• Title, Summary, Keyword: Glucose fluctuation

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Effect of Intraoperative Glucose Fluctuation and Postoperative IL-6, TNF-α, CRP Levels on the Short-term Prognosis of Patients with Intracranial Supratentorial Neoplasms

  • Liu, Tie-Cheng;Liu, Qi-Ran;Huang, Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10879-10882
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To investigate the effect of intraoperative glucose fluctuation and postoperative interlukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on the short-term prognosis of patients with intracranial supratentorial neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients undergoing intracranial excision were selected in The Second Hospital of Jilin University. According to the condition of glucose fluctuation, the patients were divided into group A (glucose fluctuation <2.2 mmol/L, n=57) and group B (glucose fluctuation ${\geq}2.2mmol/L$, n=29). Glucose was assessed by drawing 2 mL blood from internal jugular vein in two groups in the following time points, namely fasting blood glucose 1 d before operation ($T_0$), 5 min after anesthesia induction ($T_1$), intraoperative peak glucose ($T_2$), intraoperative lowest glucose ($T_3$), 5 min after closing the skull ($T_4$), immediately after returning to intensive care unit (ICU) ($T_5$) and 2 h after returning to ICU ($T_6$). 1 d before operation and 1, 3 and 6 d after operation, serum IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ levels were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and CRP level with immunoturbidimetry. Additionally, postoperative adverse reactions were monitored. Results: There was no statistical significance between two groups regarding the operation time, anesthesia time, amount of intraoperative bleeding and blood transfusion (P>0.05). The glucose levels in both groups at $T_1{\sim}T_6$ went up conspicuously compared with that at $T_0$ (P<0.01), and those in group B at $T_2$, $T_4$, $T_5$ and $T_6$ were significantly higher than in group A (P<0.01). Serum IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ and CRP levels in both groups 1, 3 and 6 d after operation increased markedly compared with 1 d before operation (P<0.01), but the increased range in group A was notably lower than in group B (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Postoperative incidences of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and myocardial ischemia in group A were significantly lower than in group B (P<0.05), and respiratory support time obviously shorter than in group B (P<0.01). Conclusions: The glucose fluctuation of patients undergoing intracranial excision is related to postoperative IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ and CRP levels and those with small range of glucose fluctuation have better prognosis.

Insulin Delivery Systems: Current Topic

  • Jeong, Seo-Young
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.89-100
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    • 1986
  • Although insulin has been available for the treatment of diabetes mellitus for more than half a centry, the deficiency of conventional insulin therapy for diabetic patients have, to this date, not been satisfactorily overcome by any method. The development of potential delivery systems for insulin is highly important to prevent excessive fluctuation of plasma glucose levels, which results in long term complications in the diabetic. There are three major approaches toward development of glucose responding insulin delivery systems: A bioengineering approach is to devise mechanical components capable of releasing insulin in amounts appropriate to varying blood-glucose requirements. A biological approach relies upon cultured, living pancreatic beta cells encapsulated to constitute an insulin delivery unit. A biochemical approach is to synthesize a stable and biologically active glycosylated insulin that is complementary to the binding sites of lectin. This paper will cover several specific areas, including pancreatic transplantation(total or isolated islet cells), artificial pancreases(bioengineering or biological approach), controlled delivery system, glucose sensitive membrane systems, and a self-regulating insulin delivery system.

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Time relationship between the change of blood glucose concentration and the change of hemoglobin A1 concentration in experimentally induced diabetic dogs (실험적으로 당뇨병을 유발시킨 개에 있어서 혈당량과 Hemoglobin A1 농도의 변화의 시간적인 상관관계)

  • Lee, Chang-woo;Kim, Bonn-won
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.946-956
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    • 1998
  • Fifteen mongrel dogs (14 male and 1 female) were injected intravenously with 30mg of streptozotocin and 50mg of alloxan monohydrate per kilogram of body weight to induce diabetes mellitus. Before treatment with streptozotocin and alloxan fasting serum glucose concentration was determined every other day or thrice a week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for 3 months. Among 15 dogs 4 dogs developed diabetes mellitus and survived more than 9 weeks without injection of insulin. After treatment fasting serum glucose and hemoglobin $A_1$ concentrations of the 4 dogs were determined every other day or thrice a week. Fasting serum glucose concentration increased acutely from 24 hours after treatment and then showed severe fluctuation. Hemoglobin $A_1$ concentration increased gradually until 7~9 weeks after treatment and then showed very slow increase afterwards. Correlation of hemoglobin $A_1$ to fasting glucose concentration was relatively weak(r = 0.10~0.80). Hemoglobin $A_1$ and fasting glucose concentration of preceding 7 week showed very high correlation (r = 0.98~0.99). It was indicated that hemoglobin $A_1$ concentration in chemically induced diabetic dogs reflects mean glucose concentration of preceding 7~9 weeks.

