• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gosan site

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Evaluation of the formation and occupation of Gosan-ri archaeological site in Jeju Island using OSL dating (OSL 연대측정을 통한 제주 고산리 유적의 형성과 점유시기 결정)

  • Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2016
  • Gosan-ri site is known as the early Neolithic cultural heritage, in which an archaic plainware, called as the Gosan-ri-type pottery, was excavated regarding as the first pottery manufactured in Korea. In this study, OSL dating was carried out to five soil layer samples collected in stratigraphic cross-section for evaluating the formation and occupation of the Gosan-ri site. Paleodose of each soil sample was calculated using the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) method with preheat of $220^{\circ}C$ and finally determined using maximum age model, considering its deposition process. The OSL age was determined from the ratio of paleodose to annual dose rate. From the resultant OSL ages and the related 14C dates, it was concluded that the Gosan-ri site was formed after 9,000 BC and a variety of cultural feature including the Gosan-ri-type pottery were occupied ranging from the early Neolithic to the middle of 4,000 BC. Finally, the Gosan-ri site was discarded in the middle of 4,000 BC and has been arrived at present through natural deposits.

Analysis of the Characteristics and High Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide Measured at the Gosan Site in Jeju, Korea in 2007 (2007년 제주 고산의 이산화탄소 농도 현황 및 고농도 사례 분석)

  • Kim, Seung-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Bum;Yu, Jeong-Ah;Hong, Yu-Deog;Song, Chang-Geun
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2011
  • In order to identify the current state of the $CO_2$ concentrations at the Gosan site in Jeju, the data from the Gosan station was compared with the ones from domestic and foreign sites registered in the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases(WDCGG). As a result, the $CO_2$ concentrations in the Asian region including Gosan site were higher than in the other continents, which can be explained that the $CO_2$ emissions in the Asian region have been rapidly increasing due to the recent economic growth. In comparison with ther Asian-Pacific sites (i.e., Ryori, Waliguan, and Mauna Loa), Gosan site showed the highest $CO_2$ concentrations because this site can be easily affected by China emissions. With the trajectory analysis and the ratios of air pollutants, we found that the high concentrations of Gosan site in January were mainly caused by the long-range transport from China, while in August the high concentration in the night time by the stagnation and the active plant respiration. Also, in May and November it occurred as the polluted air from China was transported with migratory cyclone.

Assessing the Impact of Locally Produced Aerosol on the Rainwater Composition at the Gosan Background Site in East Asia

  • Han, Yeongcheol;Huh, Youngsook
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2014
  • It is often assumed that atmospheric observations at remote sites represent long-range transport of airborne material, and local influences are overlooked. We evaluated the impact of local input on the rainwater composition at Gosan Station, a strategic site for monitoring the continental outflow from Asia. We analyzed a 14-year record of rainwater chemical composition archived by the Korea Meteorological Administration and detected local terrestrial contribution for nitrate, sulfate and ammonium. We also measured the chemical composition of rainwater sampled simultaneously at multiple locations within the premises of the Gosan Station, from which local influence with meter-scale spatial heterogeneity could be discerned. We estimate that the local input accounted for at least ~10% of the wet deposition of nitrogen and ~12% of the wet deposition of sulfur during the 14 years. This highlights the significance of the local influence, which should be carefully assessed when interpreting atmospheric observations at this site.

Composition and Characteristics of ionic Components of Aerosols Collected at Gosan Site in Jeiu Island, Korea

  • Kang, Chang-Hee;Kim, Won-Hyung;Hu, Chul-Goo;Kim, Yong-Pyo;Shim, Shang-Gyoo;Hong, Min-Sun;Kim, Ki-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.E4
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 2003
  • The total of 1,454 aerosol samples were collected by high volume tape sampler at the Gosan Site in Jeju Island from 1992 to 1999, and the major water-soluble ionic components were chemically analyzed. The mean concentrations of nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$, N $H_4$$^{+}$, and N $O_3$$^{[-10]}$ showed high values, which were 6.73, 1.45, and 1.45 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$/㎥, respectively, while $Ca^{2+}$ and $K^{+}$ concentrations were low with the values of 0.49 and 0.42 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥. The concentrations of most components increased in spring but decreased in summer, especially with the remarkable increase of $Ca^{2+}$ and N $O_3$$^{[-10]}$ concentrations in spring. The seasonal comparison of nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$ concentrations showed higher values with the order of spring > fall 〉 winter〉 summer, but spring 〉 winter〉 fall 〉 summer for N $O_3$$^{[-10]}$ Meanwhile, the concentration levels of N $a^{+}$ and C $l^{[-10]}$ increased more in winter season. According to the investigation of wind direction effect, the concentrations of most aerosol ionic components showed higher values consistently at the westerly and northerly wind conditions. Based on the factor analysis, the atmospheric aerosols in the Gosan Site are considered to be largely affected by marine sources, followed by anthropogenic and soil sources.urces..

Acidification and Neutralization Characteristics of Atmospheric Fine Particles at Gosan Site of Jeju Island in 2008 (제주도 고산지역 대기 미세입자의 산성화 및 중화 특성: 2008년 측정 결과)

  • Lee, Dong-Eun;Kim, Won-Hyung;Jo, Eun-Kyung;Han, Jong-Heon;Kang, Chang-Hee;Kim, Ki-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.603-613
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    • 2011
  • The collection of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ samples was made at Gosan site of Jeju Island. Their ionic compositions of both inorganic and organic phases were then analyzed to examine their acidification and neutralization characteristics in atmospheric aerosols. The mass concentrations of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ at Gosan site were $37.6{\pm}20.1$ and $22.9{\pm}14.3{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, showing the content ratio of $PM_{2.5}$ to $PM_{10}$ as 61.0%. In the evaluation of ionic balance, the correlation coefficients (r) between the sums of cationic and anionic equivalent concentrations were excellent with 0.982 ($PM_{10}$) and 0.991 ($PM_{2.5}$). The concentration ratios of $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ derived for nss-$SO_4^{2-}$, $NO_3^-$, and $NH_4^+$ were 0.94, 0.56, and 1.02, respectively, indicating the relative dominance of fine fractions. The acidifying capacity of inorganic anions ($SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$) in $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ were 96.5% and 97.3%, while those of organic anions ($HCOO^-$ and $CH_3COO^-$) in each fraction were 2.9% and 2.0%, respectively. On the other hand, the neutralizing capacity of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ by $NH_3$ were 72.8% and 82.3%, while their $CaCO_3$ counter parts were 22.5% and 13.3%, respectively.

Comparison of the PM10 Concentration in Different Measurement Methods at Gosan Site in Jeju Island (제주도 고산 측정소의 미세먼지 측정방법에 따른 질량농도 비교)

  • Shin, So-Eun;Kim, Yong-Pyo;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.421-429
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    • 2010
  • The reliability of the measurement of ambient trace species is an important issue, especially, in background area such as Gosan in Jeju Island. In a previous episodic study, it was suggested that the PM10 measurement result by the gravimetric method(GMM) was not in agreement with the result by the ${\beta}$-ray absorption method(BAM). In this study, a systematic comparison was carried out for the data between 2001 and 2008 at Gosan(GMM and BAM) and Jeju city (BAM) which is near to Gosan. It was found that at Gosan the PM10 concentration by BAM was higher than GMM and the correlation between them was low. The BAM results at Gosan and Jeju city showed similar trend implying the discrepancy at Gosan was not caused by instrumental problem of the BAM at Gosan. Based on the previous studies two probable reasons for the discrepancy are identified; (1) negative measurement error by the evaporation of volatile ambient species at the filter in GMM such as nitrate and ammonium and (2) positive error by the absorption of water vapor during measurement in BAM. There was no heater at the inlet of BAM at Gosan during the sampling period. Based on the size-segregated measurement data, it was identified that the evaporation error was minor, if any. The relationship between the two methods did not vary with the ambient relative humidity. Thus, at present, it is not clear why the discrepancy had been occurring and when using the PM10 data at Gosan, one should be aware the possible errors.

Development of the Wind Power Forecasting System, KIER Forecaster (풍력발전 예보시스템 KIER Forecaster의 개발)

  • Kim, Hyun-Goo;Jang, Mun-Seok;Kyong, Nam-Ho;Lee, Yung-Seop
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.323-324
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    • 2006
  • In the present paper a forecasting system of wind power generation for Walryong Site, Jejudo is presented, which has been developed and evaluated as a first step toward establishing Korea Forecasting Model of Wind Power Generation. The forecasting model, KIER forecaster is constructed based on statistical models and is trained with wind speed data observed at Gosan Weather Station nearby Walryong Si to. Due to short period of measurements at Walryong Site for training statistical model, Gosan wind data were substituted and transplanted to Walryong Site by using Measure-Correlate-Predict technique. Three-hour advanced forecast ins shows good agreement with the measurement at Walryong site with the correlation factor 0.88 and MAE(mean absolute error) 15% under.

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Development of the Wind Power Forecasting System, KIER Forecaster (풍력발전 예보시스템 KIER Forecaster의 개발)

  • Kim Hyun-Goo;Lee Yung-Seop;Jang Mun-Seok;Kyong Nam-Ho
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, the first forecasting system of wind power generation, KIER Forecaster is presented. KIER Forecaster has been constructed based on statistical models and was trained with wind speed data observed at Gosan Weather Station nearby Walryong Site. Due to short period of measurements at Walryong Site for training the model, Gosan wind data were substituted and transplanted to Walryong Site by using Measure-Correlate-Predict(MCP) technique. The results of One to Three-hour advanced forecasting models are consistent with the measurement at Walryong site. In particular, the multiple regression model by classification of wind speed pattern, which has been developed in this work, shows the best performance comparing with neural network and auto-regressive models.

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Composition Variation of Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matters in Accordance with Air Mass Transport Pathways at Background Site of Korea in 2013 (국내 배경지역 대기 미세먼지의 기류 이동경로별 조성변화: 2013년 측정)

  • Ko, Hee-Jung;Lim, Eunha;Song, Jung-Min;Kim, Won-Hyung;Kang, Chang-Hee;Lee, Haeyoung;Lee, Chulkyu
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.15-27
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    • 2015
  • The collection of fine particulate matter samples was made at Gosan site of Jeju Island, one of the background sites of Korea, during a year of 2013, and their water-soluble ionic species were analyzed in order to examine the chemical compositions and pollution characteristics. The concentrations of $nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NH_4{^{+}}$, $NO_3{^{-}}$, and $K^+$ had occupied 66.0% of water-soluble ionic species in $PM_{10}$, especially 94.3% in $PM_{2.5}$ fine mode, however the $nss-Ca^{2+}$ and $Na^+$ showed high concentrations in $PM_{10-2.5}$ coarse mode. $NO_3{^-}/nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$ concentration ratios in $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{10-2.5}$ were 0.30 and 0.13, showing less significant effect from automobile and local pollution sources. The sulfate and nitrate compounds were presumed to be long-range transported to Gosan area by the relatively high SOR and NOR values. The trajectory cluster analysis showed the higher concentrations of the major secondary pollutants ($nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NO_3{^{-}}$, $NH_4{^{+}}$) and $nss-Ca^{2+}$ when the air masses had moved from China continent and Korean peninsula into Gosan area.

Seasonal Composition Characteristics of TSP and PM2.5 Aerosols at Gosan Site of Jeju Island, Korea during 2008-2011

  • Kim, Won-Hyung;Hwang, Eun-Yeong;Ko, Hee-Jung;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.217-226
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    • 2013
  • The collection of TSP and $PM_{2.5}$ aerosols has been made at the Gosan Site of Jeju Island during 2008-2011, and their ionic and elemental species were analyzed, in order to examine the seasonal variation and characteristics of aerosol compositions. The anthropogenic components ($NH_4{^+}$, $nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NO_3{^-}$, S, Zn, Pb) and the soil components ($nss-Ca^{2+}$, Al, Fe, Ca) showed high concentrations in spring as the prevailing westerly wind, but the concentrations of the sea-salt components ($Na^+$, $Cl^-$) were high in winter. In TSP, the neutralization by $NH_3$ increased in summer, but the neutralization by $CaCO_3$ increased in spring and fall seasons. The organic acids ($HCOO^-$, $CH_3COO^-$) contributed to the acidification of the aerosols by only 5.0%, so the acidification could be mostly contributed by the inorganic acids ($SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NO_3{^-}$). From the examination of the source origins by factor analysis, the compositions of TSP were influenced by the order of soil > anthropogenic > marine, on the other hand, those of $PM_{2.5}$ were by the order of anthropogenic > marine > soil. The backward trajectory analyses showed that the concentrations of $NH_4{^+}$, $nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NO_3{^-}$ and $nss-Ca^{2+}$ increased highly when the air masses had moved from China continent into Gosan area of Jeju Island.