• Title, Summary, Keyword: Glutathione levels

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Influence of Gami-oryungsan on bromobenzene-induced liver injury in experimental animal (Bromobenzene독성(毒性)에 의한 간기능손상(肝機能損傷)에 미치는 가미오령산의 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Jong-Dae
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2000
  • Objective : To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Gami-oryungsan on the liver damage induced by bromobenzene. Method : The development of fibrosis and acute liver injury was examined by the chemical analysis of AST, AL T, ${\gamma}$-GTP . and epoxide hydrolase glutathione S-transferase glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, lipidoperoxide levels, glutathione levels were measured and oberved. Results : The increasing levels of lipidoperoxide was decreased proportionally according to dose of extract GO. Epoxide hydrolase glutathioneS-transferase glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity highly increased in GO pre-acupunctured group compared with the group treated with only bromobenzene. The increase of serum AST, AL T, ${\gamma}$-GTP enzyme activity of mice by bromobenzene was inhibited by the administration of GO. Lipidoperoxide levels in rat's liver decreased compared to the case of bromobenzene-treated group. The levels of Glutathione decreased by bromo benzene were increased highly in GO pre-acupunctured group. Conclusion : These results suggest that GO extract recovers the damage of liver due to bromobenzene intoxication by decreasing the lipid peroxidation AST AL T ${\gamma}$-GTP enzyme activity and increasing epoxide hydrolase glutathioneS-transferase glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, glutathione levels.

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Effects of Adriamycin on Cardiac Ultrastructure and Glutathione-Glutathione Peroxidase System in Mouse (Adriamycin이 생쥐 심근 미세구조 및 Glutathione-Glutathione Peroxidase계에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Won-Hark;Chung, Hyeung-Jae;Kim, Ssang-Yong;Lee, Yong-Deok;Choi, Jeung-Mog
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.99-118
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    • 1989
  • The cardiotoxic effects of acute and chronic administration of adriamycin (ADR) were evaluated in A/J Swiss albino mice. In acute studies, male mice received intravenous ADR, 5mg or 15mg/kg per day for 3 or 1day and were sacrifice 12 hours later. Because the glutathione-glutathione peroxidase system is major pathway for free radical detoxication, glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase activity was measured. In acute studies, ADR-treated mice exhibited significantly decreased levels(p<0.05) of total glutathione and unchanged levels of oxidized glutathione and percentage of oxidized glutathione. The earliest myocardial fine structural alterations included swelling and degeneration of mitochondria and dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum at all dosage of acute models. In chronic studies, mice received 5mg/kg ADR once a week for up to 16 weeks. Levels of total and reduced glutathione were decreased significantly(p<0.01) and oxidized glutathione and percentage of oxidized glutathione were increased significantly (p<0.05). Chronic myocardial lesions included perinuclear vacuolization, seperation of myofibrils and the fasciae adherens of intercalated disc and hypercontraction band within myocyte. Glutathione peroxidase activity reduced significantly (p<0.01) in any group of acute and chronic ADR-treated animals. Test for lipid peroxidation(malondialdehyde) was increased significantly(P<0.01). Thus, we conclude 1) ADR significantly lowers glutathione levels in heart tissue, and 2) cellular damage progress produced by alteration of this system in mouse models of ADR cardiotoxicity. These results suggest that the glutathione-glutathione peroxidase system may be involved in the modulation of ADR-induced cardiotoxicity.

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Prognostic Significance of Altered Blood and Tissue Glutathione Levels in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases

  • Khan, Sami Ullah;Mahjabeen, Ishrat;Malik, Faraz Arshad;Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7603-7609
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    • 2014
  • Glutathione is a thiol compound that plays an important role in the antioxidant defense system of the cell and its deficiency leads to an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and, thus, progression of many disease states including head and neck cancer. In the present study, alterations of glutathione levels were investigated in study cohort of 500 samples (cohort 1 containing 200 head and neck cancer blood samples along with 200 healthy controls and cohort II with 50 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples along with 50 control tissues) by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that mean blood glutathione levels were significantly reduced in head and neck cancer patients (p<0.001) compared to respective controls. In contrast, the levels of glutathione total (p<0.05) and glutathione reduced (p<0.05) were significantly elevated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues compared to the adjacent cancer-free control tissues. In addition to this, pearson correlation performed to correlate different tissue glutathione levels (GSH) with clinical/pathological parameters demonstrated a significant negative correlation between pT-stage and GSH level ($r=-0.263^{**}$; p<0.01), C-stage and GSH level ($r=-0.335^{**}$; p<0.01), grade and GSH ($r=-0.329^{**}$; p<0.01) and grade versus redox index ($r=-0.213^{**}$; p<0.01) in HNSCC tissues. Our study suggests that dysregulation of glutathione levels in head and neck cancer has the potential to predict metastasis, and may serve as a prognostic marker.

Effect of Garlic (allium sativum) on Glutathione S-Transfer Activity and the Level of Glutathione in the Mouse Liver (마늘이 생쥐간에서 Glutathione S-transferase 활성과 Glutathione 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, So-Hee;Park, Kun-Young;Suh, Meong-Ja;Chung, Hae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.436-442
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    • 1994
  • The effect of garlic on glutathione S-transferase activity and the level of glutathione in the mouse liver was studied. the intraperitoneal injection of the methanol extract of garlic and ally sulfide which is one of possible active compounds in garlic to ICR mouse before the injection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) increased the levels of glutathione and nonprotein-SH in microsomal fraction of the livers. The injection of the chloroform fraction 2 which revealed the highest antimutgenic activity in our previous research in the increase of the activity of glutathione S-transferase and the levels of glutathione and nonprotein -SH. The glutathione itself also had the antimutagenic effect on AFB1 and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in vitro.

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A Pilot Examination of Oxidative Stress in Trichotillomania

  • Grant, Jon E.;Chamberlain, Samuel R.
    • Psychiatry investigation
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1130-1134
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    • 2018
  • Objective Trichotillomania is a relatively common illness whose neurobiology is poorly understood. One treatment for adult trichotillomania, n-acetyl cysteine (NAC), has antioxidative properties, as well as effects on central glutamatergic transmission. Preclinical models suggest that excessive oxidative stress may be involved in its pathophysiology. Methods Adults with trichotillomania provided a blood sample for analysis of compounds that may be influenced by oxidative stress [glutathione, angiotensin II, ferritin, iron, glucose, insulin and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1), and hepcidin]. Participants were examined on symptom severity, disability, and impulsivity. The number of participants with out-of-reference range oxidative stress measures were compared against the null distribution. Correlations between oxidative stress markers and clinical measures were examined. Results Of 14 participants (mean age 31.2 years; 92.9% female), 35.7% (n=5) had total glutathione levels below the reference range (p=0.041). Other oxidative stress measures did not have significant proportions outside the reference ranges. Lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale sub-score) (r=0.97, p=0.001). Conclusion A third of patients with trichotillomania had low levels of glutathione, and lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness. Because NAC is a precursor for cysteine, and cysteine is a rate limiting step for glutathione production, these results may shed light on the mechanisms through which NAC can have beneficial effects for impulsive symptoms. Confirmation of these results requires a suitable larger follow-up study, including an internal normative control group.

Identification of Wild Yeast Strains and Analysis of Their ${\beta}$-Glucan and Glutathione Levels for Use in Makgeolli Brewing

  • Kang, Sun Hee;Kim, Hye Ryun;Kim, Jae Ho;Ahn, Byung Hak;Kim, Tae Wan;Lee, Jang-Eun
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.361-367
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    • 2014
  • Makgeolli, also known as Takju, is a non-filtered traditional Korean alcoholic beverage that contains various floating matter, including yeast cells, which contributes to its high physiological functionality. In the present study, we assessed the levels of ${\beta}$-glucan and glutathione in various yeast strains isolated from traditional Korean Nuruk and selected a ${\beta}$-glucan- and glutathione-rich yeast strain to add value to Makgeolli by enhancing its physiological functionality through increased levels of these compounds. Yeast ${\beta}$-glucan levels ranged from 6.26% to 32.69% (dry basis) and were strongly species-dependent. Dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Nuruk contained $25.53{\mu}g/mg$ glutathione, $0.70{\mu}g/mg$ oxidized glutathione, and $11.69{\mu}g/g$ and $47.85{\mu}g/g$ spermidine and L-ornithine monohydrochloride, respectively. To produce functional Makgeolli, a ${\beta}$-glucan- and glutathione-rich yeast strain was selected in a screening analysis. Makgeolli fermented with the selected yeast strain contained higher ${\beta}$-glucan and glutathione levels than commercial Makgeolli. Using the selected yeast strain to produce Makgeolli with high ${\beta}$-glucan and glutathione content may enable the production of functional Makgeolli.

