• Title, Summary, Keyword: Grazing

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FOURWING SALTBUSH AS A WINTER MAINTENANCE FORAGE FOR SHEEP IN UPLAND BALOCHISTAN

  • Rehman, Atiq-ur;Rafique, Shahid;Aro, Richard S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 1990
  • Sixteen Harnai lambs were used in a completely randomized design to study the nutritive value of fourwing saltbush as a winter maintenance browse in comparison to native range grazing with or without protein and energy supplementation at Tomagh Range Livestock Research Station, in Loralai District, Balochistan. The animals were divided into four groups of four lambs each. These four groups were assigned four treatments at random: fourwing saltbush grazing alone, range grazing plus lucerne hay (100 g/head/day), range grazing plus barley grain (100 g/head/day) and range grazing alone for ten weeks. The results indicate that the two range grazing plus supplementation treatments produced weight gains which were not significantly different from each other (p < 0.05). Both of these treatments yielded significantly higher weight gains (p < 0.05) than did range grazing alone except for the last week of the study. Fourwing saltbush grazing provided cumulative weight gains at 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 weeks which were not significantly different from the range grazing plus lucerne hay treatment and gained an average of 6 percent in body weight over the 10 week period of study. The carrying capacity for sheep of a mature stand of fourwing saltbush was approximately 20 Sheep-kg-days (SKD) of grazing per cubic meter of foliage. Results of this study suggest that under fourwing saltbush grazing alone, lambs do not only maintain their body weights but can also gain weight in winter.

Effect of Grazing Stage and Intensity on the Forage Production and Nutritive Value in Orchargrass Dominant Pasture (Orchargrass 위주 혼파초지에서 방목시기와 강도가 초지생산성 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Sung;Shin, Jae-Soon;Lee, Joung-Kyong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 1996
  • A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of grazing stage and intensity on the forage production and nutritive value in orchardgrass dominant pasture, 1989 and 1990. The grazing stages were 20- 25m, 30-35cm and 40-45cm of plant height, and high and medium grazing intensity were set by the number of growing cows (initial body weight: 230-250kg), which was adJusted according to the pasture production. The high level of grazing intensity was 150% of medium intensity. Annual grazing frequency was 10 times in 20-25cm. 8 times in 30-35cm. and 6 times in 40-45cm of plant height. Dry matter(DM) yield was increased with increasing of plant height at grazing : 7,090kg in 20-25cm 7,882kg in 30-35n and 8,260 kgha in 40-45cm of height. Higher DM was observed at medium grazing intensity. In spring, daily DM production was more vigorous than those in summer and autumn season. Cmde protein (CP), digestible DM, and DM intake were decreased with increasing of plant height at grazing. CP content was 25.8% in 20-25cm 22.4% in 30-35m and 19.2% in 40-45cm, while the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were increased with higher plant height. Relative feed value was 11 1.2 in 20-25cm, 104.4 in 30-35n and 99.6 in 40-45cm. Also nutritive value of pre-grazing pasture plants was remarkably higher than that of post-grazing, and not significant differences of nutritive value were found between grazing intensity. From the above mults, it may be concluded that optimum plant height for grazing was 20-25cm and 30- 35cm in pasture mixtures dominated by orchardgms, and medium grazing intensity was very desirable for pasture productivity.

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Hematological analysis of the Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) according to the period and method of grazing

  • Choe, Changyong;Jung, Young-Hun;Do, Yoon Jung;Kang, Hee-Sung;Yoo, Jae-Gyu;Kim, Chan-Lan;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Song, Ru-hui;Park, Jinho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2018
  • Blood tests have been used to develop treatment plans, such as disease diagnosis, treatment effect, and prognosis determination in livestock. The present study examined changes in the blood count, including RBCs, WBCs, and platelets, before and after grazing among the Korean native cattle grazing from spring to autumn. The study compared the blood count of livestock group (A, n=34) that returned from the rangeland to cowshed every evening and livestock group (B, n=21) that were not returned from the rangeland to cowshed every evening during the grazing period. Hematological parameters such as RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte were determined using a blood cell analyzer. Livestock group (A) showed significant differences in the values of RBC, MCV, MCHC, WBC, EOS, and LYM. Livestock group (B) showed significant differences in the values of RBC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, PLT, NEU, and BAS. In particular, the RBC count decreased after grazing when compared with that before grazing. Compared with that before grazing, low RBC count was maintained from the first to fifth month of grazing. The WBC count increased from the fourth month of grazing, whereas the EOS count increased from the second month of grazing. These results suggest that the values of RBC and WBC vary before and after grazing, and also with the grazing period. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop a detailed feeding management based on these values of blood analysis for livestock that are raised continuously in the rangeland.