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Effect of Temperature Shock on Cultured Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and Black Rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli)

  • Lee Sang Jun;Lee Jong Hee;Kang Jeong Ha;Lee Jeong Ho;Min Kwang Sik;Myung Jeong In;Kim Yoon;Kong In Soo
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2001
  • Aim of this research is to investigate the effect of temperature shocks on the physiological responses of cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Olive flounder and black rockfish were suffered with high and low temperature shocks for 4 and 8h, respectively, in laboratory conditions and then the changes in glucose, lactate, total protein, uric acid, and triglycerides-glycerol in blood plasma were analyzed. We observed that lactate and uric acid increased for up to 4h and then decreased for up to 8h by the high and low temperature shocks, and total protein decreased for up to 4h and then recovered for up to 8h by the high temperature shock in both fishes. Glucose by the high and low temperature shocks and triglycerides-glycerol by the low temperature shock increased for up to 4h, and then decreased in olive flounder, but increased for up to 8h in black rockfish. From the result, we speculated that the two fishes have an interspecific variation in the regulatory systems of glucose and triglycerides-glycero1. Glucose would play important role as an energy source during the temperature shocks and for an intermediate substance for low temperature tolerance, and glycerol of triglycerides-glycerol would play an important role for low temperature tolerance. In olive flounder, the turnover of chemical change by temperature shock took more than 4h, all chemicals returned almost to the initial level for up to 8h, but fish death followed only in 8h with the high temperature shocked group within two days. Therefore, we suggested that fish would be damaged severely by the longer time exposure of high temperature and mortality would occur after a certain time later than the shocked time as a post-effect.

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Effects of Time Elapse of Serum Separation on the Examination of Bovine Blood Chemical Values (혈청분해시간의 경과가 소 혈액화학치 검사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Bong-Sik;Hurh, In;Yun, Young-Soon;Kim, Jong-Hyung;Kim, Won-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 1992
  • To obtain the basic data for blood chemistry, the effects of the time elapse of serum separation on bovine blood chemical values were investigated. The results obtained are summerized as follows : 1. The constant fluctuation tendency and significance was not detected in GOT, GPT, BUN, Creatinine, ALP, CPX, Cholesterol, Ca, Mg and Pi. 2. Glucose showed the decrease tendency according to the time elapse of serum separation. As the values at 12 and 24 hours showed significant lower values than those at 1 and 2 hours (p<0.01) it was thougth that separation time of serum should be focussed for the glucose determination.

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Changes in Sugars Composition of Dried Lavers during Storage (마른김의 당류조성(糖類組成)과 저장중의 변화)

  • Park, Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.235-239
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    • 1973
  • Studies were made on the sugars composition in dried lavers (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda) and changes in the contents of sugars during the storage under a dry and a humid conditions respectively. 1) No notable difference was observed in the glucose content between those dried lavers samples, which were stored under dry and humid conditions. Galactose content showed little change under a dry condition, but under a humid condition rapidly increased to a maximum of about ten times of its initial amount and then decreased gradually. 2) The content of floridoside rapidly decreased under a humid condition while slowly decreased under a dry condition, of which tendency is a contrast to that of galactose. 3) One of the unidentified components, which is deduced to be isofloridoside, showed a fluctuation pattern, which bears resemblance to that of floridoside.

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Different Criteria for the Definition of Insulin Resistance and Its Relation with Dyslipidemia in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

  • Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto;de Mello, Elza Daniel
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: to compare cut off points corrected for age and gender (COOP) with fixed cut off points (FCOP) for fasting plasma insulin and Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of IR in obese children and adolescents and their correlation with dyslipidemia. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study including 383 subjects aged 7 to 18 years, evaluating fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and lipid profile. Subjects with high insulin levels and/or HOMA-IR were considered as having IR, based on two defining criteria: FCOP or CCOP. The frequency of metabolic abnormalities, the presence of IR, and the presence of dyslipidemia in relation to FCOP or CCOP were analyzed using Fisher and Mann-Whitney exact tests. Results: Using HOMA-IR, IR was diagnosed in 155 (40.5%) and 215 (56.1%) patients and, using fasting insulin, 150 (39.2%) and 221 (57.7%), respectively applying FCOP and CCOP. The use of CCOP resulted in lower insulin and HOMA-IR values than FCOP. Dyslipidemia was not related to FCOP or CCOP. Blood glucose remained within normal limits in all patients with IR. There was no difference in the frequency of IR identified by plasma insulin or HOMA-IR, both for FCOP and CCOP. Conclusion: The CCOP of plasma insulin or of HOMA-IR detected more cases of IR as compared to the FCOP, but were not associated with the frequency of dyslipidemia. As blood glucose has almost no fluctuation in this age group, even in the presence of IR, fasting plasma insulin detected the same cases of IR that would be detected by HOMA-IR.

