• Title, Summary, Keyword: Glycine Betaine

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Studies of cold resistant glycine betaine effect on cold sensitive Bacillus subtilis mutant strains (저온 민감성 바실러스 서브틸리스 돌연변이 균주에서 glycine betaine의 저온 내성에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Do Hyung;Lee, Sang Soo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2018
  • At high salt concentration, glycine betaine is transported into Bacillus subtilis and growing rate of the cell is not suppressed. Also according to recent studies, cell growth is maintained normal growth rate at low temperature. Low temperature results in a stress response of Bacillus subtilis that is characterized by strong repression of major metabolic activities such as translation machinery and membrane transport. In this regards, genes showing cold sensitive phenotype are cold-induced DEAD box RNA helicases (ydbR, yqfR) and fatty acid desaturases (bkdR, des). Therefore to understand the effect of glycine betaine on cold growth of Bacillus subtilis, we investigated the effect of glycine betaine on growth rate of these deletion mutants showing cold sensitive phenotype. Glycine betaine strongly stimulated growth of wild type Bacillus subtilis JH642 and deletion mutants of ydbR and yqfR at $20^{\circ}C$ (190~686 min $T_d$ difference). On the other hands, glycine betaine does not show growth promoting effects on deletion mutants of bkdR, and des at cold conditions. Same cold protectant growth results were shown with the precursor choline instead of glycine betaine. We investigated the effects of detergents on the cell membrane in bkdR and des deficient strains associated with cell membrane. It was identified that bkdR deficient strain shows retarded growth with detergent such as Triton X-100 or N-lauryl sarcosine compared with wild type cell. Thus, it is possible that deletion mutation of bkdR modifies membrane structure and effects on transport of glycine betaine.

Effects of Dietary Glycine Betaine on Pork Quality in Different Muscle Types

  • Hur, Sun Jin;Yang, Han Sul;Park, Gu Boo;Joo, Seon Tea
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1754-1760
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary glycine betaine on pork quality in different muscle types. A total of 80 female pigs ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$) were randomly allotted into one of four experimental diet groups. Each group of pigs were fed a commercial diet (Control) with 0.2 g glycine betaine (T1), 0.4 g glycine betaine (T2) and 0.6 g% glycine betaine (T3)/kg for 40 days. pH of belly was significantly higher in the control than dietary glycine betaine groups at 13 days of storage, whereas pH of picnic shoulder and ham were significantly lower in control than glycine betaine groups. At 13 days of storage, redness (a*) of belly was significantly higher in control than dietary glycine betaine groups, whereas picnic shoulder and ham were significantly higher in glycine betaine groups than in the control. Water-holding capacities (WHC) of all muscle samples were significantly higher in the control than glycine betaine groups until 5 days of storage. Sarcomere length was significantly longer in the control than glycine betaine groups. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of belly was much higher than other muscle types at 13 days of storage. In fatty acid composition, dietary glycine betaine increased the ratio of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) in loins.

Effects of Dietary Glycine Betaine on the Growth Performance in Pigs (Glycine betaine 첨가가 돼지의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, S.C.;Kim, J.H.;Ha, Y.J.;Lee, J.I.;Lee, J.R.;Jung, J.D.;Lee, J.D.;Park, G.B.;Ko, Y.D.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.205-220
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the addition of glycine betaine to the diet on growth performance in pigs. A total of 400 pigs were divided into 4 feeding stages(Growing I: 23.10 $\pm$ 1.43, Growing II: 37.69$\pm$ 1.62, Finishing I: 66.51 $\pm$3.44 and Finishing II: 90.42$\pm$ 2.17 kg of initial body weight) then each feeding stage was divided into 4 treatment groups(Control: 0 0/0, Tl : 0.2 0/0, T2: 0.4% and T3 : 0.6 % of glycine betaine, respectively). The average daily gain and feed efficiency of T2 and T3 were significantly increased(p< 0.05) by dietary glycine betaine in stage I, 2 and 3. This result indicates that dietary glycine betaine could influence the pig growth performance. In feeding stage 4, the average daily gain and feed efficiency were significantly increased in 0.4% glycine betaine feeding group compared with other dietary groups(p < 0.05). Results suggest that feeding the pigs 0.4 % glycine betaine could be the most efficient dietary level. Crude protein, ether extract and crude ash digestibilities of 0.4% glycine betaine fed group were significantly increased compared with those of control group(p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in nutrient digestibilities among glycine betaine fed groups. Apparent faecal amino acid digestibilities of 0.4% glycine betaine fed group were more significantly higher than that of control group. The 0.4% glycine betaine fed group was significantly increased in apparent faecal amino acid digestibility compared with those of other glycine betaine fed group. No significant difference was shown in amount of microflora population between control and glycine betaine fed groups. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gas emission were significantly decreased in 0.4% glycine betaine feeding group compared with other dietary groups(p < 0.05).

Effects of Glycine Betaine and Related Osmolytes on Growth of Osmotically Stressed Yersinia enterocolitica (삼투압 스트레스를 받은 Yersinia enterocolitica의 성장에 미치는 glycine betaine을 비롯한 osmolyte의 영향)

  • Park, Shin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.218-223
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    • 1995
  • Osmolytes accumulated in the osmotically stressed Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610 were investigated using natural abundance $^{13}C$ NMR spectroscopy. Glycine betaine, one of the more common and most effective osmolytes found in nature, was the dominant osmolyte in osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica cells. Glycine betaine concentration was 41.8 times higher (801.9 nmol/mg protein) in stressed cells than in unstressed cells (19.2 nmol/mg protein). Proline was the minor osmolyte, and its concentration was 284.8 nmol/mg protein. The effects of glycine betaine and related osmolytes on growth rate of osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica were investigated to identify their ability as osmolytes for Y. enterocolitica. When glycine betaine and proline were added in MMA medium containing 2.5% NaCl, the growth rate with glycine betaine (1 mM) was 3.6 times higher than in control (no addition of osmolyte), and that with proline was 1.3 times higher. Dimethylglycine (5 mM) also increased the growth rate 3.1 folds. On the other hand, monomethylElycine had no effect on growth of osmotically stressed and unstressed Y. enterocolitica. When carnitine was added in MMA medium containing 2.5% NaCl, carnitine (5 mM) increased the growth rate 2.4 folds, but choline had no effect on growth of osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica. The above results indicate that glycine betaine is the dominant osmolyte in osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica, and proline, dimethylglycine and carnitine also act as minor osmolytes.

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Effects of Foliar Application of Glycine Betaine on the Growth and Contents of Osmolyte in Tomato Seedling (Glycine betaine 엽면 처리가 토마토 유묘의 생육과 삼투조절물질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Nam-Jun;Kwon, Joon-Kook;Lee, Jae-Han;Park, Jin-Myeon;Rhee, Han-Chul;Choi, Young-Hah
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.390-395
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    • 2006
  • Effects of exogenously foliar applied glycine betaine (GB) on the growth and contents of osmolyte in tomato seedling was investigated. Plants treated with exogenous glycine betaine induced better biomass production and plant height during chilling stress than the untreated plants. The total soluble sugar contents in GB foliar-applied plants lower than that of untreated plants 28 days after foliar application. Total water soluble protein contents in GB foliar-applied plants did not change 28 days after chilling stress. In untreated plant, it decreased rapidly in the beginning of chilling stress. Proline contents in untreated plants rapidly increased by the beginning of chilling stress, and then slightly decreased during the next 3 weeks. However proline contents in GB foliar-applied plants did not change during the 28 days chilling stress period. The results suggest that foliar application of GB is a effect methods to increase the chilling tolerance of tomato seedlings in protected cultivation system at low temperature season.

Levels of the Proline and Glycine Betaine Transport Systems of Staphylococcus aureus at High Osmolarity (고농도 삼투환경에서 생성되는 포도상구균의 Proline과 Glycine Betaine Transport System의 수준변화에 관한 연구)

  • 배지현
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 1995
  • Staphylococcus aureus, the most salt-tolerant nonhalophilic bacterium, is the only foodborne pathogen that is able to grow at a levels below 0.90. The fundamental osmorgulatory strategy used by this organism involves the accumulation of intracellular compatible solutes such as proline or glycine betaine which are accumulated by transport and act as osmoregulators in cells. In this study, levels of proline transport systems and glycine betaine transport system of S. aureus were examined when cells are grown at high osmolarity. The levels of all three transport systems within S. aureus were elevated at high osmolarity and the most dramatic increase was found for the low-affinity proline transport system. However, in 5mM glycine betaine-supplemented medium, the level of the low-affinity proline transport system did not become elevated when cultures were grown at high osmolarity. The metabolic fate of the accumulated proline and glycine getaine was investigated by thin-layer chromatography an found to be not metabolized by S. aureus.

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An Overlooked Effect of Glycine Betaine on Fermentation: Prevents Caramelization and Increases the $\small{L}$-Lysine Production

  • Xu, Jianzhong;Xia, Xiuhua;Zhang, Junlan;Guo, Yanfeng;Zhang, Weiguo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1368-1376
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    • 2014
  • This article focuses on the effects of glycine betaine on preventing caramelization, and increasing DCW and $\small{L}$-lysine production. The additional glycine betaine not only decreased the browning intensity (decreased 4 times), and the concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (decreased 7.8 times) and furfural (decreased 12 times), but also increased the availability of glucose (increased 17.5%) for $\small{L}$-lysine production. The DCW and $\small{L}$-lysine production were increased by adding no more than 20 mM glycine betaine, whereas the DCW and $\small{L}$-lysine production were decreased with the reduction of pH values, although pH had a better response to prevent caramelization than did glycine betaine. For $\small{L}$-lysine production, the highest increase (40%) was observed on the media with 20 mM glycine betaine. The crucial enzymes in glycolysis and $\small{L}$-lysine biosynthesis pathway were investigated. The results indicated that additional glycine betaine increases the activity of enzymes in glycolysis, in contrast to the effect of pH. All the results indicated that glycine betaine can be used to prevent caramelization and increase the $\small{L}$-lysine production. By applying this strategy, glucose would not be have to be separated from the culture media during autoclaving so that factories can save production costs and shorten the fermentation period.

Effects of Salt Stress on Inorganic Ions and Glycine Betaine Contents in Leaves of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. (염 스트레스가 근대(Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.)의 무기이온 및 glycine betaine 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sung-Chul;Kim, Jong-Guk;Choo, Yeon-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2013
  • Growth, inorganic solutes and glycine betaine accumulation in spinach beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) were studied under different salt conditions. Plants of fortythree days old were assessed by growing for a further 10 and 20 days at four NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300 & 400 mM). The dry weight of leaves was maximal in plants which were grown at 100 to 200 mM NaCl treatments and after 10d it was decreased slightly at salt treatments of more than 300 mM NaCl. Under the salt conditions, leaves of B. vulgaris contained high inorganic ions to maintain low water potential, but low water soluble carbohydrate contents. Total ionic content and osmolality increased with increasing salt concentration. Salt stress led to a preferential accumulation of glycine betaine in leaves of B. vulgaris, especially for the 200 mM NaCl treatment. These findings suggest that a high degree of NaCl tolerance of B. vulgaris resulted from the accumulation of glycine betaine, which is known to have osmoprotectant properties in the cytoplasm.

Osmoprotective Effect of Glycine Betaine on Foreign Protein Production in Hyperosmotic Recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Cultures Differs among Cell Lines

  • Ryu, Jun-Su;Kim, Tae-Gyeong;Jeong, Ju-Yeong;Lee, Gyun-Min
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.313-316
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    • 2000
  • When 3 recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell lines, CHO/dhfr-B-22-4, $CS13-1.00^{\ast}$ and $CSl3-0.02^{\ast}$, were cultivated in hyperosmolar media resulting from NaCl addition, their specific foreign protein productivity increased with medium osmolality. Glycine betaine was found to have a strong osmoprotective effect on all 3 rCHO cell lines. Inclusion of 15 mM glycine betaine in hyperosmolar medim enabled rCHO cell lines to grow at 557-573 mOsm/kg where they could not grow in the absence of glycine betaine. However, effect of glycine betaine inclusion in hyperomolar medium on foreign protein production differed among rCHO cell lines. CHO/dhfr-B22-4 cells retained enhanced specific human thrombopoietin (hTPO) productivity in the presence of glycine betaine, and thereby, the maximum hTPO titer obtained at 573 mOsm/kg was increased by 72% over that obtained in the control culture with physiological osmolality (292 mOsm/kg). On the other hand, enhanced specific antibody productivity of $CSl3-1.00^{\ast}$ and $CSl3-0.02^{\ast}$ at elevated osmolality decreased significantly in the presence of glycine betaine at a cost of the recovery of cell growth. As a result, the maximum antibody titer at 557 mOsm/kg was similar to that obtained in the control culture with physiological osmolality. Taken together, efficacy of the simultanous use of hyperosmotic pressure and glycine betaine as a means to improve foreign protein production was variable among different rCHO cell lines.

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Effects of Osmoprotectants on the Growth and Nitrogenase Activity of Rhizobium and Azospirillum under Osmotic Stress (질소고정균의 성장과 질소고정력에 대한 osmoprotectant의 영향)

  • Gal, Sang-Wan;Choi, Young-Ju
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 1998
  • The Rhizobium and Azospirillum spp. were isolated from the root nodules of several leguminous plants and rhizosphere of various paddy rice varieties. The growth of the nitrogen-fixing strains isolated was largely inhibited in yeast extract-mannitol medium (AMA) containing 0.6 M NaCl. In response to osmotic stress, the nitrogen-fixing strains accumulate intracellular free glutamate. The growth and nitrogenase activity of Rhizobium and Azospirillum were increased by addition of osmoprotectants such as proline, glycine betaine, and glutamate during salt stress. Glycine betaine was the most effective among exogenous osmoprotectants tested. In the absence of sodium chloride, nitrogenase activity seem to be slightly decreased by the presence of the proline or glycine betaine. These results revealed that nitrogenase activity was repressed by fixed nitrogens such as proline or glycine betaine.

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