• Title, Summary, Keyword: Glucose transport

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Hydrogen Peroxide Mediates Brazilin-induced Glucose Transport in Adipocytes

  • Khil, Lee-Yong;Moon, Chang-Kiu
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.228-234
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    • 2004
  • Brazilin shows hypoglycemic effect in diabetic animals through enhancement of glucose metabolisms in insulin responsive tissues. One of the major mechanisms of brazilin to enhance glucose metabolism is stimulation of glucose transport in adipocytes. In this study, the essential molecular moiety of brazilin for the stimulation of glucose transport was investigated. We found that brazilin undergoes a structural change in physiological buffer and produces hydrogen peroxide. Methylation of hydroxyl group of brazilin or addition of catalase along with brazilin resulted in the complete inhibition of brazilin-induced glucose transport in adipocytes. Because hydrogen peroxide increases glucose transport by inhibition of phosphatases, we examined the effect of brazilin on phosphatase activity. Brazilin inhibited phosphatases in a wide range of activity, and protein phosphatase 1 and 2A were also inhibited. These results suggest that the production of hydrogen peroxide by oxidation of catechol hydroxyl group of brazilin mediates glucose transport through inhibition of phosphatases which otherwise decrease glucose transport in adipocytes.

Molecular Biology of Glucose Transporter Families (포도당운반체의 분자생물학)

  • 안용호
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 1994
  • The glucose transport across the mammalian plasma membranes is carried out by members of two distinct gene families, $Na^+$/glucose to transporter (SGLT) and glucose transporters (GLUTs). The energy requiring SGLT utilizes the sodium gradient to transport glucose and galactose against the concentration gradient. The energy independent transport (Facilitative transport) of glucose down the concentration gradient is mediated by the members of GLUTs. The facilitated transport of glucose is saturable, sterospecific and bidirectional across the membrane. To date, 6 kinds of isoforms of facilitative glucose transporters are found. These proteins are expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner, and shows distinct properties that reflect their specific functional roles.

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Diabetes, Glucose Transport and Hypoglycaemic Agents

  • Khil, Lee-Yong
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2004
  • Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic derangement with hyperglycaemia being the most characteristic symptom of diabetes. Hyperglycaemia can be caused by an increase in the rate of glucose production by the liver or by a decrease in the rate of glucose use by peripheral tissues. Impaired glucose transport is one of the major factors contributing to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. The ability of insulin to mediate tissue glucose uptake is a critical step in maintaining glucose homeostasis and in clearing the post-prandial glucose load. Glucose transport is mediated by specific carriers called glucose transporters (GLUTs). In this article, the functional importance and molecular mechanisms of insulin-induced glucose transport and development of hypoglycaemic agents which increase glucose transport are reviewed.

Investigation of the Nature of the Endogenous Glucose Transporter(s) in Insect Cells

  • Lee, Chong-Kee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.429-435
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    • 1999
  • Unlike the mammalian glucose transporter GLUT1, little is known about the nature of the endogenous sugar transporter(s) in insect cells. In order to establish the transport characteristics and other properties of the sugar transport proteins of Sf9 cells, a series of kinetic analyses was performed. A saturable transport system for hexose uptake has been revealed in the insect cells. The apparent affinity of this transport system(s) for 2-deoxy-D-glucose was relatively high, the $K_m$ for uptake being <0.5 mM. To further investigate the substrate and inhibitor recognition properties of the insect cell transporter, the ability of other sugars or drugs to inhibit 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport was examined by measuring inhibition constants ($K_j$). Transport was inhibited by D-mannose, D-glucose, and D-fructose. However, the apparent affinity of the C-4 epimer, D-galactose, for the Spodoptera transporter was relatively low, implying that the hydroxyl group at the C-4 position may play a role in the strong binding of glucose and mannose to the transporter. The results also showed that transport was stereoselective, being inhibited by D-glucose but not by L-glucose. It is therefore concluded that insect cells contain an endogenous glucose transport activity that in several aspects resembles the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. However, the mammalian and insect transporters were different in some of their kinetic properties, namely, their affinities for fructose and for cytochalasin B.

