• Title, Summary, Keyword: Graphic health warnings

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Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam

  • Kim, Bao Giang;Le, Hong Chung;Hoang, Van Minh;Vu, Duy Kien;Vu, Van Giap;Nguyen, Duc Hinh;Nguyen, Manh Cuong;Pham, Duc Manh;Ha, Anh Duc;Yang, Jui-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2016
  • Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.

Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam

  • Hoang, Van Minh;Le, Hong Chung;Kim, Bao Giang;Duong, Minh Duc;Nguyen, Duc Hinh;Vu, Quynh Mai;Nguyen, Manh Cuong;Pham, Duc Manh;Ha, Anh Duc;Yang, Jui-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2016
  • Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam

  • Hoang, Van Minh;Kim, Bao Giang;Phan, Thi Hai;Trinh, Dinh Hoang;Doan, Thu Huyen;Luong, Ngoc Khue;Nguyen, Thuy Linh;Nguyen, Tuan Lam;Pham, Thi Quynh Nga
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2016
  • Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to anti-smoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

Changes in Vietnamese Male Smokers' Reactions Towards New Pictorial Cigarette Pack Warnings Over Time

  • Tran, Thu Ngan;Le, Vu Anh;Nguyen, Thi Tuyet My;Nguyen, Ngoc Bich
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2016
  • Printing of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on cigarette packages became obligatory by the Vietnam Law on Prevention and Control of Tobacco Harm in May 2013. Literature from high-income countries suggests that PHWs motivate smokers to quit smoking although their long-term effects have been questioned due to reduction of impact over time. This study aimed to assess the salience of PHWs and smokers' reactions towards PHWs over time. In May 2014 and May 2015, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based household survey was administered to respectively 1,462 and 1,509 Vietnamese male smokers aged 18 to 35. The result showed that salience of the PHWs 2 years after the implementation was higher than at the point of 1 year after the implementation. The proportion of respondents who tried to avoid noting the PHWs was reduced from 35% in wave 1 to 23% in wave 2. However, "Tried to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs" increased 1.5 times the odds of presenting quit intention compared to those respondents who did not try to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.2-2.0). In conclusion, avoidance regarding PHWs may not work as a barrier when aiming at a higher level of quit intention. Salience of the PHWs may increase in the period shortly after their introduction onto packs but can be expected to decrease with time. In other words, it might be advisable to change or renew PHWs after a period of implementation to maintain their beneficial effects.