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Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in 15 New Cultivars of Kentucky Bluegrass Grown under Alternating Temperature Conditions (변온조건에서 켄터키 블루그래스 신품종 15종류의 발아특성 및 일일 발아패턴 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2014
  • Research was initiated to investigate early establishment characteristics and germination pattern of Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.). Fifteen cultivars were evaluated under alternative conditions (8 hours light at $25^{\circ}C$ and 16 hours dark at $15^{\circ}C$). Significant differences were observed in germination characteristics and germination pattern among KB cultivars. A final germination percentage differed in cultivars, being 75.25 to 89.50%. The first germination was initiated between 6 and 9 DAS (days after seeding). As for the first germination percentage, 'Brilliant' and 'Midnight II' produced 14.50% and 23.00%, respectively, while the others were most below 5%. Days to 75% germination were between 15.08 and 28.80 DAS. 'Excursion', 'Midnight II', 'Odyssey', 'Midnight' and 'Courtyard' were fastest. The slowest cultivar was 'Voyager II', being over 28 DAS, which were 13 to 14 days slower than the fastest ones. Considering the first germination percentage, days to the first germination, days to 75% germination, and germination pattern, 'Midnight II', 'Excursion' and 'Midnight' were regarded as excellent cultivars under alternative conditions. From this study, information on differences in germination characteristics and patterns would be practically useful for a golf course construction when established with KB.

Prior Eco-preserve Zoning through Stream Ecosystem Evaluation on Dam Basin -A Case of Yongdam-dam Watershed, Jeollabukdo Province- (댐유역 하천생태계평가를 통한 생태보전우선지역설정 -용담다목적댐 유역을 사례로-)

  • Lim, Hyun-Jeong;Lee, Myung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to specify the prior eco-preserve zone by establishing the eco-landscape unit on the stream corridor and evaluating the stream ecosystem in the dam basin. The fundamental ecological data was surveyed and collected through "the ecosystem project on Yongdam multipurpose dam watershed" from 2008 to 2009. The Yongdam Dam Watershed has several streams, Jujacheon, Jeongjacheon and Guryangcheon, of which the area is $930km^2$, stretching to Jinangun, Jangsugun and Mujugun Jellabukdo. In spite of being used for drinking purpose, the dam water quality and ecosystem is threatened by in-watershed pollution produced by development, golf course grounds and sports complex, etc. The landscape unit of stream corridor was zoned across by 250m, 500m, and 750m from the vicinity line of stream, which was decided to the accuracy of mapping and surveying. Types of evaluation are the Stream Corridor Evaluation(SCE) and the Vegetated Area Evaluation(VAE). In the process of SCE, several indices were analysed, fish species diversity, species peculiarity, and stream naturality. Indices for VAE were forest stand map, vegetation protection grade, species diversity and peculiarity for wild bird and mammal life. The importance of the ecological items is categorized into three levels and overlapped for specifying the prior preserve zone. The area at which legally protecting species appeared is categorized as absolute preserve area. This study might be meaningful for proposing the evaluation process of a stream corridor ecosystem, which can synthesize a lot of individual ecological surveys. We hope further research will be actively performed about the ecotope mapping which is based on a individual wildlife territory and habitats and also their relationships.

Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in Fine-textured Fescues (세엽형 훼스큐속 잔디의 발아특성 및 일일 발아패턴 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam;Park, So-Hyang
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.567-573
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    • 2010
  • Research was initiated to investigate early establishment characteristics and germination pattern of fine-textured fescues (FF). Six varieties from Chewings fescue ($Festuca$ $rubra$ L. ssp. $commutata$ Gaud., CF), creeping red fescue ($F.$ $rubra$ L. ssp. $rubra$ Gaud., CRF), hard fescue ($F.$ $ovina$ ssp. $longifolia$ Thuill., HF) and sheep fescue ($F.$ $ovina$ L., SF) were evaluated in the study. An alternative environmental condition requiring a FF germination test by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) was applied in the experiment, consisting of 8-hr light at $25^{\circ}C$ and 16-hr dark at $15^{\circ}C$ (ISTA conditions). Daily and cumulative germination patterns were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Significant differences were observed in germination pattern, days to the first germination, days to 50% germination, days to 60% germination, and germination rate. The final germination percentage was variable with species and varieties, being 40.25 to 82.00% at the end of study. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics and germination pattern among FF species. The first germination in all entries except HF was initiated between 5 and 6 DAS (days after seeding) under ISTA conditions, while HF between 6 and 7 DAS, being 1 day later. It was 8 to 10 DAS in days to the 50% germination, which was 2 to 4 days after the first germination date. Days to the 60% germination were 9.10 to 14.80 DAS under ISTA conditions, being 5.70 days in differences among the entries. CF 'Jamestown II' and 'Shadow II' and HF 'Aurora Gold' were the fast varieties. The slowest one was HF 'Rescue 911'. Among FF species, turf establishment speed was becoming faster in CRF, SF, HF and CF in this order. Information on differences in germination characteristics and pattern from this study would be usefully applied for golf course design and construction, when established with FF.

Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in 8 New Cultivars of Perennial Ryegrass Grown under Alternative and Natural Room Temperature Conditions (자연실온 및 변온환경에서 퍼레니얼 라이그래스 신품종 8종류의 발아특성 및 일일 발아패턴 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2010
  • Research was initiated to investigate the early establishment characteristics and germination patterns of perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.). Eight cultivars of PR were evaluated in the study. Experiment was conducted under a room temperature condition of $6^{\circ}C$ to $23^{\circ}C$ (natural conditions). Daily and cumulative germination patterns were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Significant differences were observed in germination pattern, days to the first germination, days to 50% germination, days to 75% germination, and germination percentage with different environments and cultivars. Germination percentage was variable with cultivars at the end of study. It was 66.25 to 93.50% under natural conditions. There were considerable variations in the early germination characteristics and germination pattern among the entries according to different conditions. The first germination was initiated between 3 and 5 DAS (days after seeding) under ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) conditions. But it started between 6 and 8 DAS under natural conditions, being 2 to 4 days later as compared with that under ISTA conditions. It was 8 to 12 DAS that reached to days to the 50% germination, which was 2 to 5 days after the first germination. Days to the 75% germination were 10.08 to 13.70 DAS under natural conditions, being 2.07 to 5.70 days slower as compared with ISTA conditions. 'Pennant II' was the fastest cultivar. But the slowest was 'Catalina II' that was 3.62 days later than 'Pennant II' under natural conditions. Considering days to the first germination, days to 75% germination, and germination pattern etc, 'Pennant II' and 'Brightstar II' were regarded as excellent cultivars under both conditions. From this study, information on differences in germination characteristics and patterns would be usefully applied for golf course design and construction, when established with PR.

Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in New Cultivars of The Third Generation of Creeping Bentgrass Grown under Alternative and Natural Room Temperature Conditions (자연실온 및 변온조건에서 제3세대 크리핑 벤트그래스 신품종의 발아특성 및 일일 발아패턴 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam;Kwon, O-Dal;Shim, Sang-Ryul;Yoon, Jung-Seo;Park, So-Hyang
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate early germination characteristics and germination pattern of new cultivars of creeping bentgrass (CB, Agrostis pall/stris Huds.) under natural room temperature conditions and to analyze differences between alternative and natural conditions. Seven cultivars of CB were tested in the study. Daily and cumulative germination patterns were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Significant differences were observed in germination pattern, days to the first germination, days to 50% germination, days to 85% germination, and germination rate among cultivars under different environments. The first germination in all entries was initiated between 4 and 5 days after seeding (DAS) under alternative conditions, while between 6 and 8 DAS under natural conditions, being 2 to 3 days later as compared with that of alternative conditions. As for the first germination percentage, it was generally 5 to 25% under alternative conditions. However, 'Penn A-1', 'Penncross', and 'Penn A-4' cultivars showed a vigorous germination, producing 50 to 70%. Under natural room temperature conditions, it was 5 to 10% for the most entries, except 'Penncross', 'L-93', and 'Penn A-4' cultivars which vigorously produced 20 to 50%. Days to the 50% germination in CB resulted in 4 to 10 DAS under alternative conditions, while 6 to 15 DAS under natural conditions, being 2 to 5 days later than under alternative conditions. Days to the 85% germination were 5.90 to 11.75 DAS under alternative conditions and 7.95 to 12.50 DAS under natural conditions. 'Penn A-1' and 'L-93' were the fastest cultivars under alternative and natural conditions, respectively. Regardless of the temperature conditions, the longest cultivar in germination was 'T-1', being over 11 DAS. In-depth comparative data on germination characteristics and germination patterns among CB cultivars would be usefully applied for a practical CB turf establishment in golf course construction etc.

Effect of Silicate on Creeping Bentgrass Growth of Green at the Golf Course during Summer in Korea (규산염의 시비가 크리핑 벤트그래스의 여름철 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Pil;Yoo, Tae-Young;Moon, Se-Jong;Ham, Suon-Kyu;Kim, Doo-Hwan
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to figure out the effect of silicate as growth stimulator on growth of 'Pencrosss' creeping bentgrass. Creeping bentgrass(Agrostis palustris cv. 'Pencross') at the nursery of Sinwon Country Club was used. Silicate was applied at the concentration of 0, $200{\times}$, $500{\times}$, $1.000{\times}$. Polt size was 1 by 2 meter and there were three replications with completely randomized design(CRD). Creeping bentgrass growth was evaluated with visual turf grass quality, root length and No. of tiller density(ea/$cm^2$). Results of this study are as followings; 1. Average root length with silicate was $1.5{\sim}1.9cm$ longer than control. Especially, Root length of silicate was $7{\sim}8cm$ in summer. 2. Tiller density with silicate was $l8{\sim}22ea/cm^2$, $0.4{\sim}2.l$ less than control. But there was no significant difference. 3. Visual turfgrass quality with silicate was $5.0{\sim}8.3$, $0.3{\sim}1.5$ higher than control. But there was no significant difference. In conclusion, silicate might be grown as root growth stimulator of creeping bentgrass during summer in Korea. However, this study was conducted under one year. Accordingly, in-depth experiment should be done over several years.

Diagnosis of Conflict Problem between the Marine Environmental Conservation and Development, and Policy Implication for Marine Spatial Planning (해양환경보전과 이용·개발의 상충 분석과 해양공간계획에 대한 시사점)

  • Lee, Dae In;Tac, Dae Ho;Kim, Gui Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 2016
  • This paper emphasized the necessity of the marine spatial planning (MSP) through the analysis of the major developmental projects which could make a contradiction based on the adequacy of the site selection and environmental impacts. The conflicting affairs between space utilization and management plan happen in the following ways: marine renewable energy development, sand mining, reclamation, construction of golf course in coastal area, thermal effluent and waste heat, erosion causing port development. The conflict of stakeholder continues caused by the accumulated environmental impact. For the reasons mentioned above, we found two things. First, it is necessary to comprehend the fact of developmental planning and MSP. Second, it is still unsatisfactory to connect the relevance of laws related to the spatial planning. For the reinforcement of marine environmental policy management, it is necessary to consolidate the property of site selection and assessment of developmental scale. Especially, while the strategic environmental assessment is in progress based on site selection and property of scale, consistent diagnosis is needed in the following concerns: the fact of the marine spatial planning, the relevance between national developmental plan and regional developmental plan, fisheries regulation, marine protected animals. For the environmentally sound and sustainable development (ESSD), MSP should have to be prepared based in a way of top-down including coastal and EEZ plan, relevance of ocean-use zoning and sector planning, 3-D spatial information. And also integrated information system have to be prepared through high-tech marine spatial information. In conclusion, consistent and relevant strategy for MSP should have to include the whole information related to the maritime affairs such as harbor, fishing port, fishing ground, coastal management, marine ecosystem generally.

Comparison of Green Color Retention of Zoysiagrass and Cool-season Grass under Multilayer System, USGA System, and Mono-layer System of Sports Field (스포츠용 다단구조, USGA구조 및 약식구조 지반에서 한국잔디 및 한지형 잔디의 녹색기간 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.342-353
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    • 2016
  • This study was initiated to evaluate green color retention under three different soil systems. Several turfgrasses were evaluated in multi-layer, USGA, and mono-layer systems. Turfgrass entries were comprised of three cultivars of Korean lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) as warm-season grass (WSG) and three blends and three mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (TF, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as cool-season grass (CSG). Significant differences were observed in visual turf color and green color retention among soil systems and turfgrasses. Both the multi-layer and USGA systems were highly associated with better color ratings and longer color retention, as compared with the mono-layer system. Seasonal variation of visual turf color greatly occurred from late December to early spring. CSG exhibited longer color retention than did WSG. The latter maintained green color for approximately 6 months, regardless of the soil system. Spring green-up of Korean lawngrass occurred from early to middle May, while it underwent discoloration from late October to early November. Among the CSGs green-up occurred between early March and early April and leaf color was maintained until middle December to early February. Therefore, the CSGs were green for 8.5 to 11 months, depending on turfgrass and soil system. The mean period of green color duration across all soil systems was approximately 10-11, 9-10 and 8.5-9.0 months for PR, KB and TF, respectively. As for the CSG mixtures, the greater the proportion of PR, the longer the green color retention, while the higher the proportion of TF, the shorter the color retention. There was greater variation in green color duration among the CSGs than the WSGs. Across soil systems, color retention differences of 2 to 6 days were observed for the Korean lawngrass, but 7 to 36 days for the CSGs. These results demonstrate that green color retention varied greatly according to soil systems and also among turfgrasses. Selections of turfgrass and soil system should be made using a concept-oriented approach, when establishing garden, park, soccer field, golf course and other sports field. Information obtained in this study can be used to select soil systems and turfgrasses based on the expected degree of leaf color retention.

Comparison of Establishment Vigor, Uniformity, Rooting Potential and Turf Qualtiy of Sods of Kentucky Bluegrass, Perennial Ryegrass, Tall Fescue and Cool-Season Grass Mixtures Grown in Sand Soil (모래 토양에서 켄터키블루그라스, 퍼레니얼라이그라스, 톨훼스큐 및 한지형 혼합구 뗏장의 피복도, 균일도, 근계 형성력 및 잔디품질 비교)

  • 김경남;박원규;남상용
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.129-146
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    • 2003
  • Research was initiated to compare establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality in sods of cool-season grasses (CSG). Several turfgrasses grown under pure sand soil were tested. Establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality were evaluated in the study. Turfgrass entries were comprised of three blends from Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (TF, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), respectively and three mixtures among them. Differences by treatments were significantly observed in establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality. Early establishment vigor was mainly influenced by germination speed, being fastest with PR, intermediate with TF and slowest with KB. In a late stage of growth, however, it was affected more by growth habit, resulting in highest with KB and slowest with TF. There were considerable variations in sod uniformity among turfgrasses. Best uniformity among monostand sods was associated with KB, while poorest one with TF. PR sod produced intermediate uniformity between KB and TF. The uniformity of polystand sods of CSG mixtures was inferior to that of monostands of KB, PR and TF, due to characteristics of mixtures comprised of a variety of color, density, texture and growth habit. The greatest potential of sod rooting was found with PR and the poorest with KB. Intermediate potential between PR and KB was associated with TF. In CSG mixtures, it was variable, depending on turfgrass mixing rates. Generally, the higher the PR in mixtures, the greater the sod rooting potential. At the time of sod harvest, however, turfgrass quality of KB was superior to that of PR. because of its characteristics of uniform surface, high density and good mowing quality. These results suggest that a careful expertise based on turf quality as well as sod characteristics like establishment vigor, uniformity and rooting potential be strongly required for the success of golf course or athletic field in establishment.