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Activities of Intertidal Macroalgae in Korea

  • Park, Jung-Jin;Han, Tae-Jun;Choi, Eun-Mi
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2011
  • The oxidative stress level and antioxidant activities in two green algae (Ulva pertusa and Ulva linza), two brown algae (Agarum cribrosum and Dictyota dichotoma), and three red algae (Grateloupia lanceolata, Carpopeltis affinis, and Gracilaria verrucosa) collected from intertidal regions of Korea were assessed. In the two green algae, although the total glutathione content was not as high as that of the brown algae, the glutathione pool was extremely reduced, and the glutathione reductase (GRd)/glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity ratio was high, which apparently plays an important role for protection against oxidative damage, as manifested by low lipid peroxidation. In the brown algae, which exhibited a low lipid peroxidation level that was comparable to the green algal species, the highest glutathione content, together with high GPx activity, appears to be the most important factor in their antioxidant protection. The red algal species exhibited extremely high lipid peroxidation levels. They also contained the lowest and most oxidized glutathione among the species, as well as the lowest GRd activity. In spite of the marked difference in the glutathione content, the significant difference in the activity of ${\gamma}$-glutamylcysteine ligase, the rate limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis, among the species was not exhibited. Our results suggest that there is a significant difference in the levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity among the algal species, and that the glutathione system, especially the efficiency of glutathione recycling, plays a vital role in antioxidative protection in algal species.

Inhibition of Tumor Formation and Changes in Hepatic Enzyme Activities by Kimchi Extracts in Sarcoma-180 Cell Transplanted Mice

  • Hur, Young-Mi;Kim, So-Hee;Park, Jong-Won;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2000
  • Inhibitory effects of the methanol extract, hexane extract, methanol soluble fraction (MSF) and juice from 3 weeks fermented Kimchi on the tumor formation in sarcoma-180 cell transplanted mice were studied. Effects of the solvent extracts and juice of the Kimchi on the levels of lipid peroxide, glutathione, and the enzyme activities of the liver were also investigated in normal and sarcoma-180 cell transplanted mice. At 32 days following trans-plantation, MSF reduced the tumor formation by 54% compared with the control group, resulting in the smallest tumor weight. Lipid peroxided content in liver increased by the transplantation of sarcoma-180 cells. However, it decreased when MSF of Kimchi was treated to the mice. MSF also suppressed xanthine oxidase activity in cytosol of the liver cells in mice transplanted by sarcoma-180 cells. Kimchi extracts had no inhibitory effect on hepatic aminopyrine-N-demethylase activity in sarcoma-180 cell transplanted or normal mice. Methanol extract and hexane extract of Kimchi slightly increased hepatic glutathione contents in sarcoma-180 treated mice. The injection of MSF from Kimchi markedly increased glutathione levels in the liver of sarcoma-180 treated mice. The injection of MSF from Kimchi markedly increased glutathione levels in the liver of sarcoma-180 treated mice compared to the controls. The MSF recovered the activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase that decreased by the injection of sarcoma-180 cells. These results showed that MSF of Kimchi could suppress the growth of tumors, inhibiting lipid peroxide production and xanthine oxidase activity, in mice. We also suggested that Kimchi extract might play an important role in the prevention of cancer by enhancement of the glutathione level itself as well as via glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase.

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Investigation of the Antioxidant Status in Multiple Myeloma Patients: Effects of Therapy

  • Mehdi, Wesen A.;Zainulabdeen, Jwan A.;Mehde, Atheer A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3663-3667
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    • 2013
  • Background: Multiple myeloma is a malignant silent incurable plasma cell disorder. The present study aimed to assessed the activation of the oxidative stress pathway in afected patients Materials and Methods: Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine deaminase (ADA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, glutathione, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), ${\alpha}$-tocopherol (vitamin E) in addition to related enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSH-R) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed in sixty patients with multiple myeloma before and after one month treatment with induction therapy. Results: The results of the study showed a significant elevation in AOPPs, MDA, ADA levels in patients with multiple myeloma before and after treatment in comparison to healthy control samples In contrast TAC glutathione, vitamin C and E, and the antioxidant enzymes levels were decreased significantly. On comparing samples of MM patients after treatment, there was significant increase of TAC glutathione, vitamin C and E, and the antioxidant enzymes in parallel with decreasing AOPPs, MDA and ADA levels in comparison with samples of patients before treatment. Conclusions: The results indicate oxidative stress and DNA damage activity increase in MM and are alleviated in response to therapy.

Glutathione Content in Various Seedling Plants, Vegetables, and the Processed Foods (각종 유식물체, 채소 및 가공식품 중의 글루타치온 함량)

  • Kim, Ju-Sung;Shim, Ie-Sung;Kim, Myong-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.592-596
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we investigated the levels of glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form (GSSG) in more than 40 kinds of plant materials including seedling plants, grains, vegetables, and processed foods. The glutathione contents in the seedling plants were ranged from 0 to $120{\mu}mol/100g$. In addition, the different levels of glutathione were observed within the same family and between species. In the case of marketed grains and vegetables, azuki and kidney beans of leguminosae contained the high levels of glutathione, whereas glutathione was scarcely detected in the processed bean foods (bean paste, soybean sauce, etc.). Overall, a higher GSH content in food may contribute to a higher added value.