• Title, Summary, Keyword: Golf course

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Improvement of Marine Environmental Impact Assessment for Golf Course Projects in Southern Coastal Area of Korea (남해연안 골프장조성에 따른 해양환경영향평가 개선방안)

  • Kim, Gui-Young;Lee, Dae-In;Yu, Jun;Eom, Ki-Hyuk;Jeon, Kyeong-Am
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.453-464
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    • 2010
  • We evaluated the status and problems of golf course developments in the southern coast of Korea. It's adjacent waters supports nursery and fishing grounds for commercially-important fisheries species, and various sites are designated and protected as marine protection area(MPA), fisheries reserve, or clean area(blue belt) for producing shellfish. We proposed key assessment items for environmental impact assessment(EIA) and checklists in selecting golf course locations. For the protected areas, we suggest that it is essential to limit golf course establishment while setting a minimal distance from the coast to secure a buffer zone for mitigating the environmental impacts. To efficiently utilize existing regional coastal management plans, it is necessary to diagnose how a golf course development will potentially modify geomorphology and scenery, amplify pollutant loads from non-point sources, and disrupt the functions of coastal ecosystem. Especially, continued monitoring and assesssing input loads of hazardous materials originating from agricultural chemicals should be obligatory. Finally, measures for improving the QA/QC analysis were discussed to enhance reliability of environmental data with respect to golf courses and adjacent coastal waters.

The Study of Golf Activities of the King Young Chin (영친왕의 골프활동에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Sang-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.986-995
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to find out about unknown golf activities through sociological analysis based on the relationship between King Youngchin's life in Japan and the people around him. The following conclusions were drawn. King Youngchin was influenced by the Japanese imperial family to learn golf for the first time in 1924, and participated in golf tournaments in 1925. In 1927, during a one-year European tour, he participated in golf games in Singapore, Paris, Switzerland, England, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Italy, as well as golf course tours, golf lessons, and visiting golf ball manufacturing factories. After returning from Europe, he provided support for the site of Gyeongseong Gunjari Golf Course, construction and operation expenses. However, he did not show any special golf activities during his life as a high class Japanese military officer, and after the Pacific War, he could not find any more golf activities due to social conditions and economic conditions such as wartime restoration. There were no more golf activities due to health problems from 1958.

An Analysis of the Quantitative Changes of Elements on Golf Courses - With Special Reference to the Membership Golf Courses in Capital Area, Korea - (한국 골프 코스 구성 요소의 정량적 변화 분석 - 수도권 회원제 골프장을 대상으로 -)

  • Rho, Joon-Taek;Cho, Se-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.112-126
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    • 2012
  • The theme is to analyze the time-series changes of design elements on golf courses and golf country club and its factors influencing to the changes with regard to 81-membership country club located in the Capital Area of Seoul, created in the periods from 1964 until 2011. The research methods is to analyze the time-series changes of environmental factors influencing to the changes of the elements on the golf course by book review, and to compare and speculate the results of the analysis on the environmental factors with the time-series changes on the golf course elements of statistical analysis as like regression analysis. The research results were as follows. The first, the environmental factors influencing to the change of golf course elements were analyzed as the five elements of the golf-related policies and regulations, the economy, the numbers of golfers, PGA and KPGA golf tournaments, the golf instruments. The second, the type and scale of the location of the golf course were showing trends of transformation from flat ground to mountainous one and from small scale to large one. The third, it was analyzed that he golf course elements as like the sizes, length, numbers of golf course elements as like fairway, green, bunker, teeing ground and pond were influenced by the law and regulation, the increase of amateur golfers, the promotion of techniques of golfers, the increase of the chance of foreign course designer's involvement to domestic market through the opening of PGA and KPGA tournaments etc. The fourth, the promotion of golf instruments and the flying distance were the factors influencing to the numbers of bunker, the lengths of holes. The fifth, it was revealed that the trends of increase of sizes of ponds influenced by enacting environmenal friendly laws and regulations, considering of landscaping, reflecting of design trends followed by the opening of PGA tournaments. Finally, it was proposed that the further research would be introduced with regard to the qualitative analysis onto the changes and influential factors of golf course design.

A Study on the Golf Score Management System (골프 스코어 관리 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • 민용식;오삼권
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 2002
  • The paper describes a golf score management system that aids golfers in improving their abilities of playing golf. The main purpose of this system is to help golfers manage their golf scores in a more systematic way. The system consists of three main modules. a golf course management module, a golf score management module, and a golf course creation module. With this system. golfers can not only record their scores but also perform a scientific analysis. Through the results obtained from the analysis, golfers can identify and fix their weak points so that they can improve their playing abilities.

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Occurrence of Stunt Nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, on Turfgrass in Korea

  • Khan, Zakaullah;Kim, Jeong-Ho;Son, Seon-Hye;Kim, Sang-Gyu;Kim, Young-Ho
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.474-477
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    • 2008
  • During routine surveys for pest and pathogen incidences at a golf course in 2007, circular to irregular patches of stunted, chlorotic and wilted turfgrass var. Pencross were noticed in Jinhae, Gyeongnam province, Korea. Soil samples collected from those diseased patches of the golf course yielded high population (average 126 nematodes/$100\;cm^3$) of a stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, which is described and illustrated in this paper with light and scanning electron micrographs. This is the first report on the occurrence of T. claytoni in turfgrass in Korea.

A Model on the Determinants of Visual Preference at Golf courses (경관의 선호도 결정인자 모형 -골프장을 배경으로-)

  • 서주환;이철민;맹상빈
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this thesis is to classify landscape-type of golf course, and t provide a better understanding of landscape of existing golf courses, seek a developed method for landscape, and other useful knowledge. In order to classify landscape type of the golf course, and analyze the preference for the determinants, we have selected 4 golf courses in Yongin, Kyonggi Province. The analysis in this study shows that a variable, 'familiarity' is the most potent influence of visual preference, (Sig 0.01), and it can be divided into five classes of landscape-type in golf course. More specifically, we conducted the analysis of the image of views and visual preference to bring out major factors which could decide visual preference in golf courses. The results between visual preference and physical variable are as follows; 1. It implies that a factor for a image of the view in golf course is analyzed by 4 districts from factor 1 to factor 4. An ability explaining those factors in the whole of variable quantity is 51.742%, implying factors for the image of the scene in golf courses are appeared as familiarity, changeableness, spaciousness, and naturalness. Among those factors, since familiarity(C.V.; 26.783%) and changeableness(C.V.; 112.200%) took high rank, this represents the fact that familiarity or changeableness highly affects the forming of image. 2. Defending on degree of image ability in golf course, we could classify as five types such as Type I, Type II, Type II, Type IV, and Type V. 3. As a result of calculating type of factor score, Type I had the lowest ranking in naturalness, and rather lower than others such as organization and spaciousness. The II is a top-ranked one in familiarity and naturalness, while it has the lowest ranking in spaciousness. Type III has the highest ranking in organization and preference. Type IV is the lowest-ranked one in familiarity and preference. Type IV is the lowest-ranked one is familiarity and preference. Type V has the highest ranking in spaciousness, but the lowest ranking in organization. 4. As a result of preference, Type III, Type II, Type V, Type I, and Type IV come out in order. That water-seen place type charges the highest rank shows the importance of changeable materials. 5. These factors-familiarity, organization, spaciousness and naturalness- are the major materials of the scene of view in golf courses. The possibility of how to use those for designing and making enhanced golf courses should be reinvestigated through these factors. Especially, it is acknowledged that the duction of changeableness, which is not mentioned in the study of informational approach, is much stimulating for the designing use. A further research on this theme should be made in the future, not limiting to the golf courses in Yongin.

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Research on Benefit and Disadvantages of Concrete and Asphalt for Golf Course Cart Path Construction (골프장 카트도로에서 콘크리트와 아스팔트 포장재의 장단점 비교분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Chan;Kim, Shin-Won;Ha, Jong-Du
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.78-89
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    • 2009
  • Overall 25~30 new golf courses are opening in Korea these days, and total annual rounds have been also increasing by 10~15% every year. The Korean golf industry is being recognized as the largest growing golf industry in the world. However, it is easily defined that there are many problems of golf course development and construction methods such as construction fees. The average construction cost for golf course development and golf course maintenance fees in Korea are much more than the cost in the USA and other countries. It may be due to the fact that USA golf course development is managed by a highly developed construction method and well trained specialists. This study will be concentrated on one of the major differences, which is about cart path material; this causes a big difference of construction and maintenance fees. In order to overcome this study, concrete and asphalt will be specified as the main cart path material. Also, some case studies and construction regulations of golf course development in the USA will be introduced for a better understanding of this study.

