• Title, Summary, Keyword: Grass Lipid

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Effects of Grass Lipid and Its Fatty Acids on Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Growth In Vitro

  • Yang, U.M.;Fujita, H.;Chung, T.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2000
  • In order to clarify the inhibitory effects of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) lipids on ruminal fermentation and digestion, two experiments were carried out in vitro. Experiment 1 was carried out using residues of grass hay from which the lipid fraction was removed by ether extraction. To ground grass samples were added 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipids and incubated anaerobically at $39^{\circ}C$ for 24 h, with the mixtures of artificial saliva and rumen fluid. Increasing grass lipid levels remarkably reduced DM and NDF disappearances. Volatile fatty acid concentration was significantly reduced at 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipid levels. Microbial nitrogen proportion to total nitrogen tended to decrease by the addition of the lipids. These results indicated that grass lipids have a marked inhibitory effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion, especially when to the substrate was added 3% or more grass lipids as ether extracts. Experiment 2 was conducted to study the relationship between changes in the free fatty acids and changes in the fermentation traits. Samples were incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h as a sole substrate. The polyunsaturated fatty acids steadily decreased during incubation, whereas the saturated fatty acid ($C_{18:0}$) increased. It was suggested that the hydrogenation was extended during the initial stage of incubation. The unsaturated fatty acids ($C_{18:2}$, $C_{18:3}$) produced at the initial stage of incubation were negatively correlated with the amount of microbial N and DM disappearance, indicating that polyunsaturated fatty acids had the possibility to show an inhibiting effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion.

In Vitro antioxidant effect of ethanol extract from Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass (Penninsetum purpureum) 에탄올 추출물의 in vitro 항산화 효과)

  • Kwon, Young Ji;Kim, Dong Chung
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2019
  • In vitro antioxidant effect of 50% ethanol extract from Napier grass (Penninsetum purpureum) was investigated. The yield and polyphenol content of the Napier grass extract were $6.3{\pm}0.35%$ and $79.6{\pm}3.65{\mu}g$ gallic acid equivalents/mg-extract, respectively. Antioxidant ability of the Napier grass extract such as fee radical and cation radical scavenging activities, reducing power, nitrite scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity proportionally increased as concentration of the extract increased. $EC_{50}$ values of the Napier grass extract for free radical scavenging, cation radical scavenging, reducing power, and nitrite scavenging were 1,930.0, 350.0, 840.0, and $1,470.0{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. In the presence of $85.0{\mu}g/mL$ of the Napier grass extract, lipid peroxidation was potently inhibited by 74.6%.

Influence of Salinity Treatment on Seed Germination and Polyamine Synthesis in Barnyard Grass(Echinochloa hispidula) (강피종자의 발아와 폴리아민 생합성에 대한 염류의 영향)

  • Yun, Sol;Lee, Su-Yeon;Lim, Hyo-Jin;Shim, Myoung-Bo;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Kim, Tae-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2004
  • To illuminate the physiological response to salinity, barnyard grass (Echinochloa hispidula) was germinated with high concentration of NaCl and KCL. Duration and promptness of seed germination were observed. Under salt stress, lipid peroxidation and polyamine biosynthesis were also analyzed. It appeared that high salt treatments per se did not provoke an inhibition of germination although the process of germination was significantly delayed. In context of lipid peroxidation and polyamine biosynthesis, we would imply that barnyard grass is tolerant to salinity. The increase in lipid peroxidation and putrescine content was prolonged only for 1 day after saline treatment. It could be concluded that these early acciimulation of putrescine and production of lipid peroxide seems to be associated with salt tolerance in the short-term. The physiological interest of these responses was discussed.

The development of near infrared calibrations for assessing grass herbage quality

  • Sharma, Hss;Mellon, R.;Johnson, D.;Fletcher, H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1611-1611
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    • 2001
  • The main selection parameters used by forage grass (rye and Italian rye grass) breeders are dry-matter yield, seasonal growth, persistency, disease resistance, heading date, and heading. These characteristics can all be identified usually in the segregating F2 population, however characteristics such as soluble carbohydrate level, protein, lipid and digestibility cannot be identified. The emphasis of this work is to introduce a quantitative selection process for characterization of herbage quality e.g. protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, fiber fractions, dry matter digestibility. NIRS calibrations are currently being developed for identifying grass genotypes to assist the selection process, thereby allowing the opportunity to actively breed improved herbage quality. The changes in fibre fractions, associated components and digestibility of a number of grass clones at different growth stages are being assessed changes taking place during a growing season. This will provide a database of the major changes taking place during a growing season. Attempts to classify quality differences between genotypes will be carried out using multivariate analysis of the spectral data. I addition changes associated with maturity of grass will be considered in order to develop robust calibrations.

