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A Study on the Change of Gojong(高宗)'s Architectural View and the Aspect of the Constructions of Architectures Working: Through the Change of the Architectures in the Royal Palace

  • Seo, Dongchun
    • Architectural research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • Gojong(高宗) had experienced extravagant change during a period of reign and he was located in the center of the change. He was the king who also experienced various changes in construction and accomplished a large number of construction activities aggressively. Gojong could acquire the information and details about anarchitecture, through the experience of a lot of large-scale construction activities in a regency period of Heungseon-Daewongun(興宣大院君). After opening of a port, as the western culture and technology was flowed in Korea, the knowledge of western architecture also was introduced. Gwanmungak(觀文閣) was constructed in Kyeongbokgung Palace under that influence in 1888, but the construction was not successfully finished. Due to the failure of Gwanmungak, Gojong no more constructed a western architecture until 1897. He was aware of the merits of western architectures while living in the western architecture during Agwanpacheon(俄館播遷). And he led a lot of constructions of the western architectures in Kyeongungung(慶運宮). It is possible to arrange in two reasons about the interest in an architecture of Gojong. Firstly, Gojong was individually interested in the architectures, and he constantly accomplished constructions of new buildings from childhood. And secondly, Gojong thought that western architecture has an advantage in the international situations. He held out the tendencies to construct the western architectures with excessive investments.

Study of King Gojong's Costumes in His Excursion on a Royal Carriage -Focused on the "Dongga Painting of the Korean Empire (大韓帝國動駕圖)"- (고종의 동가(動駕)시 복식에 대한 연구 -「대한제국동가도(大韓帝國動駕圖)」를 중심으로-)

  • Gu, Young Mi;Hong, Na Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.441-451
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    • 2020
  • This study examined the characteristics of the royal progress and regulations on costumes in the king's excursion by a royal carriage and then investigates King Gojong's costumes in "Dongga Painting of the Korean Empire". To examine the regulations on costumes in the king's excursion by a royal carriage, there are unique costumes, 'Ikseongwan and Gangsapo' for the great memorial service for ancestors during the Korean Empire period. 'Ikseongwan and Gangsapo' are not provided in the code during the Joseon Dynasty period. Thus, it was not provided in the regulations, in the actual execution of the ritual, the king put on 'Ikseongwan and Gangsapo,' so entering the Korean Empire period, it was legislated as 'Ikseon-gwanbok' in Daehan-yejeon. There is a scene in the "Dongga Painting of the Korean Empire" in which the king pays a visit on Yeon, holding 'Gyu' in 'Ikseongwan and Gonryongpo'. However, holding 'Gyu' on Yeon in 'Ikseongwan and Gonryongpo' can be seen in King Gojong's royal procession to hold Jongmyo Chunhyangdaeje in the year of Gabo (1894). This study showed that there was a compromise for the ritual despite not being regulated by law.

A Study on the Area of Rear Garden and its Architectural Dimension at Gyeongbok Palace Constructed during King Gojong's Reign (고종조 중창된 경복궁 후원 영역 및 건축 규모 분석 연구 - 국립문화재연구소 소장본 북궐후원도형 및 북궐도형을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Seong-Do
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2018
  • This thesis aims to determine the size of the rear garden and its architectural dimension at Gyeongbok Palace constructed during King Gojong's reign by analyzing Bukgyeol dohyeong(Site plan of Gyeongbok Palace) and Bukgyeol huwon dohyeong(Site plan of Rear Garden of Gyeongbok Palace) applied of scale unit and made from 1905 untill 1909. The results of this study were as follows; With respect to its site, the maximum horizontal length is estimated to be around 448m, the maximum vertical length is around 544m, and the entire area is around $203,905m^2$. Concerning the architecture, the total number of the buildings made up of one or more gan(間) is 32 and the total number of its gan is 292.5, etc.

A Study on the Reconstruction of Mandongmyo in 1874 (1874년 만동묘(萬東廟) 중건에 대한 연구)

  • Song, Hye-Young
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2019
  • Mandongmyo(萬東廟) was a shrine built for two emperors of the Ming Dynasty in Huoyangri, Cheongju. Since the 17th century, the classical scholars of the Joseon Dynasty had valued Mandongmyo Shrine as a place for the so-called Jonjudaeui(尊周大義). In 1865, however, the shrine was demolished and ruined, afterward rebuilt by King Gojong(高宗) in 1874. King Gojong played an important role in the construction plan for the new shrine, which he adjusted the layout of the building and named it. Unlike in the past, the reconstructed shrine was thoroughly led by the government, and its architectural character was greatly transformed. The reconstructed Mandongmyo was respected as the national shrine, but subjected to oppression by the Japanese imperialism. The 68 years after it was rebuilt, the shrine was destroyed on the charge of inciting the sense of national consciousness.