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The Induction Time of Sucrose Active Transport System during the Phloem Cell Development in Suspension Cultures of Streptantus tortus Cotyledon (Streptanthus tortus 자엽의 배양세포에서 사부세포 발달동안 Sucrose 능동수송계의 유도 시기)

  • Cho, Bong-Heuy
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.169-173
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    • 2004
  • Parenchyma cells of Streptanthus tortus suspension cultures possessed the different transport system for aldose-formed D-glucose and for ketose-formed D-fructose. $K_{m}$ value for D-glucose and D-fructose were 0.28mM and 15.02mM, respectively. $K_{m}$ value of D-mannose was 0.44 mM which is similar to the D-glucose transport system, but D-mannose was transported also through its own special uptake system. Parenchyma cells possessed the transport system of L-glucose, but the function of L-glucose was not known at all. Protoplast of parenchyma cells possessed only the monosugars transport system, but didn't possess the disugars, sucrose transport system. Early developing phloem protoplasts possessed glucose and sucrose transport system at the same time. On the contrary, in the complete developed phloem cells disappeared preexisted glucose transport system in the parenchyma cells, only new induced sucrose transport system existed.ted.

Effects of Phloretin, Cytochalasin B, and D-Fructose on 2-deoxy-D-Glucose Transport of the Glucose Transport System Present in Spodoptera frugiperda Clone 21-AE Cells

  • Lee Chong-Kee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2006
  • The baculovirus expression system is a powerful method for producing large amounts of the human erythrocyte-type glucose transport protein, heterologously. Characterization of the expressed protein is expected to show its ability to transport sugars directly. To achieve this, it is a prerequisite to know the properties of the endogenous sugar transport system in Spodoptera frugiperda Clone 21 (Sf21) cells, which are commonly employed as a host permissive cell line to support the baculovirus replication. The Sf21 cells can grow well on TC-100 medium that contains 0.1% D-glucose as the major carbon source, strongly suggesting the presence of endogenous glucose transport system. However, unlike the human glucose transport protein that has a broad substrate and inhibitor specificity, very little is known about the nature of the endogenous sugar transport system in Sf21 cells. In order to characterize further the inhibitor recognition properties of the Sf21 cell transporter, the ability of phloretin, cytochalasin B and D-fructose to inhibit 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2dGlc) transport was examined by measuring inhibition constants $(K_i)$. The $K_i's$ for reversible inhibitors were determined from plots of uptake versus inhibitor concentration. The 2dGlc transport in the Sf21 cells was very potently inhibited by phloretin, the aglucone of phlorizin with a $K_i$ similar to the value of about $2{\mu}M$ reported for inhibition of glucose transport in human erythrocytes. However, the Sf21 cell transport system was found to differ from the human transport protein in being much less sensitive to inhibition by cytochalasin B (apparent $K_i$ approximately $10\;{\mu}M$). In contrast, It is reported that the inhibitor binds the human erythrocyte counterpart with a $K_d$ of approximately $0.12\;{\mu}M$. Interestingly, the Sf21 glucose transport system also appeared to have high affinity for D-fructose with a $K_i$ of approximately 5mM, contrasting the reported $K_m$ of the human erythrocyte transport protein for the ketose of 1.5M.

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Effect of Combinational Treatment with Lithium, Insulin and Contraction on Glucose Transport Activity of Rat Skeletal Muscle (쥐의 골격근에서 리튬, 인슐린 및 근수축 복합처치가 당수송 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Byeong-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.340-346
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    • 2009
  • Lithium has only a minimal effect on basal glucose transport activity, instead that lithium markedly increased the sensitivity of glucose transport to insulin by increasing in insulin induced glucose transport activity. And Lithium increases in insulin responsiveness as well. Previous studies has reported this enhancement of lithium to stimulate the glucose transport process is not only limited to insulin, it also induce the increases in the sensitivity of glucose transport by submaximal contractile activity. The preliminary study, however, leads that Lithium possibly improves the responsiveness of glucose transport with maximal muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lithium on contraction for the maximal glucose transport. For the purpose of this study, Epitrochlearis muscles of SD rat were isolated and treated Lithium with electric contraction and/or insulin to activate the maximal glucose transport. The results support that Lithium improves the responsiveness of glucose transport through potentiates contraction and/or insulin induced-glucose uptake in muscle. Consequently Lithium treated with muscle contraction and insulin has the important potential to improve the insulin resistance and diabetes.

