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Nutritive Value and Utilization of Three Grass Species by Crossbred Anglo-Nubian Goats in Samoa

  • Aregheore, Eroarome Martin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1389-1393
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    • 2001
  • A study was carried out to investigate the nutritive value and utilization of three grass species, batiki grass (lschaemum aristatum var. indicum), guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and signal grass (Bracharia decumbens) by growing goats. Eighteen growing crossbred goats $(Anglo-Nubian{\times}Fiji\;local)$ of between 9-11 months of age and pre-trial average live weight of $9.50{\pm}1.60kg$ were divided on the basis of weight to three treatment groups in a completely randomized design. The grasses constituted the diets and they were harvested fresh and chopped into pieces before they were offered to the goats. Chemical composition of the grasses, DMI, body weight gain (BWG) and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were measured. The grasses had similar DM content. The CP content of the grasses was in the range of 8.3-11.2%. Crude fiber (CF) content was between 30.9-35.2%. Ether extract (EE) was low with a range of 1.2-1.8%. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) was similar (40.9%) for batiki and guinea grasses, while signal grass had more NFE content (51.1%). The grasses are good sources of minerals (ash). OM content was higher in signal grass while guinea and batiki grasses had similar OM content. The goats on signal grass had higher DMI than those on batiki and guinea grasses (p<0.05). The goats on batiki grass had lower average BWG (p<0.05) than those on guinea and signal grasses. Nutrients digestibility were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the goats on signal grass compared to those on guinea and batiki grasses. The goats on guinea grass were better (p<0.05) in the digestibility of CP, OM, NFE and ME than those on batiki grass. However, goats on batiki were significantly better (p<0.05) in digestibility of CF than those on guinea grass. Signal and guinea grasses had more DCP than batiki grass. DE was lower in batiki grass (p<0.05) than in guinea and signal grasses. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between batiki and guinea grasses in TON. Data obtained in this experiment demonstrated that signal grass is better than guinea and signal in the nutrition of growing goats in the tropical environment of Samoa. It had the highest nutritive value, better apparent digestibility coefficients which have better growth rate and feed efficiency. In ranking, signal grass was better than guinea and batiki grasses, while guinea grass was better than batiki in nutritive value in the parameters measured. For future pasture establishment in Samoa, signal grass is recommended for consideration because of its higher nutritive value as a replacement for batiki, the most predominant grass.

Forage Quality of Several Grasses Grown ay a High Altitude Pasture (고산지대 초지에서 생산된 화본과목초의 사료가치)

  • 김동암;한건준
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.18-26
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    • 1994
  • Forage quality evaluation with several grasses grown at a high altitude pasture situated at 1,000m above sea level was made to determine what is the feed value of these grasses and whether these grasses have any differences in forage quality compared with the grdsses grown at lowland pastures. In this experiment, Common, Venture, and Palaton reed canarygrass (Phahris arundinucea L.) and Climax timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were used and harvested at two different dates, 5 July and 30 September, 1989. Cmde protein (CP) concentrations in the grasses grown in September were higher than in July. Among the grasses grown, Palaton and Common reed canarygrass were highest in CP concentration in July and September, respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations in the grasses harvested in July were higher than in September. Palaton reed canruygrass was lowest in ADF and NDF concentrations at the both harvest dates. Relative feed value (RFV) in the grases harvested in July was ranged from 92 to 105 and that in September was from 110 to 117. Palation reed canarygrass had the highest RFV of 105 and 117 in July and September, respectively, therefore, the forage quality of this grass was ranked as Grade 2 based on the AFGC Hay Quality Standards. Overall forage quality of the grasses grown at a high altitude pasture seemed to be higher than the forage quality at lowland pastures. Based on the RFV assigned by the AFGC, forages with RFV 92 to 117 in this experiment could only work well in rations for low producing dairy cows.

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Effects of the Pasture Types and the Leveling Methods of Seedbed on the Runoff , Soil Loss , Botanical Composition , Dry Matter Yield of Forage and Economical value (초지형과 파종상 정지방법이 유거수량 , 토양 유실량 , 목초의 식생구성 , 건물수량 및 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이종경;임영철;윤세형;김맹중;박근제;양종성;최선식;이성철
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the pasture types and the leveling methods of winding slope land for seedbed on the runoff, soil loss, botanical composition, dry matter yield of forage and economical value at the Experimental Field of Grassland and Forage Crops Division, National Livestock Research Institute, Suweon, from 1994 to 1995. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Runoff of the improved land was higher than that of the unimproved land in the top grass and bottom grass. 2. Soil loss of the improved land was higher than that of the unimproved land in the top and bottom grasses in the first year. However, it was slightly higher in the unimproved land, and all of it were greatly decreased in the second year. 3. The percentage of grasses coverage was increased with the improved land in the first year, and it was not different between the improved land and unimproved land in the second year. Also, it was slightly increased in the bottom grasses. 4. Dry matter yield of grasses was increased with improved land at the top and bottom grasses. DM yield of grasses was increased in the top grasses in the first year and bottom grasses in the second year, respectively. 5. The establishment cost of grasses was decreased with wages decrement, and the management cost was saved about 1,116,000 won per ha with improved land. The results demonstrated that although soil loss was increased by leveling methods of improved land irrespective of pasture types in the first year, it was decreased with time little by little. Also, improved land was very good for grasses coverage, dry matter(DM) yield and economical value.