Rethinking of Jeonggwanheon in Deoksugung Palace: The Original Form, Use and Styl (덕수궁 정관헌(靜觀軒)의 원형, 용도, 양식 재고찰)

  • Huh, Yoojin;Jeon, BongHee;Jang, PilGu
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.27-42
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to reinterpret Jeonggwanheon(靜觀軒) in terms of its use and architectural style after restoration work through the recently discovered [Deoksugung Palace's original plan](1915). It is presupposed that the existing interpretation of Jeonggwanheon, such as its status as the banquet hall of the Imperial Empire and the place where Emperor Gojong enjoyed coffee here, was a fantasy made from the transformation after the 1930s. When it was built around 1900, Jeonggwanheon arranged small and large rooms around the corridor in the center, and the porch surrounded the three sides of the building. From 1900 to 1907, there is no remaining record telling us who did what or when something happened in Jeonggwanheon except for several portraits of Emperor Gojong and his son which were drawn in 1902. The mixed use of brickwork and wooden porch are found in many of American style houses built in Incheon and Seoul at that time. Especially, the style and decoration of wooden porch seem to be influenced by Queen Anne style in the 19th century in America.

Reconstitution of Meteorological Daily Logs in Choseon Dynasty and Analyzing Weather Records of the Annals of King Gojong (조선시대 일기류의 기상일지(氣象日誌)적 재구성과 고종일기의 기상기록 분석)

  • Kim, Il-Gwon
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.407-433
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    • 2015
  • First half of my article focused on analyzing the current state of historical materials regarding weather and climate, and established a list of weather-related historical literature collection of Korea with which to make a lexical approach to the situations of all kinds of weather literature. It also put emphasis on gathering information and data of weather logs from journal-type historical records which were contained in 48 weather-related journals of Choseon period. The results of this research are expected to be useful for the activation of study in historical meteorology. The latter half of my research focused on analyzing various meteorological states of sunny, cloudy, rainy, snowy and frosty weather which were recorded in the official Annals of King Kojong (1864~1907). And it re-verified historical rainfall data of preceding researches of Wada Yuji (1917), Jung-Lim (1994), Jhun-Moon (1997). In result, different records were found between data of theirs and mine. It means that we have to analyze and reconstruct newly the meteorological data of the Annals of King Gojong and the Daily Records of Royal Sungjungwon (1623~1910) during the late Choseon period.

Appearance and Significance of 4-Side Corridor Type of Stele Pavilion During King Gojong Period(1863-1907) (고종 연간 주위퇴칸식 비각의 출현과 의의)

  • Huh, Yoo-Jin;Jeon, Bong-Hee
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2020
  • This study focuses on the architectural changes of stele pavilion at the royal tombs of Joseon Dynasty. Throughout the survey on overall forty two stele pavilions, they were classified into basic type, expanded type, and 4-side corridor type. Basic type was usually used for general small stela, while expanded type was for extraordinarily large ones. 4-side corridor type, however, turned out to be used for both small and large stela and has appeared only during King Gojong period(高宗年間, 1863-1907). When it was first applied at Geonwolleung(健元陵) in 1870s, the purpose of 4-side corridor type seemed to stabilize the enlarged structure due to the size of the larger stele. Later, 4-side corridor type was repeated for small stela at Hongneung(洪陵) and Yureung(裕陵) in 1898 and 1904 respectively, to express higher dignity of Daehan Empire(大韓帝國). This type of plan continued to other pavilions in the center of Seoul such as Kinyeombijeon(紀念碑殿) and Seokgojeon(石鼓殿) that were built in 1903 with sophisticated proportion and multiple brackets. This architectural change implies that stele pavilion itself has become more significant than stele inside.

The Collection of Paintiongs and Calligraphy at Jipgyeong-dang Hall during King Gojong's Reign(1897~1907) (고종연간 집경당(緝敬當)의 운용과 궁중(宮中) 서화수장(書畵收藏))

  • Hwang, Jung-yon
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.40
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    • pp.207-241
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    • 2007
  • This paper investigates the royal collection of paintings and calligraphy during King Gojong's (高宗) reign (1897~1907) based on the function of the Jipgyeong-dang Hall (緝敬堂), situated at "sleeping realm (寢殿)," Gyeongbok Palace. Using the surviving palace records and art works this study argues that the date of building the hall is approximately confined to the year of 1890. Not being matched with the general opinion that the Jipgyeong-dang Hall was used for the official meeting with envoys, this hall functioned as the main place for royal audience and the storehouse for archives. The role of Gojong as collector and patron was essential not only to the maintenance of the collection but also to the strengthening of royal authority just before the Japanese annexation in 1910. The specific titles of the collection at this hall can be verified through the Catalogue of the Books, Paintings, and Calligraphy Exposed to the Sun at Jipgyeong-dang Hall (緝敬堂曝曬書目) dating to the nineteenth century. The records of the catalogue inform us that more than 1,000 paintings and pieces of calligraphy, inkrubbings from old steles, manuals for painting, and encyclopedia concerning art theories from Korea, China, and Japan were preserved there. The collection of Jipgyeong-dang Hall resulted from Gojong's policy to foster the collection of contemporary Chinese and Japanese art works and various catalogues. Standing behind the Gyeongbok Palace, the Jibok-jae Hall (集玉齋) also preserved the diverse sources of practical learning, as did the Jipgyong-dang Hall for Gojong. The enormous royal collections by Gojong might have been constructed in accordance with the royal artistic taste and the artistic milieu of the late Joseon period. The surviving royal catalogues confirm this assumption as documentary evidence.