A Study on the Inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-Glucose Transport of the Endogenous Glucose Transporters in Spodoptera frugiperda Clone 21-AE Cells by Using Hexoses

  • Lee Chong-Kee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.487-492
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    • 2005
  • The baculovirus/insect cell expression system is of great value in the study of structure-function relationships in mammalian glucose-transport proteins by site-directed mutagenesis and for the large-scale production of these proteins for mechanistic and biochemical studies. Spodoptera frugiperda Clone 21 (Sf2l) cells grow well on TC-100 medium that contains $0.1\%$ D-glucose as the major carbon source, strongly suggesting the presence of endogenous glucose transporters. However, very little is known about the properties of the endogenous sugar transporter(s) in Sf2l cells, although a saturable transport system for hexose uptake has been previously revealed in the Sf cells. In order to further examine the substrate and inhibitor recognition properties of the Sf2l cell transporter, the ability of hexoses to inhibit 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2dGlc) transport was investigated by measuring inhibition constants $(K_i)$. The $K_i's$ for reversible inhibitors were determined from plots of uptake versus inhibitor concentration. Transport was effectively inhibited by D-mannose and D-glucose. Of the hexoses tested, L-glucose had the least effect on 2dGlc transport in the Sf2l cells, indicating that the transport is stereoselective. Unlike the human HepG2 type glucose transport system, D-mannose had a somewhat greater affinity for the Sf2l cell transporter than D-glucose, implying that the hydroxyl group at the C-2 position is not necessary for strong binding. However, epimerization at the C-4 position of D-glucose (D-galactose) resulted in a dramatic decrease in affinity of the hexose for the Sf2l cell transporter. Such a lowering of affinity might be the result of the involvement of the C-4 hydroxyl in hydrogen bonding. It is therefore suggested that Sf2l cells were found to contain an endogenous sugar transport activity that in several aspects resembles the human HepG2 type glucose transporter, although the insect and human transporters do differ in their affinity for cytochalasin B.

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Influence of Respiration on Photosynthetic Electron Transport in psaB Mutants from Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.PCC6803 psaB 돌연변이주의 광합성 전자전달에 미치는 호흡의 영향)

  • 윤병철;장남기
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.59-72
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    • 1997
  • The influence of respiration on photosythetic electron transport were investigated in the Wid type and psaB mutants from Syneehocystis sp. PCC6803. The amount of glucose uptake in the wild type was proportional to the glucose concentration added in wild type and less than that of psaB mutants in the dark. It was suggested that psaB mutants more depend on the glucose than the wild type. It was investigated how the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase(IDH) and glucose-6-phos-phate dehydrogenase(G6PDH) were changed. The activities of IDH were very low. While, the ac-tivities of G6PDH were much higher than that of IDH. These results agree to the reports that ex-ogenous glucose was dismilated aerobically via Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway in heterotrophic cyanobacteria. PsaB mutants showed high G6PDH activity in the presence of glucose as well as in the dark and high respiratory activities especially in the dark. It was also investigated how photosynthetic electron transport activities were changed. PsaB mutants showed higher photosynthetic electron tranasport activities than wild type in the presence of glucose as well as in the dark. In the results, it was proposed that photosynthetic electron transport between PS I and PS U was complemented by respiratory electron transport through the NADPH generated by Dxidative Pentose Phophate Pathway in psaB mutant from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Key words: Photosynthetic electron transport, Respiration, Synechoystis sp. PCC6803, psaB mutant, Glucose uptake, IDH, G6PDH, Respiratory electron transport activity.

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Production of Leptin in E. coli and Its Effect on Glucose and Acetate Transport and Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2 Gene in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Kim, K.S.;Baik, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1062-1068
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    • 2004
  • Leptin has a major role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. In addition, leptin participates in many physiological functions including regulation of lipid metabolism. Bovine recombinant leptin protein was produced in E. coli cells in order to understand function of leptin in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The leptin expression vector was constructed in pGEX-4T-3 vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 cells. Expression of the GST-leptin fusion protein was induced with IPTG. The fusion protein was purified using glutathione sepharose 4B batch method, and the recombinant leptin was eluted after thrombin protease digestion. The effect of leptin on glucose transport was examined in the differentiated adipocytes of 3T3-L1 cells. Leptin had no effect on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 cells (p>0.05). Effect of recombinant leptin on glucose and acetate transport was examined in adipose tissues of Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Insulin stimulated glucose transport in both intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect glucose transport in both adipose tissues (p>0.05). Insulin stimulated acetate transport in bovine adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect acetate transport (p>0.05). Northern and RT-PCR analyses showed that mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-2 were increased by leptin treatment in 3T3-L1 cells without statistical difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, bovine recombinant leptin did not affect glucose and acetate transport in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and bovine adipose tissues, while it stimulates UCP-2 mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells.