• Title, Summary, Keyword: Glutamic acid

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Changes in the Levels of $\gamma$-Aminobutyric Acid and Some Amino Acids by Application of a Glutamic Acid Solution for the Germination of Brown Rices (글루탐산 용액 처리에 따른 발아현미 중의 감마-아미노낙산 및 일부 아미노산 함량변화)

  • 오석흥;김수화;문연정;최원규
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 2002
  • The changes in the levels of $\gamma$ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and some free amino acids were investigated in germinating brown rices. Ungerminated brown rices were germinated for 72 hrs by application of the following solutions: 1) distilled water, 2) 50 ppm lactic acid, 3) 5 mM glutamic acid. The GABA levels were enhanced in all germinated states of brown rices compared with ungerminated ones, highest in the germinated brown rices by 5 mM glutamic acid solution. Alanine levels were also enhanced significantly in the germinated brown rices. The levels of aspartic acid and glutamic acid were decreased significantly in all the germinated states. The levels of serine decreased during germination in the solutions of water and lactic acid were increased by the germination in the glutamic acid solution. The data show that germination of brown rices by the application of the glutamic acid solution can significantly increase the levels of GABA and can restore the serine level.

Studios on the Glutamic Acid Production by an Alkalophilic Bacterium (알칼리성 세균에 의한 글루탐산 생산에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Kae-Ran;Lee, Kang-Man;Bae, Moo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.563-567
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    • 1989
  • An alkalophilic bacterium isolated from compost was selected, identified and tested for the production of glutamic acid from ammonium fumarate. The bacterium was closely related to Bacillus brevis. The conditions for glutamic acid production were pH 8.0, 2% fumaric acid, and 0.8% nutrient broth. The mechanism of glutamic acid formation in this strain was postulated as following scheme. (1) Ammonium fumarate longrightarrow Aspartic acid (2) Aspartic acid + $\alpha$-Ketoglutaric acid longrightarrow Glutamic acid + Oxaloacetic acid.

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Stimulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Synthesis Activity in Brown Rice by a Chitosan/Glutamic Acid Germination Solution and Calcium/Calmodulin

  • Oh, Suk-Heung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.319-325
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    • 2003
  • Changes in the concentrations of $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid (GABA), soluble calcium ions, glutamic acid, and the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) were investigated in non-germinated vs. germinated brown rice. Brown rice was germinated for 72 h by applying each of the following solutions: (1) distilled water, (2) 5 mM lactic acid, (3) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM lactic acid, (4) 5 mM glutamic acid, and (5) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid. GABA concentrations were enhanced in all of the germinated brown rice when compared to the non-germinated brown rice. The GABA concentration was highest in the chitosan/glutamic acid that germinated brown rice at 2,011 nmol/g fresh weight, which was 13 times higher than the GABA concentration in the non-germinated brown rice at 154 nmol/g fresh weight. The concentrations of glutamic acid were significantly decreased in all of the germinated rice, regardless of the germination solution. Soluble calcium and GAD were higher in the germinated brown rice with the chitosan/glutamic acid solution when compared to the rice that was germinated in the other solutions. GAD that was partially purified from germinated brown rice was stimulated about 3.6-fold by the addition of calmodulin in the presence of calcium. These data show that the germination of brown rice in a chitosan/glutamic acid solution can significantly increase GABA synthesis activity and the concentration of GABA.

Structural Analysis of 5-aminosalicyl-L-glutamic Acid, a Colon-specific Prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic Acid, for Colon-specific Deconjugation

  • Kim, Ji-Hye;Kim, Jung-Yoon;Lee, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Young-Mi;Jung, Yun-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2010
  • In a previous paper, we showed that 5-aminosalicyl-L-aspartic acid (5-ASA-Asp) has much greater deconjugation efficiency in the cecal contents than does 5-aminosalicyl-L-glutamic acid (5-ASA-Glu). To explore a reason for ineffective deconjugation of 5-ASA-Glu, structural analysis of the conjugate was performed. Aromatic acyl-L-glutamic acid derivatives, N-benzoyl-glumatic acid (BA-Glu), N-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)-glutamic acid (SA-Glu), N-(3-aminobenzoyl)-glutamic acid (3-ABA-Glu) and N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-glutamic acid (4-ABA-Glu), were prepared and incubated in the cecal contents. The deconjugation rates were compared with that of 5-ASA-Glu. The order of the rates was BA-Glu $\approx$ 4-ABA-Glu $\approx$ 3-ABA-Glu $\gg$ SA-Glu $\approx$ 5-ASA-Glu. The deconjugation of the aromatic acyl-L-glutamic acid derivatives was carried out by enzyme(s) in the cecal contents since the deconjugation did not occur in the autoclaved cecal contents and on incubation with N-benzoyl-D-glutamic acid. Our data suggest that the 2-hydroxyl group in 5-ASA is ascribed to the poor deconjugation of 5-ASA-Glu in the cecal contents.

Effect of Poly(vinyl alcohol) on the Thermally Induced Conformational Change of Poly(D-Glutamic acid)

  • Cho Chong-Su
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.60-66
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    • 1982
  • In relation to denaturation of proteins, thermally induced conformational change of poly(D-glutamic acid) was studied in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) at low pH, where poly(D-glutamic acid) undergoes a helix-to-${\beta}$ transition without any other polymer. In a dilute solution, poly(vinyl alcohol) enhanced the ${\alpah}-to-{\beta}_1$ transition of poly(D-glutamic acid) due to intermolecular interaction between the two polymers. On the other hand, this conformational change was interrupted to a large extent in a concentrated solution, due to the interpenetration of poly(vinyl alcohol) chain into poly(D-glutamic acid) chain which prevented the intramolecular association of poly(D-glutamic acid) chain. A conformational change from ${\beta}_1\;to\;{\beta}_2$ of poly(D-glutamic acid) was observed for the films obtained by casting during annealing the mixture solutions. The ${\beta}_2$ content in the cast film increased with increasing poly(vinyl alcohol) content in the mixture.

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Studies on L-Glutamic Acid-Producing Bacteria(II) (L-Glutamic acid 생성균에 관한 연구 2)

  • 홍순우;하영칠;차승희
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.115-130
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    • 1974
  • Searches for the nutrition requirements of three strains of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes reported in the previous paper were carried out with an aim of achieving the striking accumulation of L-glutamic acid and the large multipication of cells. It was recognized that all three strains required both biotin and thiamine, together with amino acids such as histidine or cysteine, for their good growth and extracellular L-glutamic acid accumulation. The quantity of biotin required for remarkable growth of these microorganisms was quite different from that for the maximum production of L-glutamic acid. This result, however, did not apply in the case of thiamine. It was also confirmed that, of 18 amino acids, histidine and cysteine were the msot effective organic nitrogen sources, while the most available inorganic ammonium salt resulting in a large amount of L-glutamic acid-production and considerable cell gorwth was found to be only urea. Maximum accumulation of extracellular L-glutamic acid, more than 50%(w/w) of the initial sugar content, could be obtained from fermentation in the medium containing wheat-bran extract(Brev. ammoniagenes T-1 and Brev.ammoniagenes Y-2) or rice-bran extract(Brev. ammoniagenes YR-2), which confirmed us a possibility that these bacteria might be employed for industrial fermentation of L-glutamic acid.

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Studies on the Fermentative Production of L-Glutamic Acid -Part 1. Formation of L-Glutamic Acid from Acetic Acid- (글루타민산 발효에 관한 연구 -제 1 보 초산으로 부터 L-Glutamic Acid 생성-)

  • Chung, Dong-Hyo;Park, Sung-Oh;Kim, Jong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.112-115
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    • 1972
  • In the cource of investigation on L-glutamic acid production, acetate assimilating bacteria were isolated from natural sources. Among them, the strain No. 1214 was selected and characterized as a strain related to the genus Brevibacterium according to the standard method of taxonomy. This strain could grow in the acetate medium and accumulated a considerable amount of L-glutamic acid (22 g/L).

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Production of Glutamic Acid by Pseudomonas sp. L-10 (Pseudomonas sp. L-10에 의한 글루탐산의 생산)

  • 이종수;안용근
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.275-279
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    • 1995
  • A bacterium L-10 which produce mush of glutamic acid was Isolated from soil and identified as the genus Pserdomonas. The maximal glutamic acid production was obtained when the strain was cultured at 3$0^{\circ}C$ for 30 hrs in the optimal medium containing 5% glucose, 0.5% each of urea and yeast extract, 0.1% K2HP04, 0.02% MgSO4.7H20, 0.3% (NH, )rHP04, 0.5ug/l biotin and Initial pH 7.0, and then final glutamic acid production under the above conditions was 1.2mg/ml of cell cultures.

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Studies on the L-Glutamic acid Fermentation(Part II) L-Glutamic acid Production Employing Enzymatic Hydrolyzate of Tapioca Pellets as Carbon Source (L_Glutamic acid 발효생산에 관한 연구 (제이보) Tapioca Pellets 효소 당화액을 이용한 L_Glutamic acid 생산)

  • Yang, Han-Chul;Park, Yong-Jin;Kim, Jea-Weon
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 1975
  • The possibility of using tapioca pellets as a raw material in glutanmic acid fermentation by Microcuccus glutamicus is shown. The ground pellets were diluted with water to 20% solid level and treated with $\alpha$-anylase prepared from a thermophilic Actinomycetes strain culture for 90 min at 85$^{\circ}C$ under pH 6.0. The liquefied solution was further saccharified with commercial glucoamylase for 36 hours under the reaction conditions of 55$^{\circ}C$ and pH 5.0. The inhibitory effect of excess biotin content, 16 $\mu\textrm{g}$ Per liter of the hydrolzate, could be reduced effectively by adding 10 IU of penicillin per ml of the medium after five hours of the fermentation. The maximum glutamic acid yield of 38.5 g/l was obtained after 60 hours of shaking culture at 28-3$0^{\circ}C$.

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Studies on the Synthesis of L(+)-Glutamic Acid Derivatives(II) (L(+)-Glutamic Acid 유도체의 합성(II))

  • 조윤상
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.125-128
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    • 1979
  • In the formation of L(+) -glutamine from L(+) -glutamic acid-5-hydrazide, large amount of Raney-Ni was effective under normal pressure but hydrogenation or amonolysis of ester under pressure was useless. Preparation of glutamine with .alpha.-ketoglutaric acid (by way of 1, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3-pyridazine carboxylic acid) is intersting but not so efficient in yield.

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