 and 26 DAH Green rice$^{(R)}$. Overall, the optimum harvest time of Jinbu Green Rice$^{(R)}$ at Gyeonggido would be 23 DAH. We suggest that timely harvesting could be a potent determinant of the quality of Green Rice$^{(R)}$.

Selection of Optimal Vegetation Indices and Regression Model for Estimation of Rice Growth Using UAV Aerial Images

  • Lee, Kyung-Do;Park, Chan-Won;So, Kyu-Ho;Na, Sang-Il
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.409-421
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    • 2017
  • Recently Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology offers new opportunities for assessing crop growth condition using UAV imagery. The objective of this study was to select optimal vegetation indices and regression model for estimating of rice growth using UAV images. This study was conducted using a fixed-wing UAV (Model : Ebee) with Cannon S110 and Cannon IXUS camera during farming season in 2016 on the experiment field of National Institute of Crop Science. Before heading stage of rice, there were strong relationships between rice growth parameters (plant height, dry weight and LAI (Leaf Area Index)) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) using natural exponential function ($R{\geq}0.97$). After heading stage, there were strong relationships between rice dry weight and NDVI, gNDVI (green NDVI), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), CI-G (Chlorophyll Index-Green) using quadratic function ($R{\leq}-0.98$). There were no apparent relationships between rice growth parameters and vegetation indices using only Red-Green-Blue band images.

Quality characteristics of short bread cookies with added green whole grain rice powder (Whole Green Rice Powder를 첨가한 쇼트 브레드 쿠키의 품질 특성)

  • Paik, Seung-Hee;Lee, Eui-Seok;Hong, Soon-Taek;Ku, Ja-Hyeong;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.377-383
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    • 2013
  • Premature-green rice is typically obtained by early harvest when culms of rice still appear green in color, and the rice and its food products have been considered as wellbeing foods. This study was carried out to determine the quality characteristics of cookies made from flour added with 10, 20, and 30% whole green rice powde r(WGRP) of two kinds of Hopum and Shinsun waxy rice. The quality characteristics of cookies, including pH, spread factor, color, hardness, and sensory properties, were estimated. WGRP with different levels of 10, 20, and 30% was added into powder for preparing cookies, and their quality properties were evaluated. The pH and hardness of the cookies increased, while spread factor showed highest added with 20% Hopum and Shinsun waxy rice. The color (L) of cookies decreased 20% added with Hopum and Shinsun waxy rice. The sensory properties of cookies was highest added with 20% Hopum and 10% Shinsun waxy rice. The result of this study suggest that addition of 20% Hopum and 10% Shinsun waxy rice are available rice cookies. It was concluded that WGRP may have a potential in bakery industry as a new food material.

Algorithm for Discrimination of Brown Rice Kernels Using Machine Vision (기계시각을 이용한 현미의 개체 품위 판별 알고리즘 개발)

  • 노상하;황창선;이종환
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 1997
  • An ultimate purpose of this study was to develop an automatic system for brown rice quality inspection using image processing technique. In this study emphasis was put on developing an algorithm for discriminating the brown rice kernels depending on their external quality with a color image processing system equipped with an adaptor magnifying the input image and optical fiber for oblique lightening. Primarily, geometical and optical features of images were analyzed with paddy and the various brown rice kernel samples such as a sound, cracked, peen-transparent, green-opaque, colored, white-opaque and brokens. Secondary, geometrical and optical parameters significant for identifying each rice kernels were screened by a statistical analysis(STEPWISE and DISCRIM procedure, SAS wer. 6) and an algorithm fur on- line discrimination of the rice kernels in static state were developed, and finally its performance was evaluated. The results are summarized as follows. 1) It was ascertained that the cracked kernels can be detected when e incident angle of the oblique light is less than 2$0^{\circ}C$ but detectivity was significantly affected by the angle between the direction of the oblique light and the longitudinal axis of the rice kernel and also by the location of the embryo with respect to the oblique light. 2) The most significant Parameters which can discriminate brown rice kernels are area, length and R, B and r values among the several geometrical and optical parameters. 3) Discrimination accuracies of the algorithm were ranged from 90% to 96% for a sound, cracked, colored, broken and unhulled, about 81 % for green-transparent and white-opaque and 75 % for green-opaque, respectively.