Effect of Extension of Grazing Duration in Late Autumn on Grass Growth in Following Spring (만추 방목기간의 연장이 이듬해 봄 목초의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • ;;Masahiko Okubo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2000
  • The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of extension of grazing duration in late autumn on grass growth in following spring, in order to improve the rate of self-sufficiency for roughage feed. Plant height, total biomass and litter production of herbage were increased when the grazing was finished early in late autumn. The proportions of clover and litter, and amounts of animal intake were decreased, with extended grazing duration in late autumn. But when the grazing was finished late in autumn, the contents of crude protein (CP, %) of herbage were increased, contents of acid detergent fiber (ADF, %), neutral detergent fiber (NDF, %) and crude ash (%) were decreased in pasture after grazing, therefore the contents of total digestible nutrients (TDN, %) and relative feed value (RFV) of herbage were improved. The early end grazing showed that plant height, total biomass and litter production of herbage in following spring were higher than those in late end grazing. However, increased yields were not significantly different among end grazing treatments (0.12-0.15 tonha), except for the final end grazing in late autumn (0.01 tonha). With extended grazing duration in late autumn, the contents of CP of herbage in following spring were increased, contents of ADF, were decreased, and RFV were improved. (Key words : Extension of grazing duration, Plant height, Biomass, Amount of intake, Increased yield, Crude protein, TDN) rll\ulcorner c# qiil x i 9 ~ 1 a% * (College of Natural Resources, Taegu Univ., Kyongsan, 71 2-714, Korea) * $4 4 qiil 34 qq(Co1lege of Liberal Arts & Sciences, Yonsei Univ., Wonju, 220-701, Korea) '* 8 * jL@%ft@ &@%(Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, 060 Japan)

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Effect of Restricted Grazing Time on the Foraging Behavior and Movement of Tan Sheep Grazed on Desert Steppe

  • Chen, Yong;Luo, Hailing;Liu, Xueliang;Wang, Zhenzhen;Zhang, Yuwei;Liu, Kun;Jiao, Lijuan;Chang, Yanfei;Zuo, Zhaoyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.711-715
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    • 2013
  • To investigate the effect of restricted grazing time on behavior of Tan sheep on desert steppe, forty 4-months old male Tan sheep with an original body weight (BW) of $15.62{\pm}0.33$ kg were randomly allocated to 4 grazing groups which corresponded to 4 different restricted grazing time treatments of 2 h/d (G2), 4 h/d (G4), 8 h/d (G8) and 12 h/d (G12) access to pasture. The restricted grazing times had a significant impact on intake time, resting time, ruminating time, bite rate and movement. As the grazing time decreased, the proportion of time spent on intake, bite rate and grazing velocity significantly (p<0.05) increased, but resting and ruminating time clearly (p<0.05) decreased. The grazing months mainly depicted effect on intake time and grazing velocity. In conclusion, by varying their foraging behavior, Tan sheep could improve grazing efficiency to adapt well to the time-limited grazing circumstance.

The Effects of Recording Interval on the Estimation of Grazing Behavior of Cattle in a Daytime Grazing System

  • Hirata, M.;Iwamoto, T.;Otozu, W.;Kiyota, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.745-750
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    • 2002
  • The effects of recording interval (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min) on the estimation of some grazing behavior variables in beef cows and calves (<4 months old) were investigated in a daytime grazing (7 h) system utilizing a bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) pasture (a 1.1 ha paddock and a 0.4 ha resting area). Recording intervals of 10-30 min tended to underestimate the time spent grazing and ruminating and overestimate the time spent resting by animals, whereas intervals of 1-5 min resulted in almost constant estimates. In all grazing activities, the errors of estimation became larger when the recording interval exceeded 5 min. The accuracy of estimation was higher for grazing time>rumination time>resting time. An increase in recording interval always decreased estimates of the distance walked by animals. It was concluded that recording intervals of 1-5 min provide reliable estimates of the time spent grazing, ruminating and resting. It was also concluded that positioning of animals at 1 min intervals may provide estimates of walking distance with acceptable bias toward underestimation.

ENERGY UTILIZATION MODELS OF CATTLE GRAZING IN OIL PALM PLANTATIONS I. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS

  • Dahlan, I.;Yamada, Y.;Mahyuddin, M.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 1995
  • Energy obtained by grazing cattle in oil palm plantations is usually used for maintenance of body functions, the construction of body tissues and pregnancy, the synthesis of milk and the conversion to mechanical energy used for activities such as walking, eating and others. In this study, attempt was made to estimate metabolizable energy (ME) requirement of grazing cattle. Models of ME requirement (MER) for maintenance, gain, pregnancy, lactation and activities were developed. ME system and units were used because of wide recognition. Estimation of ME intake in grazing cattle was expressed as MEVI = $14.58{\times}VI{\times}DMD$, and under grazing condition MEVI = $MER_i$. MER was expressed as a function of net energy(NER, MJ) required for the i'th body function. Coefficient of efficiency for conversion of ME into net energy(ki) was adopted from literatures. Quantifying of ME requirement for Kedah-Kelantan cattle under grazing condition was made by using equation MERM = NEM / kn. The estimated values of MER for Kedah-Kelantan cattle is quite reasonable if compared with other estimates as reported in literatures from stall-fed animals. Dynamic MER models for grazing herd was developed in order to estimate ME requirement for maintenance and productions. These ME requirement models can be used for prediction of energy utilization pattern of the herd in the grazing systems.