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Single Cell Oil Production from Undetoxified Arundo donax L. hydrolysate by Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus

  • Di Fidio, Nicola;Liuzzi, Federico;Mastrolitti, Silvio;Albergo, Roberto;De Bari, Isabella
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.256-267
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    • 2019
  • The use of low-cost substrates represents one key issue to make single cell oil production sustainable. Among low-input crops, Arundo donax L. is a perennial herbaceous rhizomatous grass containing both C5 and C6 carbohydrates. The scope of the present work was to investigate and optimize the production of lipids by the oleaginous yeast Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates of steam-pretreated A. donax. The growth of C. curvatus was first optimized in synthetic media, similar in terms of sugar concentration to hydrolysates, by applying the response surface methodology (RSM) analysis. Then the bioconversion of undetoxified hydrolysates was investigated. A fed-batch process for the fermentation of A. donax hydrolysates was finally implemented in a 2-L bioreactor. Under optimized conditions, the total lipid content was 64% of the dry cell weight and the lipid yield was 63% of the theoretical. The fatty acid profile of C. curvatus triglycerides contained 27% palmitic acid, 33% oleic acid and 32% linoleic acid. These results proved the potential of lipid production from A. donax, which is particularly important for their consideration as substitutes for vegetable oils in many applications such as biodiesel or bioplastics.

Comparisons of Food Component Characteristics of Wild and Cultured Edible Pufferfishes in Korea (자연산과 양식산 식용복어의 성분 비교)

  • Hwang, Seok-Min;Oh, Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.725-732
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    • 2013
  • To identify the food component characteristics of seven edible pufferfishes (five wild pufferfishes including striped puffer Takifugu xanthopterus; eyespot puffer Takifugu chinensis; purple puffer Takifugu porphyreus; rough-backed puffer Lagocephalus wheeleri; and grass puffer Takifugu niphobles; and two cultured pufferfishes including yellow puffer Takifugu obscurus, and tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes) in Korea, the proximate, fatty/amino acid, chemical and taste compositions were investigated. The proximate compositions were not significantly different among the sampled pufferfishes, whereas grass puffer had lower moisture and crude lipid levels contents, and higher crude protein and ash contents than the other species. The total amino acid levels in wild and cultured pufferfishes were 14,941.6-16,427.9 mg/100 g, and the major amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, leucine, lysine and arginine. Regarding the fatty acid and mineral compositions, the major fatty acids included 22:6n-3, 16:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3, 18:0, 20:4n-3, and 22:5n-3 in that order, and there was a little difference among the sampled pufferfishes. Grass puffer had a higher monoenes ratio, i.e., 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-9, and a lower polyenes ratio than the other pufferfishes. The main minerals detected K, P, Na, S and Ca. Regarding the taste-active compounds, the free amino acid contents of pufferfish extracts were 236.4-428.1 mg/100 g, consisting primarily of taurine, lysine, proline, glycine, alanine and arginine in that order. The amino nitrogen content of the pufferfishes was 84.5-156.4 mg/100 g, and there was a little difference among the species. As for taste intensity, the total taste value of the purple puffer was higher than that of the other pufferfishes.

Dietary Transformation of Lipid in the Rumen Microbial Ecosystem

  • Kim, Eun Joong;Huws, Sharon A.;Lee, Michael R.F.;Scollan, Nigel D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1341-1350
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    • 2009
  • Dietary lipids are rapidly hydrolysed and biohydrogenated in the rumen resulting in meat and milk characterised by a high content of saturated fatty acids and low polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which contributes to increases in the risk of diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. There has been considerable interest in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant products with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers. Metabolism of dietary lipids in the rumen (lipolysis and biohydrogenation) is a major critical control point in determining the fatty acid composition of ruminant lipids. Our understanding of the pathways involved and metabolically important intermediates has advanced considerably in recent years. Advances in molecular microbial technology based on 16S rRNA genes have helped to further advance our knowledge of the key organisms responsible for ruminal lipid transformation. Attention has focused on ruminal biohydrogenation of lipids in forages, plant oils and oilseeds, fish oil, marine algae and fat supplements as important dietary strategies which impact on fatty acid composition of ruminant lipids. Forages, such as grass and legumes, are rich in omega-3 PUFA and are a useful natural strategy in improving nutritional value of ruminant products. Specifically this review targets two key areas in relation to forages: i) what is the fate of the lipid-rich plant chloroplast in the rumen and ii) the role of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase in red clover as a natural plant-based protection mechanism of dietary lipids in the rumen. The review also addresses major pathways and micro-organisms involved in lipolysis and biohydrogenation.

Effect of Forage Feeding on Goat Meat Production: Carcass Characteristics and Composition of Creole Kids Reared Either at Pasture or Indoors in the Humid Tropics

  • Alexandre, G.;Limea, L.;Fanchonne, A.;Coppry, O.;Mandonnet, N.;Boval, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1140-1150
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    • 2009
  • Forage diets provide good quality carcasses in sheep but very little is known in tropical goats. An experiment was designed with Creole male goats using grass-based systems to assess carcass yield, scores, cuts and composition. After weaning (84 d, 9.2 kg LW) two modes of forage feeding were compared with two replicates of each. Feeding groups were: PF for animals reared at pasture (n = 62) and IF when reared indoors (n = 60). Given that forage finishing will result in low ADG it appeared necessary to study different fattening lengths. The kids were equally divided into 4 groups: group A (n = 32), 4mo after weaning; group B (n = 32), 4mo after A; group C (n = 30), 3mo after B and group D (n = 28), 2mo after C. The animals grazed (in two sub-flocks) on irrigated tropical pastures managed in a rotational system (28 d of re-growth) at a mean stocking rate of 1,200 kg/ha/yr LW. The IF groups were reared in collective pens on a slatted floor (2 replicates of 7 or 8 kids each). They were fed the same stand of tropical grass (25% DM, 12% CP) as that of pasture that was cut daily and provided ad libitum. The ADG (-10%), the weights of omental fat (-60%) and fat in shoulder (-18%), the ultimate pH of carcass (-12%), the meat colour score (-24%), the ""parameter accounting for redness (12%) and the DM and lipid contents (-4%) were significantly lower (p<0.05) in PF than in IF, while the liver was heavier (+23%, p<0.05). Feeding conditions seemed to be similar, thus, differences could be related to gastrointestinal parasitism in the PF system and hypotheses are discussed. Increasing the fattening duration, resulted in significant difference (p<0.01) in many traits: the weights at slaughter and of carcass increased by 40% and 60% from groups A to D and consequently the weights of body compartments and carcass cuts (1.5 to 2.0 fold more). When the results were presented as percentage of empty body weight and carcass weight, these preliminary results (carcass weight 9kg and yield 53%, muscle proportion 70%) and qualitative parameters (low fat score 2/5, fat proportion 5%), seem to be a good incentive for the sector to develop a niche market to meet consumer lean meat expectations. The indoors system could be implemented where there was low availability of grazing areas or problems of dog attacks.

Effects of high-pressure processing on taste-related ATP breakdown compounds and aroma volatiles in grass-fed beef during vacuum aging

  • Utama, Dicky Tri;Lee, Seung Gyu;Baek, Ki Ho;Jang, Aera;Pak, Jae In;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1336-1344
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study aimed to observe whether high-pressure processing (HPP) affected aroma development and the degradation rate of umami taste-related ATP breakdown products, specifically inosinic acid in grass-fed beef during vacuum aging. Methods: Strip loin (longissimus lumborum) cuts obtained from six grass-fed Friesian Holstein steers (32 months old) on day 4 post slaughter were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 300 and 500 MPa for 180 s at $15^{\circ}C{\pm}2^{\circ}C$. The samples were then stored for 4 weeks at $5^{\circ}C{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ under vacuum and compared with the control (0.1 MPa). Results: HPP increased the shear force value, promoted moisture loss and lipid oxidation, induced surface paleness, stabilized pH during aging, and reduced bacterial load and growth. The shear force value of 500 MPa-treated samples remained higher than the control after aging, while no significant differences were found between the control and 300 MPa-treated samples. Degradation of inosinic acid and inosine occurred during pressurization, resulting in an increase in hypoxanthine content. However, the degradation rate in HPP-treated samples during aging was slower; therefore, inosinic acid and inosine content remained higher than in control samples. No significant differences were found in hypoxanthine content at the end of aging. HPP intensified the levels of hexanal, octanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine in cooked-aged beef samples. Conclusion: HPP induced aroma development and delayed the degradation of inosinic acid. However, it also reduced the postmortem tenderization rate.

Proximate Composition, Cholesterol and $\alpha$-Tocopherol Content in 72 Species of Korean Fish (72종 어류의 일반성분조성과 콜레스테롤 및 $\alpha$-토코페롤함량)

  • JEONG Bo-Young;CHOI Byeong-Dae;LEE Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.160-167
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    • 1998
  • Proximate composition, cholesterol (CHOL) and $\alpha-tocopherol$ ($\alpha-Toc$) content of seventy-two species of fish muscle (sea water fish, 59 species; fresh water fish, 13 species), which caught off Tongyeong coast of the Southern Sea ( Nam-Hae) and caught Kyeongho river, Sancheong, Korea, were determined. Lipid content was ranked from $0.53\%$ to $20.4\%$ and was high in the following order; mid-surface dwelling and migratory fish ($6.09{\pm}4.25\%$) > fresh water fish ($4.40{\pm}5.90\%$) > coastal and reep dwelling fish ($3.41{\pm}2.68\%$) > demersal fish ($2.12{\pm}2.41\%$). There was a negative correlation between the lipid and moisture content in all fish groups (p< 0.001). Protein was approximately $17\~18\%$ in all fish group, and no correlation was between the protein and moisture content in all but the demersal fish, which there was a negative correlation between both contents. Ash content was almost constant in all fish, accounting for $1\~2\%$, Cholesterol (CHOL) content was shown a great difference according to the fish species from 6.7 mg/100 g muscle (grass fish) to 249 mg/100 g (eel) and there was a positive correlation between the lipid and CHOL content. $\alpha-Toc$ content was less than 3 mg/100 g muscle in all fish, except that of eel (4.1 mg/100 g) and was relatively rich in the fish species contained a large amount of lipid.

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