• Title, Summary, Keyword: Global $Ca^{2+}{_i}$ transient

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[$Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ Exchange Curtails $Ca^{2+}$before Its Diffusion to Global $Ca^{2+}{_i}$ in the Rat Ventricular Myocyte

  • Ahn, Sung-Wan;Ko, Chang-Mann
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2005
  • In the heart, $Na^{+}-Ca^{2+}$ exchange (NCX) is the major $Ca^{2+}$ extrusion mechanism. NCX has been considered as a relaxation mechanism, as it reduces global $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ raised during activation. However, if NCX locates in the close proximity to the ryanodine receptor, then NCX would curtail $Ca^{2+}$ before its diffusion to global $Ca^{2+}_i$ This will result in a global $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ decrease especially during its ascending phase rather than descending phase. Therefore, NCX would decrease the myocardial contractility rather than inducing relaxation in the heart. This possibility was examined in this study by comparing NCX-induced extrusion of $Ca^{2+}$ after its release from SR in the presence and absence of global $Ca^{2+}_i$ transient in the isolated single rat ventricular myocytes by using patch-clamp technique in a whole-cell configuration. Global $Ca^{2+}_i$ transient was controlled by an internal dialysis with different concentrations of BAPTA added in the pipette. During stimulation with a ramp pulse from +100 mV to -100 mV for 200 ms, global $Ca^{2+}_i$ transient was suppressed only mildly, and completely at 1 mmol/L, and 10 mmol/L BAPTA, respectively. In these situations, ryanodine-sensitive inward NCX current was compared using $100{\mu}mol/L$ ryanodine, $Na^+$ depletion, 5 mmol/L $NaCl_2$ and $1{\mu}mol/L$ nifedipine. Surprisingly, the result showed that the ryanodine-sensitive inward NCX current was well preserved after 10 mmol/L BAPTA to 91 % of that obtained after 1 mmol/L BAPTA. From this result, it is concluded that most of the NCX-induced $Ca^{2+}$ extrusion occurs before the $Ca^{2+}$ diffuses to global $Ca^{2+})i$ in the rat ventricular myocyte.

Neuroprotective Effects of Hydroxyfullerene in Rats Subjected to Global Cerebral Ischemia

  • Kim, Young-Ock;Kim, Hak-Jae;Kim, Su-Kang;Yoon, Bum-Chul
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.218-223
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    • 2008
  • Oxidative stress is believed to contribute to the neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible antioxidant neuroprotective effect of hydroxyfullerene (a radical absorbing cage molecule) against neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 neurons following transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat. Transient global cerebral ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by four vessel- occlusion (4VO) for 10 min. Lipid peroxidation in brain tissues was determined by measuring the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of ${H_2}{O_2}$ on PC12 cells were also investigated. Cell viabilities were measured using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays. Hydroxyfullerene, when administered to rats at 0.3-3 mg/kg i.p. at 0 and 90 minutes after 4-VO was found to significantly reduce CA1 neuron death by 72.4% on hippocampal CA1 neurons. Our findings suggest that hydroxyfullerene protects neurons from transient global cerebral injury in the rat hippocampus by reducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation levels, which contribute to apoptotic cell death.

The neuroprotective mechanism of ampicillin in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia

  • Lee, Kyung-Eon;Cho, Kyung-Ok;Choi, Yun-Sik;Kim, Seong Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2016
  • Ampicillin, a ${\beta}$-lactam antibiotic, dose-dependently protects neurons against ischemic brain injury. The present study was performed to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of ampicillin in a mouse model of transient global forebrain ischemia. Male C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 40 min. Before transient forebrain ischemia, ampicillin (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or penicillin G (6,000 U/kg or 20,000 U/kg, i.p.) was administered daily for 5 days. The pretreatment with ampicillin but not with penicillin G significantly attenuated neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Mechanistically, the increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) following forebrain ischemia was also attenuated by ampicillin treatment. In addition, the ampicillin treatment reversed increased immunoreactivities to glial fibrillary acidic protein and isolectin B4, markers of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Furthermore, the ampicillin treatment significantly increased the level of glutamate transporter-1, and dihydrokainic acid (DHK, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), reversed the neuroprotective effect of ampicillin. Taken together, these data indicate that ampicillin provides neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, possibly through inducing the GLT-1 protein and inhibiting the activity of MMP in the mouse hippocampus.

Neuroprotective effects of herbal mixture HT070 on global cerebral ischemia in rats

  • Song, Jungbin;Lee, Donghun;Kim, Young-Sik;Lee, Hyun Jeong;Lee, Seunggyeong;Kim, Dong Kuk;Kang, Shin Ho;Shin, Yong Kook;Choi, Ho-Young;Kim, Hocheol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : HT070 is a mixture of herbal extracts from root of Scutellaria baicalensis and stem bark of Eleutherococcus senticosus , which have long been used for stroke therapy in traditional Korean Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of HT070 on global cerebral ischemia and its potential mechanisms.Methods : Transient global cerebral ischemia was produced by 10 min of four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in male Wistar rats. HT070 was administered orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg twice at 0 and 90 min after reperfusion. Hippocampal neuronal damage was measured 7 days after reperfusion. To explore the potential mechanisms, we used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an in vitro model. PC12 cells were pretreated with HT070 for 1 h and then exposed to 100 μM H2O2 for 6 h in the presence of HT070. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, iNOS and COX-2 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR.Results : Oral administration of HT070 at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly reduced neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region by 13.4% as compared to the vehicle-treated group. HT070 increased cell viability, reversed the down-regulated Bcl-2 mRNA level, and suppressed the up-regulated mRNA expressions of Bax, iNOS, and COX-2 in H2O2-treated PC12 cells.Conclusions : HT070 protects against delayed neuronal death after global cerebral ischemia and its neuroprotection properties might be attributed to the inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis and ROS-generating enzymes.