A Study on Activities of Architecture Craftsmen and Major Carpenters of Court Palace Performance Stages in the Late Joseon Dynasty (조선후기 궁중 연희무대 건축 장인(建築匠人)의 활동과 주요 목수(木手) 연구)

  • Seok, Jin-Young;Han, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.29-44
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    • 2019
  • A major performance stage carpenter, Jang Insang led performance stages from the 1719 Sukjong Royal Banquet and was confirmed by historical records to be the first craftsman. Lee Wandeuk led the Hwaseong Fortress performance stages of the Jeongjo period and Gichuk Jinchan performance stages of the Sunjo period. The carpenter techniques he used during the Jeongjo period were succeeded to the Sunjo period. Ahn Sungil was the head craftsman who led the performance stages of Jagyeongjeon Jinjak, Muja Jinjak, and Gichuk Jinchan of the Sujo period, under which the foundation for court palace performances was laid. The progression of major carpenters includes Jang Insang of the Sukjong period, Jeon Yoochu of the Yeongjo period, Ahn Sugil of the Sunjo period, Yoon Seoksin of the Heonjong period, Kim Yoonsik of the Gojong period, Lee Jongyoon, Kim Soongil, Seo Sangmook, and Han Sujoon. In addition, the Major Repair of Injeongjeon Hall (1857) of the Cheoljong period was the most important palace construction project for transferring the carpenters' skills. Through this project, Ahn Sungil of the Sunjo period, Kim Myeonggap, Yoon Seoksin of the Heonjong period, Kwon Deuknyang, and Kim Sungil of the Gojong period were able to interact with each other. That is, this major repair project of Injeongjeon Hall reflected the major carpenters' best techniques through performance stage construction, showing the progression of Ahn Sungil, Yoon Seokshin, and Kim Sungil, who led the constructions of Gichuk Jinchan of the Sunjo period (1829), Mushin Jinchan of the Heonjong period (1848), and Jeonghae Jinchan of the Gojong period (1887), the most impressive performance stages of the late Joseon period. The carpenters of the court performance stages participated in important construction projects of the royal palace, reflecting the superior technical skills of the carpenters in the construction of court palace performance stages. The carpenters who played a leading role in the construction of performance stages were able to interact with one another and transfer their excellent technical skills, providing the driving force that allowed court performance stages to blossom into splendid and high-quality court stages in the late Joseon Dynasty.

A Research on the Reconstruction of Yeonkyeong-Dang in the 2nd Year of King Gojong's Reign (고종 2년의 연경당(延慶堂) 수리(修理)에 대해서)

  • Kim, Dong-Uk
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.53-69
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    • 2004
  • Located in a rear garden of Changdeok Palace, Yeonkyeong-Dang is valued as the most characteristic building of the houses of aristocrats of the later Joseon Dynasty. The time of the construction has been much debated, however, it is perceived through this research that the construction was completed in September 1827(the 27nd year of king Sunjo's reign). The shape of the buildings during this period resembles a letter ㄷ as shown in the picture of Dong-Kweol. We previously described that the purpose of Yeonkyeong-Dang was to carry the portrait of king Yikjong while keeping the shape of building when it was first established until the 8th year of king Heonjong (1842). In 1865 (the 2nd year of king Gojong's reign), it was reconstructed with very different outlook which has remained the present shape. The characteristic features of the residences of aristocrats were reflected in newly reconstructed Yeonkyeong-Dang. The structure was largely divided into two quarters that occupied by male and female residents respectively. The two quarters were bordered by fences and added with a study and a pavilion. The reconstruction was conducted by king Gojong's father, Daewon- Goon and its purpose was to prepare a separate house for the king and queen before the kings wedding that was about to come. During the 19th century, building an imitation of houses of aristocrats became quite a trend in the palace. Built in 1847, Nakseon-Jae was precedented and followed by Yeonkyeong-Dang. Also later Geoncheong Palace was built in Kyeongbok Palace in 1873. All of the three buildings imitated houses of aristocrats. Divided residences of male and female sections and splendid decorations were common features. Nakseon-Jae was the smallest in the structure of spaces, ornamentation of details and its sizes, Yeonkyeong-Dang was the second and Geoncheong Palace was the most distinguished building. The constructions of these three buildings created an innovative architectural wave in the 19th century palace. Yeonkyeong-Dang was the building that mediated the new flow of architectural structure in the 19th century palace.

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