Study on the Grazing Behavior and animal Production of Korean Native Cow in Different Grazing System at Grasses Dominant Pasture (화본과 목초에서 방목체계별 한우육성빈우의 방목습성 및 생산성에 관한 연구)

  • 이효원;신재순;신언익
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 1983
  • To compare animal production and grazing behavior, Wye college rotational, set stocking, modified set stocking and zero grazing system were set in Alpine area. Each system has one hectar and 4 head of Korean native cow. In order to investigate grazing behavior, eye observation was made every 2.5 minute for 15 hours of daylight from 5 a.m. to 20p.m. Results obtained were as follows. 1. The system of Wye college and rotational grazing have greater output of live weight per hectar than that of other gazing system applied. But practically rotational and modified set stocking were thought to be convenient grazing system for hill pasture and also modified set stocking was simple to operate, so that it seemed to be recommended as an alternative to rotational grazing system. 2. The daily live weight gain was the highest in May, the lowest in July and after then steadily increased. 3. Grazing hour during daylight varied from 331.1 min to 576.0 min by grazing system, but by season, herbage availability, weather condition. 4. Korea native cow tended to have three primary grazing time begining at one hour after sunrise, noon, and around 15p.m.

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Livestock grazing and trampling effects on plant functional composition at three wells in the desert steppe of Mongolia

  • Narantsetseg, Amartuvshin;Kang, Sinkyu;Ko, Dongwook
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2018
  • Backgrounds: In arid grasslands, wells are subject to heavy trampling and grazing pressure, which can increase vulnerability to local land degradation. To investigate trampling and grazing, we surveyed plant communities at three well sites in the desert steppe of Mongolia, using 1600-m line transects from the wells. The sites (Bshrub, Sshrub, and shrubL) differed by concomitant shrub type (big shrub, small shrub, and shrub-limited) and livestock pressure (light, medium, and heavy). A plant classification scheme based on edibility and morphology (rosette or creeping type) was used to separate grazing and trampling effects on plant communities. Results: Edible plants were dominant at all sites but a fraction of grazing- and trampling-tolerant plants increased in the order Bshrub, Sshrub, and shrubL, following livestock pressure. Clear transition zones from inedible to edible plant groups were recognized but at different locations and ranges among the sites. Trampling-tolerant plants explained 90% of inedible plants at Sshrub with camels and horses, but grazing-tolerant plants prevailed (60%) at shrubL with the largest livestock number. Plant coverage increased significantly along the transects at Bshrub and Sshrub but showed no meaningful change at shrubL. Herbaceous plant biomass showed significant positive and negative trends at Bshrub and shrubL, respectively. Conclusions: Both grazing and trampling can produce larger fractions of inedible plants; in this, camel and horses can have considerable effects on desert-steppe plant communities through trampling.

Prevalence of Theileria sergenti infection in Korean native cattle by polymerase chain reaction

  • Song, Kun-Ho;Sang, Byung-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of theileriosis and to compare the prevalence of this disease in Korean native cattle reared under different environmental conditions, namely, in a grazing area and a non-grazing area by polymerase chain reaction. Three hundred and one Korean native cattle (276 cows and 25 bulls) that had not received prior treatment or been vaccinated to prevent theileriosis were examined by PCR for Theileria sergenti infection from 2001 to 2002. In our study, the parasitemia range in T. sergenti-positive cattle by microscopy were from 0.1 to 3% (mean 0.8%). In terms of mean prevalence, 204 of the 301 Korean native cattle (67.8%) were positive reaction by PCR. Our results also revealed that the infection rate among cows (70.3%) was significantly higher than that among bulls (40.0%) (p < 0.01). T. sergenti infection among the over 3 year-old-group (75%) had a significant higher prevalence than that among the less than 3 year-old-group (61.8%) (p < 0.05). Our data also showed that grazing areas (76.1%) had the significant higher prevalence than non-grazing areas (51%) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the prevalence of T. sergenti infection is high and that its prevalence in grazing cattle is higher than that in non-grazing cattle, Therefore, life-long treatment and the development of an optimal vaccine are needed to reduce the numbers of bovine theileriosis in both grazing and non-grazing areas.