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Determination of Optimal Harvest Time of Chuchung Variety Green Rice® (Oryza sativa L.) with High Contents of GABA, γ-Oryzanol, and α-Tocopherol

  • Kim, Hoon;Kim, Oui-Woung;Ha, Ae Wha;Park, Soojin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2016
  • In our previous study, an early-maturing variety of rice (Oryza sativa L.), Jinbu can have feature with unique green color, various phytochemicals as well as nutritive components by the optimal early harvesting, called Green Rice$^{(R)}$ (GR). The aims of the present field experiments were to evaluate the changes in the weight of 1,000 kernels, yield, and contents of proximate and bioactive compounds in Chuchung, a mid-late maturing variety, during the pre-harvest maturation of rough rice and to research the appropriate harvest time and potent bioactivity of Chuchung GR. The weights of 1,000 kernels of Chuchung GR dramatically increased until 27 days after heading (DAH). The yields of Chuchung GR declined after 27 DAH and significantly declined to 0.0% after 45 DAH. The caloric value and total mineral contents were higher in the GR than in the full ripe stage, the brown rice (BR). In the GR, the contents of bioactive compounds, such as ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol, were much higher (P<0.05) than those in the BR, specifically during 24~27 DAH. Therefore, bioactive Chuchung GR can be produced with a reasonable yield at 24~27 DAH and it could be useful for applications in various nutritive and functional food products.

Effects of Partial Replacement of Corn Grain and Soybean Meal with Agricultural By-Product Feeds on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Optimum Levels of Mixing Ratio (농산부산물을 이용한 In Vitro 반추위발효 특성 및 적정 배합수준을 통한 옥수수 및 대두박 대체 효과)

  • Park, Joong-Kook;Lim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Sang-Bum;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Hyun-June;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Cho, Won-Mo;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.441-450
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of partial replacement of corn grain and soybean meal with agricultural by-product feeds on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and optimum levels of mixing ratio. The agricultural by-products to examine the effectiveness of the partial replacement of concentrate were wheat bran, corn gluten feed, bakery waste, soybean curd, rice bran, green kernel rice, soybean hull, distillers' grain, and mushroom substrate. In the first experiment, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of feedstuffs were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after incubation. In the second experiment, fermentation characteristics were investigated with green kernel rice and soybean curd which replaced corn grain or soybean meal. Feed were formulated with 40% corn grain + 20% soybean meal (T1), 40% corn grain + 17.5% soybean meal + 2.5% soybean curd (T2), 25% corn grain + 20% soybean meal + 15% green kernel rice (T3), and 30% corn grain + 15% soybean meal + 6% green kernel rice + 9% soybean curd (T4), respectively, with forage source of 10% alfalfa hay, 20% timothy hay, and 10% corn silage as fed-basis. In 24 and 48 hour cultivations, T4 showed significantly lower pH compared to T1, whereas in 3 and 24 hour cultivations, T4 showed significantly higher DM degradation compared to T1. In addition, the gas production of T3 was also higher than T1 (p<0.05). Overall results of the present experiments indicated that green kernel rice and soybean curd as agricultural by-products have the possibility of partial replacements of corn grain and soybean meal.

The Development of Functional Beverage from the Inner Skin of the Chestnut Castanea crenata ( II ) -Physiological Effects of Chestnut Inner Skin Tea, Brown Rice-preen Tea and Cassia tora Tea in Mouse and Rat- (밤속껍질에서 기능성 음료의 개발(II) -밤차, 현미녹차 및 결명자차가 생체기능활성화에 미치는 효과-)

  • 전병관;정현우;이종률;지준명
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.411-418
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of chestnut inner skin tea, brown rice-green tea and Cassia lora tea on the activation of physiological functions (regional cerebral blood flow, mean arterial blood pressure, proliferation of immunocytes in vitro and in vitro, suppression of cancer cell proliferation) in mouse and rat. We used 8 weeks-old balb/c male mice, 300g ICR rats and L1210 cell lines. Regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) and mean arterial blood pressure(BP) were measured using Leser-Doppler Flowmetry(LDF) and the proliferation of cells was measured using a colorimetric tetrazolium assay(MTT assay). The experimental results are as follows : 1. rCBF was increased by Cassia tora tea, but decreased by chestnut inner skin tea in rats. 2. BP was increased by brown rice-green tea in rats. 3. Proliferation of mouse thymocytes and splenocytes were significantly increased by chestnut inner skin tea in vitro. 4. Proliferation of mouse thymocytes was decreased by Cassia tora tea and brown rice-green tea in vitro. 5. Proliferation of mouse thymocytes was decreased by Cassia tora tea and brown rice-green tea in L1210 transplanted mice. 6. Proliferation of splenocytes was accelerated by chestnut inner skin tea in L1210 transplanted mice. 7. Proliferation of L1210 cells was inhibited by chestnut inner skin tea and Cassia tora tea in L1210 transplanted mice.