Effect of Vegetal Complex Raw Food on Plasma Glucose and Lipid Composition in High Fat Diet-induced Diabetic Rats (식물류를 이용한 생식용 천연복합식품이 고지방 식이에 의한 당뇨병 유발쥐의 혈청 glucose함량 및 지질구성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Eun;Lee Mi-Kyung;Kim Pan-Gu;Kim Soo-Kyung;Lim Sang-Cheul
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.270-278
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to develop and design a product that is convenient and helpful to both patients and ordinary people who want to maintain their health. In this experimentation, the experimental rat have been given with high fat food to induce Diabetes. Organic brown rice was given as their main energy source and natural complex food, most of materials were freeze-dried, was given to observe its effects on their glucose amount in the plasma. The results are as follows. During 28 days of basal diets, as observing their weight variations, normal group gained weights, but the natural complex food(NCF) groups lost their weights. As comparing the amount of neutral fat levels in the plasma between the diabetes group who just had basal group and one who had NCF, group with NCF groups' level was much lower than the other group who just had basal food. As comparing total cholesterol levels in the plasma, with diabetes group with basal food, $50\%$ and $100\%$ NCF groups' levels were lowered than that group. Regarding HDL-cholesterol level, all NCE groups had around 30mg/dl and there were not much fluctuation among groups. As for LDL-cholesterol level, the $100\%$ NCF group had the lowest level and showed almost the same as the normal group. The amounts of the glucose in the plasma were lowered in all NCF groups. Among those NCE groups, $100\%$ NCF group had 120mg/dl to reach almost the same as the normal group.

Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy Predicts Higher HbA1c Variability in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Yang, Yeoree;Lee, Eun-Young;Cho, Jae-Hyoung;Park, Yong-Moon;Ko, Seung-Hyun;Yoon, Kun-Ho;Kang, Moo-Il;Cha, Bong-Yun;Lee, Seung-Hwan
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.496-512
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    • 2018
  • Background: This study aimed to investigate the association between the presence and severity of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and development of long-term glucose fluctuation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs) at baseline and at least 4-year of follow-up with ${\geq}6$ measures of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were included. The severity of CAN was categorized as normal, early, or severe CAN according to the CARTs score. HbA1c variability was measured as the standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation, and adjusted SD of serial HbA1c measurements. Results: A total of 681 subjects were analyzed (294 normal, 318 early, and 69 severe CAN). The HbA1c variability index values showed a positive relationship with the severity of CAN. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that CAN was significantly associated with the risk of developing higher HbA1c variability (SD) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes duration, mean HbA1c, heart rate, glomerular filtration rate, diabetic retinopathy, coronary artery disease, insulin use, and anti-hypertensive medication (early CAN: odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.43) (severe CAN: OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.47 to 5.56). This association was more prominent in subjects who had a longer duration of diabetes (>10 years) and lower mean HbA1c (<7%). Conclusion: CAN is an independent risk factor for future higher HbA1c variability in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tailored therapy for stabilizing glucose fluctuation should be emphasized in subjects with CAN.

Hematological and serum biochemical studies in fresh water fish exposed to acute and chronic copper and mercury toxicity

  • H.A., Sawsan;H.M., Amira;M.B., Mostafa;AM.M., Nashaat
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2017
  • A total number of 668 apparently healthy fish were obtained from farm to study the effect of two heavy metals in a form of (Copper sulfate and Mercuric chloride) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The $LC_{50}$ /96 hr. of Cu and Hg were estimated and fish exposed to $\text\tiny{^1/_2}$ $LC_{50}$ for 7 days and for $1/_{10}$ $LC_{50}$ for 8 weeks from each product separately. Results showed decrease in RBCs count, PCV% and Hb in acute and chronic mercury while a significant increase was shown in acute and chronic copper toxicity, total leucocytic count showed decrease in acute mercury toxicity and increase in the chronic case, while in copper toxicity non-significant decrease in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity was noticed. Elevated serum urea and creatinine in both acute and chronic mercury and copper toxicity was detected. No changes in total bilirubin in the acute mercury and chronic copper toxicity while significant increase in chronic mercury and acute copper. Elevation of serum AST and ALT in some days of acute toxicity of mercury and copper while in chronic mercury toxicity a significant elevation of both serums AST and ALT were detected .while in chronic copper toxicity serum AST was fluctuated and ALT showed no significant changes. CK study revealed significant decrease in acute mercury with fluctuation in the chronic toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed fluctuation in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity. Glucose value decreased in acute and chronic mercury toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed significant increase in the acute and increase followed by significant decrease in the chronic copper toxicity.