• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ginseng production

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Overview of World Ginseng Production (세계 인삼 생산의 개요)

  • Ference, Don
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.152-165
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    • 1991
  • It is estimated that world ginseng production has increased from 3,200 tonnes In 1983 to 5,132 tonnes in 1987. China produced approximately hart of world ginseng production and South Korea's production amounts to 31.9% of world ginseng production. Canadian ginseng production of 114 tonnes in 1987 represents only 2.2% of estimated world production. World ginseng production is projected to increase to 6,856 tonnes by 1992. Canadian production as a proportion of total world production is expected to increase to 3.3% however, North American production overall is projected to decrease 12.0% of world production by 1992. Assuming that the value of each country's production is equal to average export price, the value of world ginseng production is estimated to be $ 443 million The estimated values of Korean, North Anerican and Canadian ginseng production represent $ 198.3million, 977.1 million, and $ 12.5 million, redpectively.

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The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

  • Baeg, In-Ho;So, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the processed products are expected to expand continuously.

Production Procedures and Economics of the American Ginseng (미국 화기삼의 종류별 생산방법과 경제성분석)

  • Lee, Dong-Phil
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is classifying types of American ginseng and estimating their production cost and revenue by the types. Usually, the American ginseng can be classified as 4 different types; wild ginseng(WG), wild simulated ginseng(WSG), woods grown ginseng(WGG), and field cultivated ginseng(FCG). This paper estimates costs and benefits for FCG, WGG, and WSG per acre. The WGG & WSG are produced under the tree at mountain while the FCG is produced at large scale farm with machinery. Annual profit for the FCG is $2,222 while that of the WGG and the WSG are $2,759 and $3,799 per acre. Although quantity produced per acre for the WGG and WSG(600lbs and 160lbs) are much smaller than that of the FCG(3,000lbs), prices per pound for the WGG and WSG($125, 375$) are higher than that of the FCG($24). In addition, production costs for the WGG and WSG are lower than that of the FCG because of the costs for seeds, shadow facility, and chemicals are different by the types of production.

Overexpression of PgSQS1 Increases Ginsenoside Production and Negatively Affects Ginseng Growth Rate in Panax ginseng

  • Shim, Ju-Sun;Lee, Ok-Ran;Kim, Yu-Jin;Lee, Jung-Hye;Kim, Ju-Han;Jung, Dae-Young;In, Jun-Gyo;Lee, Beom-Soo;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.98-103
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    • 2010
  • The medicinal plant Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) contains various phytosterols and bioactive triterpene saponins (ginsenosides). Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step in ginsenoside biosynthesis. Transgenic plants of P. ginseng were generated by introducing the squalene synthase gene derived from P. ginseng. Adventitious roots of the transgenic ginseng grew best in B5 medium, and 2 g of inoculum secured an optimal growth rate. Two phytohormones, indolebutyric acid and 1-naphtalene acetic acid, increased root growth and decreased ginsenoside production. Treatment with two selected elicitors, chitosan and jasmonic acid, and a precursor of the isoprenoid pathway, mevalonic acid, enhanced ginsenoside production and retarded ginseng growth rate.

Saponin Production in Tissue Culture of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) (고려인삼의 조직배양에 의한 사포닌 생산)

  • Choi, Kwang-Tae;Park, Ji-Chang;Ahn, In-Ok
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 1990
  • Ginseng root explants and calli were cultured on modified Murashine and Skoog's media supplemented with different concentrations of organic or inorganic compounds and plant growth requlators to clarify the effects of chemical compositon and plant growth regulators in the medium on the growth of ginseng calli and the production of ginseng saponin. For optimum growth of ginseng calli, the concentrations of 2, 4-D and sucrose were in the range of 1 to 5 mg/l and 1 to 3%, respectively. And it was clarified that sucrose, nitrogen, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, plant growth regulators and their concentrations influcenced the relative biosynthesis of saponin in tissue cultures of Panax ginseng.

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The history of ginseng cultivation in Ganghwa area (강화 지역의 인삼 재배 역사)

  • Lee, Sungdong
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.2
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2020
  • Ginseng was first addressed ever in the medical record in HyangYakGooGupBang (鄕藥救急方), the oldest Korean medical book published in Kingdom of Goryeo (918-1392) when Ganghwa was the provisional capital city at the time. It is believed that ginsengs in Ganghwa were planted and cultivated from 1100s. Intensive ginseng production in Ganghwa began when Ganghwa became the special district of the Kaesong Ginseng Union (開城人蔘組合) in 1920s, this intensive production continued till the Korean War in 1950. After the Korean War ended in 1953, ginseng production was resumed. In 1967, Ganghwa Ginseng Association (江華蔘業組合) was founded. The total acreage of ginseng harvested was nearly 200 ha in 1967 and it increased to ha 900 in 1974. By mid-1970s, Ganghwa became the largest ginseng region in Korea by total production and acreage. Most of ginseng roots cultivated in Ganghwa are six years old. Ganghwa, which was already well-known for red ginseng productions, has become even more famous for ginseng production.