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Estimation for N Fertilizer Application Rate and Rice (Oriza sativa L.) Biomass by Ground-based Remote Sensors (지상원격탐사 센서를 활용한 벼의 질소시비수준 및 생체량 추정)

  • Shim, Jae-Sig;Lee, Joeng-Hwan;Shin, Su-Jung;Hong, Soon-Dal
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.749-759
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    • 2012
  • A field experiment was conducted to selection of ground-based remote sensor and reflectance indices to estimate rice production, estimation of suitable season for ground-based remote sensor and N top dressing fertilizer application rate in 2010. Fertilizer application was determined by "Fertilizer management standard for crops" (National Academy of Agricultural Science, 2006). Four levels of N-fertilizer were applied as 0%, 70%, 100% and 130% by base N-fertilizer application and were fertilized as 70% of basal dressing and 30% as top dressing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Chucheong and Joonam (Korean cultivar) were planted on May 22, 2010 in sandy loam soil and harvested on October 6, 2010. Reflectance indices were measured 7 times from July 5 to August 23 by Crop circle-amber and red version and GreenSeeker-green and red version. Remote sensing angle from the sensor head to the canopy of rice was adjusted to $45^{\circ}$, $70^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ degree because of difference in the density of plant and the sensing angle. The reflectance indices obtained ground-based remote sensor were correlated with the biomass of rice at the early growth stage and at the harvest with $70^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ degree of sensor angle. The reflectance indices at the 52th Day After Transplanting (DAT) and the 59th DAT, critical season, were positively correlated with dry weight and nitrogen uptake. Specially NDVI at the 59th was significantly correlated with the mentioned parameters. Based on the result of this study, rNDVI by GreenSeeker on $70^{\circ}$ degree of angle at the 59th DAT in Chucheong and rNDVI by Crop Circle on $70^{\circ}$ degree of angle and gNDVI by GreenSeeker on $70^{\circ}$ degree of angle at the 59th DAT in Joonam can be useful for estimation of dry weight and nitrogen uptake. Moreover, sufficiency index estimated by reflectance index at the 59th DAT can be useful for the estimation of N-fertilizer level application and can be used as a model for N-top dressing fertilizer management.

Effect of Density Variation on the Natural Enemies and Rice Pests by Application Method and Time of Carbofuran Granules (Carbofuran 입제의 처리방법 및 시기가 벼의 해충과 천적의 밀도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Jeong-bu;Cho Dong-jin;Hah Jae-kyu;Chang Sun-deok;Bark Young-do
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.233-236
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    • 1984
  • Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Carbofuran 3G on the density variation of rice pests and their natural enemies in case the insecticide was treated two times as compared with usual trials in paddy field. Even the two times application of Carbofuran 3G in the nursery boxes of machine transplanting and paddy water trials obtain same results to pests, small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatllus), green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps), brown planthorper (Nilaparvata lugens), white back planthopper (Sogotella furcifera), rice stem bore (Chilo suppressalis), rice stem maggot (Chlorops oryzae), rice thrips (cloethrips oryzae) as compared with usual trials. The density of natural enemies, spiders and egg parasite, Anagrus sp. of planthoppers in the two times application part of Carbofuran 3G increased 2.4 fold as compared with usual trials.

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Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage

  • Kim, Jong Geun;Ham, Jun Sang;Li, Yu Wei;Park, Hyung Soo;Huh, Chul-Sung;Park, Byung-Chul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.950-956
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. Methods: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821) were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis. Fresh rice straw was ensiled with two isolated LAB (1821 and 1841), two commercial inoculants (HM/F and P1132) and no additive as a control. Results: After 2 months of storage at ambient temperature, rice straw silages treated with additives were well-preserved, the pH values and butyric and acetic acid contents were lower, and the lactic acid content and lactic/acetic acid ratio were higher than those in the control (p<0.05). Acidity (pH) was lowest, and lactic acid highest, in 1821-treated silage (p<0.05). The $NH_3-N$ content decreased significantly in inoculant-treated silage (p<0.05) and the $NH_3-N$ content in 1821-treated silage was lowest among the treatments. The dry matter (DM) content of the control silage was lower than that of fresh rice straw (p<0.05), while that of the 1841- and p1174-inoculant-treated silages was significantly higher than that of HM/F-treated silage. Microbial additives did not have any significant (p>0.05) effect on acid detergent fiber or neutral detergent fiber contents. Crude protein (CP) content and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) increased after inoculation of LAB 1821 (p<0.05). Conclusion: LAB 1821 increased the CP, IVDMD, lactic acid content and ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in rice straw silage and decreased the pH, acetic acid, $NH_3-N$, and butyric acid contents. Therefore, adding LAB 1821 improved the fermentation quality and feed value of rice straw silage.