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Characteristics of Piet Oudolf's Garden Design from the Viewpoint of the Contemporary Trends in the Use of Grasses (그라스(Grasses)류의 현대 활용추세 관점에서 본 피에트 우돌프(Piet Oudolf)의 정원 디자인 특징)

  • Park, Eun-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 2015
  • Given the recent trend of natural planting, the recognized needs for new landscaping plants that have advantages in terms of climate change and maintenance, and expected increases in demands for grasses in Korea, this study is intended to investigate from the design point of view the techniques to use grasses and their significance through garden design by Piet Oudolf who is attracting international interests with the use of perennial plants and grasses and is leading the trends in modern planting design, thereby answering the question: how to best use grasses in landscaping spaces? The characteristics of Oudolf's garden design using grasses are summarized in the following conclusions: First, Oudolf combines perennial plants and grasses to make one-to-one correspondences or express expanded drifts. Here grasses mainly serve as an element to change over to other spaces or as a connecting element between image transitions. Second, the brown color and texture of grasses represent Oudolf's considerations on the temporal continuity of gardens. They express the lyricism and pictorialism of autumn and winter. Third, grasses serve to set layers in wide areas resulting in discordance between viewpoints and circulations. Oudolf repeatedly cross perennial plants and grasses using matrices, islands and distributed layering. Here grasses are used to express abstractive meanings in the settings of scenes.

Study on the Sod Forming Effects of the Native Plants for the Erosion Control in Slopes (비탈면 침식방지를 위한 자생초본식물의 뗏장 형성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Choon;Lee, Sang-Joo;Jung, Ji-June;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Nam, Sang-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to suggest vegetation mat forming methods with native wildflowers, introduced wild flower, grasses and native herb plants which can be used for erosion control of the disturbed slopes. The main results are summarized as follows. In forming the vegetation mat at early stage, foreign grasses, native wild plants shows more effective than the other seed mixture types. But, after 12 weeks, using native wild flowers shows more effective than foreign grasses. Also, the mixture of the native grasses and kentucky bluegrasses (seed mixture type F) are the best in ground coverage among the seed mixtures types. In order to restore slopes more naturally, more diverse plants should be used. The native grasses such as Marrubium incisum Bentham, Lutos comiculatus L. var. japonicus Regel, and Artemisia princeps Pampan seems to be useful to forming the vegetation mat, also it will be more easy if mixing with foreign grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass. The mixture of native grasses and introduced wild flowers are not proper in forming the vegetation mat. Also, pot planting of the native grasses are not proper in forming the vegetation mat.

Effect of Leucaena Row Spacing and Cutting Intensity on the Growth of Leucaena and Three Associated Grasses in Thailand

  • Tudsri, S.;Kaewkunya, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.986-991
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    • 2002
  • An experiment was conducted at Suwanvajokkasikit Research Station, Pakchong, Nakornratchasima, Thailand, to determine the yield and quality of three different grass cultivars intercropped with leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). The treatments consisted of three grass cultivars (ruzi, dwarf napier and Taiwan A25) as the main plots, planted between leucaena at three row spacings (1, 2 and 4 m width) as the sub plots and leucaena cutting height (10 and 25 cm above ground levels) as sub-sub-plots. Dwarf napier consistently produced more dry matter than Taiwan A25 or ruzi and Taiwan A25 outyielded ruzi. Leucaena yield was highest in the ruzi plot and lowest in the dwarf napier plot. However, yields of grass plus leucaena were highest in the dwarf napier plot and were lowest in the ruzi plots. The difference was due mainly to the grass components. Increasing the spacing between rows of leucaena resulted in a lower leucaena yield but the reverse was true for the grasses. Cutting of leucaena at 10 cm above ground levels depressed yields of leucaena but did not affect the associated grasses. In terms of herbage quality, it was found that the crude protein of leaves and stems of the dwarf napier and Taiwan A25 were higher than that of the ruzi grass. Leucaena gave higher levels of crude protein than all grasses. The phosphorus and potassium levels of all grasses were higher than leucaena. ADF levels were higher in the grasses than in the legumes. Nutrient contents in the leaves and stems of grasses and leucaena were not affected by leucaena spacing and cutting height.

Advanced Engineering in Processing of Leafstalk Biomass of Sown Grasses

  • Proydak, N.I.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.711-714
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    • 1996
  • The energy saving base technological processes were substantiated and high efficient equipment for the wet fractionation of the leafstalk biomass of the annual and perennial sown grasses into the multipurpose products was designed.

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Studies on the herbicide Application for Use in Pasture Establishment by Overseeding II. Influence of herbicide residue in soils on the growth of introduce pasture grasses (겉뿌림 초지조성지에서 제초제 처리방법에 관한 연구 II. 제초제의 토양 잔류성과 목초의 생육장해)

  • 김정갑
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 1991
  • Iterbicide resduc. cauicd ~rljul-y to ovcrsown pasture grasses \\hen herbicide appliccl for use in pasturc est;~blish~nt~nt lo gro~vth contro! ol n;rtivc ~r ~:cds and shrubs. 'l'hih L~sperirnel~t was conducted to cv;lluati. (he herbicidr residue anti its ph!:totosical ~riiiuence on the growth of introtluccd pasturts species. Esperimcmtal soils was treated with buthitlazolc, ~ o d l ~ l m chlorate, glyphosatc. U-46 anti paraquat each at twt) applici~tion rates. Lhcf~1i.s glowl~mlc~ including othrr pasture grasses and le~urnes were evaluatrd for tolerance to herbicide. IIerbicide residue in the amount ot injury caused to introduced pasture grasses was found in order of buthidazole, sodium chlorate, U-46 and glyphosate. Euthidazole was not available for use in pasture establishment because of their long persist of toxic herbicide residues. A great stand redl~ction of subseq ~ ~ c n t oversown pastures was also observed In sodium chlorate treatment. However, normal vegetative stand and grass production was obtained, when thc pasture grasses seeded 45-60 days later herbicide treatments. Glyphosate did not affect subsequent oversown pasture species in both grasses and legumes. fistuccr arundinc~cea and Pou pratensis were the most tolerant pasture species to herbicide residue while 7'rzfi,lium pyatense and Medicugo suti~u showed a wsceptible response regardless of herbicide.

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Studies on the Phosphatic Fertilizer Application in Grassland III. Effects of phosphatic fertilization levels on the yield and nutrient contents of grasses (초지에 대한 인산질비료의 시용에 관한 연구 III. 인산질비료의 시용수준이 목초의 수량 및 양분함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 박근제;이필상;최기준;정재두
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 1994
  • To find out the effects of phosphatic fertilizer application level on the dry matter yield and nutrient contents of grasses, this experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with six treatments(0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250kg $P_2O_5$/ ha) and conducted at hill land in Gwangju, Gyeonggi Province from September, 1989 to October, 1992. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. As the phosphatic fertilization level increase, the early growth and cover degree of grasses wintered were more favorable and plant length was higher. 2. With 150kg $P_2O_5$/ ha application for three years, the average dry matter yield of grasses, 10,112kgl ha was sirnilared to that of 200kg $P_2O_5$/ ha and the yield was composed of 77.2% grasses(7,808kg/ ha), 19.2% legumes(l,937kg 1 ha) and 3.6% weeds(367kg / ha). 3. The crude protein and energy productivity of grasses increase as phosphatic fertilization level was increased, but those were not different between 150 and 250kg $P_2O_5$ 1 ha. Therefore, phosphatic fertilization level must be applied with 150kg / ha for a reasonable management in hilly grassland.

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Turfgrass Selection for Soccer Fields - A Simulation of the Inchon 2002 World Cup Stadium - (축구경기장의 잔디초종 선정에 관한 연구 - 2002년 월드컵 인천경기장 모형돔을 대상으로 -)

  • 심상렬;정대영
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.88-94
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to select suitable turfarasses for use at 2002 world cup soccer fields in Korea. A 1/1000 scale Inchon worldcup soccer dome was constructed for this research. Species and seeding rates of cool-season grasses used inside and outside the dome were Kentuck bleugrass 10g/$m^2$ (KB), Kentucky bleugrass 10g/$m^2$+ perennial ryegrass 10g/$m^2$ mixture (KB+PR) and Kentucky bleugrass 6g/$m^2$+tall fescue 14g/$m^2$+ perennial ryegrass 4g/$m^2$ mixture (KB+TF+PR). Warm-season grasses also used in this study were Zoysia japonica 'Anyangjungzii' (ZA) and Zoysia japonica 'Zenith'(ZZ) which were layed as sod. So, total 5 types of grasses were used inside and outside the dome. The rootzone was constructed by the multi-layer method(United States Golf Association method). The plots were designed by randomized block design. Cool-season grasses(KB, KB+PR, KB+TF+PR) were found to be better performers for visual rating and visual color than the zoysiagrasses(ZA, ZZ). There were no significant differences in turf performance within cool-season grasses, while ZA showed better turf performances than ZZ within zoysiagrasses. The green color was maintained for about 10 months in the col-season grasses(KB, KB+PR, KB+TF+PR) compared to about 5~6 months in the zoysiagrasses. Root length and density data revealed higher values for KB, KB+PR and KB+TF+PR compared to ZA and ZZ. Root performance of 22 was better than ZA within zoysiagrasses which was the opposite result of turf performances. There was also no significant difference between U performance inside and outside the dome. However, the decreasing tendency of turf quality inside the dome at the end of the study showed that more proper maintenance technology was needed inside the d[me. It could be concluded by this study that cool-season grasses(KB, KB+PR, KB+TF+PR) were more suitable turfgrasses than waits-season zoysiagrasses(ZA, ZZ) for use at 2002 world cup soccer fields in Korea.