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Effect of Panax ginseng on the Growth and Production of Aflatoxin by Aspergillus flayus (인삼이 Aspergillus flayus의 생육 및 Aflatoxin 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이창숙;김종규
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of the Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer on the growth and production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flayus ATCC 15517. Asp. fiavus with 10$^6$ conidia was incubated at 30$\circ$C for 7 days on YES broth containing 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% of ginseng extract. After incubation, dry mycelial weight, pH, and production of aflatoxin were investigated. The results were as follows:There was no significant difference in dry mycelial weight by the addition of 0.1% and 0.5% ginseng extract. However, it was decreased to the rate of 13.7% by the addition of 1.0% ginseng extract in 7 days. pH changes in cultures were similar regardless of the concentration of ginseng extract. The pH values decreased to minimum in 5 days and again increased. Aflatoxin production was reduced as the concentration of ginseng extract increased. When compared to the control, the production of total aflatoxin significantly reduced to 56.7%, 54.0%, 53.3% in the media of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% of ginseng extract, respectively. No significant difference was observed among ginseng extract groups.

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Investigation of ginsenosides in different tissues after elicitor treatment in Panax ginseng

  • Oh, Ji Yeon;Kim, Yu-Jin;Jang, Moon-Gi;Joo, Sung Chul;Kwon, Woo-Saeng;Kim, Se-Yeong;Jung, Seok-Kyu;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.270-277
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    • 2014
  • Background: The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on ginsenoside production in different organs of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was evaluated after the whole plant was dipped in an MJ-containing solution. MJ can induce the production of antioxidant defense genes and secondary metabolites in plants. In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis. Although a previous study focused on the application of MJ to affect ginsenoside production in adventitious roots, we conducted our research on entire plants by evaluating the effect of exogenous MJ on ginsenoside production with the aim of obtaining new approaches to study ginsenoside biosynthesis response to MJ in vivo. Methods: Different parts of MJ-treated ginseng plants were analyzed for ginsenoside contents (fine root, root body, epidermis, rhizome, stem, and leaf) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ. Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis. Application of MJ enhanced protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, whereas chilling treatment induced protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the production of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides is differently affected by abiotic and biotic stresses in the ginseng plant, and they might play different defense mechanism roles.

The Experimental Study on Inhibitory Effects of Wild Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Solution on Melanin Biosynthesis

  • Jo, Na Young
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2018
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture on melanin production in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. Methods: To determine the effect of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution on B16/F10 cells, cytotoxicity was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To observe B16/F10 cell growth, death, and morphological changes, Trypan blue solution was used. The Hosoi method was used to investigate the effect of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution on melanin production. The Martinez-Esparza method was used to investigate the effect of wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution on tyrosinase activity. To determine the pathway involved in the melanogenesis in cells exposed to wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution, a cell-free tyrosinase was used. Results: Following treatment with $200{\mu}L$ of wild ginseng solution, the cell survival rate was $76.32{\pm}2.45%$ which significantly decreased with higher concentrations (${\mu}L$) of wild ginseng (up to $200{\mu}L$). When $100{\mu}L$ of wild ginseng was used, the cell survival rate was $89.95{\pm}2.07%$. No morphological changes or abnormalities were observed in the B16/F10 murine melanoma cells as observed in the Trypan blue test. Melanin production was significantly reduced to $72.17{\pm}3.74%$ at $100{\mu}L$. Using $100{\mu}L$ of wild ginseng solution, tyrosinase activity was significantly decreased to $80.15{\pm}1.05%$. Wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution reduced melanin production both directly and indirectly. Conclusion: This study suggests that wild ginseng pharmacopuncture solution may be effective in inhibiting melanin production. Further studies are needed to determine safe and effective clinical applications.

Effect of ginseng and ginsenosides on melanogenesis and their mechanism of action

  • Kim, Kwangmi
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2015
  • Abnormal changes in skin color induce significant cosmetic problems and affect quality of life. There are two groups of abnormal change in skin color; hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Hyperpigmentation, darkening skin color by excessive pigmentation, is a major concern for Asian people with yellowe-brown skin. A variety of hypopigmenting agents have been used, but treating the hyperpigmented condition is still challenging and the results are often discouraging. Panax ginseng has been used traditionally in eastern Asia to treat various diseases, due to its immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and antitumor activities. Recently, several reports have shown that extract, powder, or some constituents of ginseng could inhibit melanogenesis in vivo or in vitro. The underlying mechanisms of antimelanogenic properties in ginseng or its components include the direct inhibition of key enzymes of melanogenesis, inhibition of transcription factors or signaling pathways involved in melanogenesis, decreasing production of inducers of melanogenesis, and enhancing production of antimelanogenic factor. Although there still remain some controversial issues surrounding the antimelanogenic activity of ginseng, especially in its effect on production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide, these recent findings suggest that ginseng and its constituents might be potential candidates for novel skin whitening agents.