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Analyses of the Environmental Characteristics of Ponds in Golf Courses for Ecological Management (골프장 연못의 생태적 관리를 위한 환경특성 분석)

  • Ahn Deug-Soo;Kim Chang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.51-77
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    • 2006
  • Pond management is a critical part of overall golf course management, both during growth and maintenance modes of turf care. This study investigated 48 ponds in nine 18- or 27-hole golf courses to analyze the environmental characteristics of ponds. The research process had three phases: (1) inventory and analysis of grading plans and drainage plans, (2) field verification and interviews with greenskeepers, and (3) analyses of water quality and statistics. All data were collected from May to August in 2004. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: 1. It is desirable to site a golf course in a small watershed with high watershed eccentricity to control storm water runoff efficiently and to minimize soil erosion during construction. 2. The siting and size of a pond should be determined through a land-use analysis of the watershed for the purpose of ecological management. The bigger the forest-to-golf course ratio, the better the water quality will be. 3. The size and capacity of each individual ponds varied and there were many somewhat longish rather than round ponds. 4. There were many differences among golf courses in naturalness of the ponds, and the correlation between naturalness and area of aquatic plants was very high. 5. Analyses of pond water quality indicated that the degrees of Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demanded and Suspended Solids were relatively low values but Total Phosphorus and Total Nitrogen were too high. Therefore a systematic approach is needed to solve e problem. Pesticide residues were not detected in all ponds. 6. Water depth and area of hydrophyte should be considered when designing an ecological pond. 7. All ponds used storm water as a main source of water supply and added underground water. Aquatic plants and physical methods such as water aeration and spray fountains were the main choices for maintaining a healthy aquatic environment.

A Study of Important Attribute Which Gives an Effect to Golf Club Membership Purchase (골프 회원권 구입에 영향을 미치는 중요속성에 관한 연구)

  • Ko, Ho-Seok;Kang, In-Won
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.105-120
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    • 2005
  • The research regarding the important attribute which gives an effect to golf club membership purchase. 1990's as the golf boom as percentage shows the rapid increase of the golf course visitor and it grows, from 2001 are passing over ten million people golf course visitors. When purchasing golf club membership, it is important from the research which it sees the attributes which it thinks probably are what, it grasped and the scope of research did Seoul and the metropolitan area golf user in the object and it executed an empirical.analysis. In order to raise the reality and a reliability of research also it executed the collection and a Question investigation and a empirical analysis of various statistical data. The result of research a frequency analysis, descriptive analysis, factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and a correspondence analysis used the SPSS/PC+ 10.0 which and is a statistics package program. The results show that four dimensions of image were derived from 14 important attributes, using a factor analysis. A correspondence analysis indicates that statistically significant relationships existed between some of Golf club membership factors with respect to the demographic variables of income and Golf frequency. A multiple regression analyses also indicate that most of Golf club membership factors had great impacts on visitors' recommend.

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Survey of Current Status of the Graveyard Lawn Maintenance in Korea (우리나라 묘지의 잔디 관리 실태 조사 연구)

  • Chang, Seog-Won;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Kwon, Byeong-Seok;Hong, Jeum Kyu;Park, Sho-Jun;Byun, Jae-Bok;Jee, Jae-Uk
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.130-135
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    • 2017
  • In the current study, we surveyed the status of graveyard lawn maintenance in Korea. The lawn maintenance information was obtained from the vicarious companies registered on the internet portal site and the Forestry Federation of Korea, and the questionnaire investigation from Primary Agricultural Cooperatives (Nonghyup). In all provinces surveyed, individual graves were maintained on a $66m^2$ (20 Pyeong) basis. The vicarious maintenance of graveyard lawn was carried out 1~5 times a year, and the maintenance cost increased as the number of times increased. Mowing the grass around a grave (Beolcho) was mainly done before the Korean Thanksgiving Day (Chuseok). The number of Beolcho was steadily increased from 2013 to 2015, and the price was getting higher and higher. Gyeonggi province had the highest cost, and Jeolla had the lowest cost. Regardless of the year, the number of orders received were higher in Gyeongnam > Gyeongbuk > Jeonnam province in order. Most of the reason for requested Beolcho was because the client lives in the area far from the graveyard. The direction of the cemetery was very varied. According to the survey, the all grass were zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), and grass coverage rate of the graves was 35.4~71.9%. Through questionnaire investigation, the reason why the density of grass was lowered was because the periodic management of weeds and fallen leaves was insufficient. Further research on the maintenance of graveyard in the future will be necessary.

Similar services, different perceptions: The gaps of satisfaction based on the level of recreation specialization

  • Hwang, Sun-Hwan;In, Sangwoo
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2013
  • The golf industry has become the center of attention for recreational activities in the participant sport market; however, there has been little effort made to understand golf consumer and their consumption behavior using the concept of 'recreational specialization' which segments the golfers based on level of specialization in golf. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in the relationships among perceived service quality, price of playing golf, overall customer satisfaction with the course, and a player's intention to revisit the same golf course based on the magnitude of recreation specialization in golf. Four public and two private golf courses from the southeastern state of the United States were randomly chosen from a list in a golf magazine. The 365 surveys among 417 participants were ultimately analyzed. Multiple group analysis was conducted in order to investigate differences in relationships among service quality, price, customer satisfaction, and revisit intentions between groups based on the level of recreation specialization. The key findings were 1) for more specialized golfers, satisfaction with price did not affect overall customer satisfaction or revisit intention, however, service quality significantly influenced both overall customer satisfaction and revisit intention, 2) for less specialized golfers, satisfaction with price significantly influenced overall customer satisfaction but did not affect revisit intention. Knowledge about which the determinants of satisfaction are different between more and less specialized golfers could provide a better understanding of how different marketing strategies should be implemented for different specialized levels of golfers.

A Study on Water Quality for Golf Course Pond in Northern Areas in Gyeonggi Porvince (경기도 북부지역 골프장연못 수질특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Kwang;Hwang, Chan Won;Park, Jin-Ho;Kim, Ji Young;Oh, Jo-Kyo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the water quality of 16 golf course ponds located in northern areas Gyeonggi province by investigating residual pesticides, organic matters (BOD, TOC) and nutrients (TN, TP). Methods: The result data for the residual pesticides were used from 2014 to 2017. and other result data were used for April and July in 2017. The residual pesticides analytical method was based on 'Golf course residual pesticides inspection method', The others analytical method was based on 'The water pollution process test standard' Results: Very toxic pesticides and banned pesticides were not detected but general pesticides were detected. In case of the water quality of the golf course pond was applied to the lake water quality standard. In April the average TOC concentration was V grade to 6.46 mg/L, TP V grade to 0.13 mg/L, TN VI grade to 1.6 mg/L, In July TOC average concentration was VI grade to 8.65 mg/L, TP VI grade to 0.17 mg/L, TN V to 1.5 mg/L. All TN and TP concentrations corresponded to eutrophication. Compared with lake water quality monitoring, the concentrations of BOD, TOC and TP were high but the TN concentration was low in April and July. Conclusions: It is considered that water quality managements are necessary for the golf course pond. The first reason is that the pollutants of pond are discarded to river during rainfall and act as pollution sources. The second reason is that the golf course users are uncomfortable because of odor caused by the pollutants of the pond.

Occurence of Chemical Resistance and Control of Dollar Spot Caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in Turfgrass of Golf Course (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa에 의한 잔디동전마름병(Dollar spot)의 약제 저항성균 발생 및 방제)

  • 심규열;민규영;신현동;이현주
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2001
  • Antifungal activity of 20 chemicals registered to turfgrass diseases was evaluated. Among the chemicals, iprodione, benomyl, iprodione+thiram, pencycuron+tebuconazole, hexaconazole, and iprodione+thiophanate-methyl exhibited high antifungal activity to the dollar spot fungus. All isolates were greatly inhibited by the chemicals at the concentration over 32ppm($\mu\textrm{g}$/ml). However, sensitivity of the isolates to chemicals was varied at the lower concentration as 8 and 16 ppm as follows. The isolate originated from Ora golf course was resistant to iprodione and iprodione+thiophanate methyl, Gonjiam isolate to iprodion, Youngpyung isolate to iprodione+thiram, and Dogo isolate to iprodione+thiram, pencycuron+tebuconazole, and tebuconazole. It was found from this study that the varied chemical resistance among the isolates was positively related to the application time of the chemical in the golf course. Consequently, when a chemical was applied more often times than the others to the golf course, the fungal isolates originate from the field showed higher resistance to the former chemical. Effects of the chemicals on control of the dollar spot was evaluated in the field. All tested chemicals revealed over 70% disease control efficacy, however, mepronil+propiconazole was the best showing 83% control efficacy and followed by fenarimo, iprodione, terbuconazole, thiram, and thiophanate-methyl.

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Characteristics of Adsorption and Desorption of Metalaxyl in the Green Soil of Golf Course (골프장 그린 토양에서 Metalaxyl의 흡ㆍ탈착 특성)

  • 유병로;정경희
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2002
  • Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of metalaxyl in environment which was used as pesticide in green soil of golf course and as functions of the characteristics of adsorption, desorption and degradation in soil texture and organic matter contents. Acid water containing metalaxyl was conducted to evaluate the effects on adsorption, desorption and degradation. The adsorption of metalaxyl played more significant role in organic contents than clay contents, and pH Increases more pH 2.5 than pH 5.6. The desorption of metalaxyl from contaminants soil decreased higher organic contents LS-soil than S-soil, but the desorption amount of metalaxyl increased more pH 5.6 than pH 2.5. The rate of degradation of metalaxyl in green soil environmental increased higher organic contents LS-soil than S-soil and decreased more pH 2.5 than pH 5.6. These results indicated that the behavior of metalaxyl of the green soil was affected the soil texture of the golf course. Increasing of organic contents, the adsorption amount of metalaxyl on soil increased. Moreover the decrease of the pH of solution increased adsorption amounts and decreased desorption amounts. As the results, the transportation of metalaxyl in soil decreased the acidic rates. The acidification of soil by the acid rain increased the adsorption amount of metalaxyl, but the degradation of metalaxyl decreased. Therefore, it is possible to sustain contamination in run-off the stream and ground water by residuals in soil.

Evaluation of the Basic Unit of Irrigation water used on Golf Courses in Jeju Island (골프장 관개용수 원단위 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Won-Bea;Yang, Sung-Kee;Kim, Bong-Seok;Moon, Duk-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.775-782
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the basic unit of irrigation water on golf courses in Jeju Island. The amounts of rainwater and groundwater used on 20 golf courses have been monitored for this study. The characteristics of rainwater and groundwater from the selected 20 golf courses were analyzed based on the existing data that had been collected for three consecutive years from 2006 to 2009. The range of monthly irrigation water (groundwater + rainwater) used was about $13,200\sim55,600\;m^3$/month, with average of $36,600\;m^3$/month. In the respects of the amount of annual water used, groundwater was recorded as $163,500\;m^3$/year, and rainwater was recorded as $275,400\;m^3$/year. Thus, the total annual irrigation water used was approximately $439,000\;m^3$/year. The correlation (R2) between golf course lot size and average amount of monthly irrigation water used was 0.65, and the monthly basic unit per golf course area ($1,000\;m^2$) was calculated as $60\;m^3$.

How many automatic external defibrillators do South Korean golf courses need?

  • PARK, Sang-Kyu;UHM, Tai-Hwan
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study was to examine public access defibrillator (PAD) deployment on some golf courses and to analyze automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) demand by appropriate distance. Research design, data, and methodology: We conducted telephone interview on 124 golf courses in Gyeonggi and Gangwon province in South Korea. The area within 3 minutes by 3 minutes for retrieval and 1 minute for shock and 1.5 minutes by the American Heart Association (AHA)recommendation for community AED placement were calculated as 3.14×162㎡ and 3.14×100㎡. Results: The average area was 1,811,481.8㎡, and 29 (42.7%) in below 999,999㎡, 75 (60.5%) in 1,000,000 to 1,999,999㎡, 12 (9.7%) in 2,000,000 to 2,999,999㎡ took up. The average retrieval time was 161.8 seconds, and 5 (4.1%) in below 90 seconds, 10 (8.0%) in 91 to 180 seconds took up a small part. AED demands according to 3 and 1.5 retrieval minutes were 2,602 and 6,986 respectively. Average AED demands per golf course were 21.0 and 56.3 respectively on 124 golf courses. Conclusions: The numbers of AED needed in South Korean golf course were 5,880 to 15,764. To ensure defibrillation on the golf courses, the supply and distribution of AEDs should be strengthened.

Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua

  • Chaves, Arielle;Mitkowski, Nathaniel
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2013
  • Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease.