• Title, Summary, Keyword: Golf course

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A Study on Problems of Combined Development and Environment-Friendly Improvements of Golf Course in Forest Areas in Gyeonggi-Do (경기도 산림지역 골프장의 연접개발 문제점 및 친환경성 개선방안)

  • Hwang, So-Young;Sung, Hyun-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.143-155
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    • 2011
  • Recently, in forest areas of Gyeonggi-Do where golf courses are developed indiscriminately due to the rapid increase in demand, two and three golf courses are being concentrated and combined to develop and it's occurring lots of problems. This study therefore, aims to examine their problems and propose environment-friendly improvements of combined development, by analyzing laws related to golf course's location and the current location status. The results of this study are as followings; Firstly, when analyzing related laws, it was found that unified standards should be established in relation to regulation of the external conditions of golf course sites and individual index. Secondly, standards of a proper separated distance are needed, when developing golf courses. Thirdly, we need to preferentially preserve areas where should be protected environmentally, and establish criteria approving golf courses built close to the boundary of a buffer area only, by introducing the concepts of a buffer area based on the UNESCO MAB. Lastly, we have to set up criteria considering Network elements for maintaining the connectivity of the ecosystem.

An Impact Assessment on Atmospheric Dispersion of Pesticide using AGDISP Model (AGDISP모델을 이용한 농약의 대기확산 영향평가)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hwan;Koo, Youn-Seo;Lee, Seung-Hoon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.547-556
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    • 2013
  • Recently, golf courses have increased over the years because golf became popular leisure sport. Various environmental problems have been then issued by a golf course during constructing and running them. A problem of pesticide, which is serious among various environmental problems, from golf course has harmful effect on surrounding area and makes human suffer from acute and chronic diseases. Pesticides are used for the cost-effective managing of golf course and the amount of pesticides also increases as the number of golf course increase. Since the assessment of pesticides on near-by surrounding has been focused on water and soil media, studies related to atmospheric dispersion have been hardly attempted. The method to assess an impact of pesticide nearby agricultural production by the atmospheric dispersion using AGDISP(AGricultural DISPersal) model was developed and applied to the actual planned golf course located in Hongcheon, Gangwon. For implementing AGDISP, parameters were investigated from the golf course's land use planning map, pesticide spray device, Hong-Cheon weather station and etc. First of all, a kind of pesticide, a form of spraying pesticide, geographical features, weather data, and distance(golf course to plantation) were investigated to understand how to work these parameters in AGDISP. Restricted data(slope angle, droplet size distribution and solar insolation) sensitivity analysis of these parameters to estimate effect of pesticide nearby a plantation and a high relative contribution data of analyzed data was selected for input data. Ethoprophos was chosen as the pesticide used in the golf course and the amounts of pesticide deposition per annual agricultural productions were predicted. The results show that maximum amount of pesticide deposition through atmospheric dispersion was predicted $2.32{\mu}/m^2$ at 96 m where the nearest organic plantation exists. The residues of pesticide were also estimated based on the annul production of the organic and the deposition amount of the pesticide. Consequently, buckwheat, wheat and millet were likely to exceed maximum residue limits for pesticides in foods(MRL) and sorghum, corn and peanut were likely to exceed MRL by organic farming as well.

Synergistic Interaction of Fungicides in Mixtures under Different Conditions of Dollar Spot Disease Caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa (잔디 동전마름병의 발생정도가 다른 골프장 그린 조건에서 살균제 혼용살포에 의한 상승적 방제 효과)

  • Chang, Seog-Won;Jung, Suk-Woo;Kim, Se-Hun;Park, Jong-Hyun;Lee, Ji-Young
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 2012
  • Dollar spot caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Benn. is a common and economically important turfgrass disease in South Korea. Fungicides were evaluated for control of dollar spot in creeping bentgrass golf course putting green. Commercial formulations of propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin and boscalid were applied to plots of creeping bentgrass, each of the latter four fungicides was tank mixed with propiconazole at the same rates, and applied as treatments. The dollar spot severity in the nontreated plots of field A and B progressed toward peak diseases of 18.3 and 66.7% from 10 or 15 days after inoculation, respectively. Significant differences were detected among control values of the fungicides. Dollar spot control provided by boscalid was significantly greater than the other fungicides which showed low control values in a higher disease condition. No synergistic interactions, except propiconazole + thiophanate-methyl treated plot, were detected under a lower disease pressure. However, under a higher disease pressure, synergism was observed at all fungicide combinations, except a propiconazole and boscalid tank mixture. These data suggest turfgrass managers in golf course can take advantage of fungicide synergism to control dollar spot using the products and rates in this study.

Control Effect on Dollar Spot Disease Caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa under Different Application Rates and Intervals with Two Mixed Fungicides (혼용된 2종의 살균제 살포 농도 및 간격에 따른 잔디 동전마름병 방제효과)

  • Chang, Seog-Won;Jung, Suk-Woo;Kim, Sehun;Park, Jong-Hyun;Lee, Ji-Young
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.408-412
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    • 2013
  • Dollar spot caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Benn. is a common and economically important turfgrass disease in South Korea. Fungicides mixture (propiconazole 25% + boscalid 47%) treatments, showing synergistic interaction, with three application rates (low: 50.3 ml $10a^{-1}$ and 97.5 g $10a^{-1}$, intermediate: 67.0 ml $10a^{-1}$ and 130.0 g $10a^{-1}$, and high: 100.5 ml $10a^{-1}$ and 195.0 g $10a^{-1}$) and two application intervals (10 and 15 days) were evaluated for control of dollar spot in creeping bentgrass golf course putting green. In both nontreated plots of field A and B, the disease has severed as 48.3 and 60.0% after the pathogen inoculation. Two fungicide mixture treatments showed significantly higher the disease control effect than a single fungicide treatment (propiconazole). Field A which showed more the disease severity but the fungicide still showed acceptable level of the disease efficacy (89.0%), significant differences in control value were not detected among treatments. The results suggest that the lower application rate of two fungicides mixture treatments may reduce the dollar spot disease severity in creeping bentgrass golf course putting green.

A Study of the Core Factors Influencing the Golfer Satisfaction with Golf Courses in Korea (한국골프장의 이용자 만족도 결정 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Yoo-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.26-34
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between golfer satisfaction and the diverse variables of golf course design and operation from the golfer's point of view. It was intended to reflect the various expectations and desires of golfers regarding golf course design and operation. The study was conducted on 119 golf courses in Korea, and 309 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Results are summarized as follows. First, the most influential operational service variables on golfer satisfaction were "appearance of the golf courses", followed by "staff service", and "greens fee". Second, the most influential course design and maintenance factor variables on satisfaction were "course maintenance status", "teeing ground characteristics", and "landscape architecture". Third, based on the results shown in these two areas, a linear regression analysis was conducted to synthetically explain "operational service" variables and "course design and maintenance" variables. As a result, it was found that the explanation power of the synthetic model was 36.5%, and a model appropriateness test was found to be positive. As a result of a regression analysis of the synthetic model affecting golfer satisfaction, the most influential factors were "course maintenance status" followed by "landscape architecture", "tee characteristics", and "staff service". Regarding coefficient values, course maintenance status had an influence of 21.8% followed by landscape architecture at 20%, tee characteristics at 17.7%, and staff service at 15.5%. These results were found to be different from preceding studies that emphasized golf course operational service.

The Impact Analyses on the Downstream by the Existing Golf Course (골프장 유출수가 하류수계에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Byoung Ho;Kim, Seong Deuk;Cho, Hong Je;Cho, Tae Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.239-251
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    • 1992
  • There has been a great deal of controversy in the views on the impact of the pesticide pollution from the golf courses. The stream and reservoir associated with a existing golf course were investigated. The parameters include the ones related with eutrophication, heavy metals, pesticides. and aquatic ecological conditions. It was found that the impact on the aquatic ecosystem by the pollution from the golf course was not so serious. An aquatic ecological food chain was well established in the reservoir which belongs to the golf course. In contradiction to the general recognition, the livestock farming and agricultural farming gave much more adverse impacts on the stream than the golf course.

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Pesticides Residue Monitoring and Impact Evaluation of Golf Course and Neighbouring Area in Korea (국내 골프장농약 사용에 따른 골프장 및 인근 지역의 잔류농약 모니터링 조사를 통한 영향평가)

  • Lee, Jun-Bae;Cho, Hoon-Je;Kwak, Eun-Jie;Park, Kyoung-Hoon;Lee, Min-Keong;Kim, Hyun-Koo;Jeoung, Hyeon-Mi;Chang, Hee-Ra
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: At these days, the human health and environmental concerns of pesticide used for turf grass management at golf courses in Korea have increased. The objectives of the study were to determine the pesticide residues for golf course and neighboring area and evaluate the impact moved into neighboring area of pesticides treated at golf courses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three golf courses and neighboring areas in Korea were monitored from July to October, 2017. The soil sample collection was divided the golf course into its logical parts (such as a greens, fairways, and rough) and neighboring area soil samples were collected at three different points. The water samples of the golf course and neighboring area were collected at three different points, respectively. The pesticide residues for soil and water sample were monitored by the multi-residue screening method of 98 pesticide with HPLC-MS-MS. The concentrations of detected pesticide in soil and water samples of the golf course were in the range of 0.01~1.26 mg/kg and 0.0001~0.0089 mg/kg, respectively. The residue levels for detected pesticides in neighboring area were at 0.01~0.04 mg/kg and 0.0001~0.0029 mg/kg, respectively, well below those level in golf course. CONCLUSION: This study indicate that the pesticide residue levels of golf course and neighboring area in Korea may not a possible risk of exposure on soil and aquatic environment. For future work, more monitoring should be performed so that the evaluation data becomes more valid.

A Study on Development of Evaluation Indicator for Golf Course User's Preference (골프장 이용자 선호도 평가지표 개발)

  • Seok, Young-Han;Moon, Seok-Ki;Lee, Eun-Yeob
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to develop evaluation indicators to improve athletic performance and operational management of golf courses and the results of the research are as follows. Through theoretical research and a preliminary professional survey, 15 on-going evaluations of golf course composition and operational management and 55 sub-evaluation indices were rejected while 10 on-going evaluations and 52 sub-evaluation indicators were reconfigured as final for environmental-friendliness, level of member services, level of human service of game personnel, difficulties of course, management level of the course, fairness of operational management, accessibility and location characteristic, traditions and ambiance of the golf club, quality of course, and course layout. When analyzing the important decision factors in golf course user preference evaluation indicators, the following contributed in the order of higher to lower contributions: the management level of the course, excellence of the course, level of human services for personnel, course layout and environmental-friendliness. When identifying the path coefficient of golf course evaluation indicators, the curvature of a hole and the length of the course had a causal effect on the 'course layout' section. Tournament facilities and various shot values had a causal relationship with 'excellence of the course', in the order of higher to lower, and convenience of waiting and fair allocation of reservations for 'fairness of operational management'. The history of the golf course and its environmental characteristics, history and culture of the region have relatively higher causal effects on 'traditions of the golf club' and geographical conditions on 'accessibility and location characteristics', pesticide and fertilizer usage and water pollution on 'environmental-friendliness', and member benefit and kindness of employees on 'level of member services'. The kindness and expertise of the game personnel had a relatively higher causal effect on the 'level of human services of game personnel', the location of tenning area, and location of OB and hazards on 'difficulties of course', and rough conditions and obstacles management on 'management level of the course'. There is a need to complete a systematic evaluation index system for golf course user preferences through future studies for a more detailed assessment, as well as a process to verify these evaluation indicators by application to domestic and international golf courses.

Golf Course Construction at an Abandoned Lime Mine - Case Study of the Ostar Danyang Golf Course - (석회석 폐광산 지역을 활용한 골프코스 건설 -오스타 단양 골프코스의 사례연구-)

  • Lee, Kwang-Jae;Park, Tae-Youn;Joo, Young-Kyoo
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.218-224
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this case study is to analyze the environmental and sociological impacts on a golf course construction at the damaged area of a previous limestone mine. Due to a long term of the open-pit mining, that site had been abandoned with geographical and ecological destruction before it was renovated to Ostar Danyang public golf course. This study is focused on the review of restoring the ecosystem through golf course construction procedures. Literature surveys of restoration through golf course construction in Japan and Canada were analyzed the procedure of utilization of previously existed lime mine. The sociological and environmental changes before and after construction were compared and analyzed. Environmental impacts on geographical, animal and plant ecology, and water quality were not affected or significantly improved after golf course construction from the mining site existed before. The local economy was also improved by increasing employment of resident and tax payment to local government. The construction of golf course could be one of the typical alternatives of ecological restoration of abandoned lime mine. Moreover in this project, minimizing the environmental impacts on surrounding ecosystem was emphasized by a larger size of developing construction. The harmonious lay-out on nature and artificial landscape were also considered a very first stage of construction procedure.