Runoff Characteristics of Non-point Source Pollutant Loads Generated on Golf Course (골프장에서 발생하는 비점오염원 유출특성)

  • Shin, Minhwan;Choi, Jaewan;Choi, Younghun;Park, Woonji;Won, Chulhee;Shin, Dongsuk;Lim, Kyoung Jae;Choi, Joongdae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.784-793
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    • 2011
  • Activities on golf courses are believed to contribute to the degradation of water quality in receiving waters due to the excessive use of farm chemicals including fertilizers and pesticides. The objective of this study was to collect basic data that could explain the characteristics of non-point source (NPS) pollution discharged from a golf course. Twenty seven water quality monitoring was conducted at a golf course during the rainy season of 2008 and 2009. The results indicated that the ranges of the Event Mean Concentration (EMC) at the golf course were $BOD_5$ 1.8~11.3 (ave. 5.6) mg/L, $COD_{Mn}$ 19.2~51.4 (ave. 39.6) mg/L, TOC 11.0~31.0 (ave. 16.8) mg/L, TN 1.545~16.098 (ave. 5.623) mg/L, TP 0.230~4.528 (ave. 1.525) mg/L, and SS 2.2~57.3 (ave. 10.1) mg/L. The unit loads of the golf course estimated were $BOD_5$ $3.35kg/km^2/day$, SS $6.43kg/km^2/day$, $COD_{Mn}$ $30.00kg/km^2/day$, TN $4.04kg/km^2/day$, TP $1.14kg/km^2/day$, and TOC $12.16kg/km^2/day$. Golf courses are currently classified as a grass field in which the unit loads are different from golf courses. Therefore, it was recommended that golf courses need to be separated from the grass field when the surveys and modelings for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development and the evaluation of TMDL implementation were performed.

The Effect of the Selection Attribute of Golf Course on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty (골프장의 선택속성이 고객만족과 고객충성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Yoon Sang;Kim, Yon Hyong
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.197-209
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    • 2014
  • This paper analyzes the relationship of the selection attribute of golf course, the service quality, service value, customer loyalty and revisiting golf course, which is a customer loyalty and orally transmitted effect. The selection attribute of golf course such as convenience, cost, course condition and service has a significant effect on service quality, service value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Service quality has a significant effect on service value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. It is estimated that customer satisfaction has a significant effect on customer loyalty.

Analysis of Maintenance Expense in various Golf Courses (골프 코스관리 비용 분석)

  • Yoo, Min-Joon;Lee, Jae-Pil;Joo, Young-Kyoo;Kim, Doo-Hwan
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.61-76
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study are to investigate the reasonable maintenance expense of golf course according to the size and management system of each golf course. The maintenance cost per hole per golfer of 29 golf courses and the maintenance cost for items and locations of 8 golf courses were analyzed. 1. As golfers per hole increased, maintenance cost per hole per golfer decreased. 2. The decisive cost factors for maintenance cost of golf course are the number of annual golfers, the total course size, the management system, and automation of course facilities. 3. Maintenance cost of golf courses contained the landscaping areas except for building and parking lots is $869^{\}/_{m^2}$ Korean won. 4. Average maintenance cost of 8 golf courses is $44,325,000^{\}/_{hole}$. 5. Labor cost marked the largest portion in the total cost. Among the items of labor cost, repair cost for green ball mark was the highest with the ratio of 26%(\4,163,000). 6. Material cost for Fairways which reaches 30% of the total area was composed of $22%{\sim}44%$ of the total cost of materials. Cost of imported fertilizers, pestcides for insects and diseases, and sands for top dressing was the highest. 7. Material cost for Green which reaches 2% of the total area was composed of $28%{\sim}36%$ of the total cost. Cost of imported products such as particle-shaped fertilizers, micro mineral fertilizers, and soil conditioners was the highest. 8. There is no difference in cost between chemical fertilizers and the environmentally friendly fertilizers even if environmentally friendly fertilizers using microorganism or chitosan materials are also expensive.