• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ginseng distribution

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The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

  • Baeg, In-Ho;So, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the processed products are expected to expand continuously.

Distribution and Relation of Mineral Nutrients in Various Parts of Korea Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (고려인삼의 부위간 무기성분 분포 및 상관관계)

  • Lee, Chong-Hwa;Shim, Sang-Chill;Park, Hoon;Han, Kang-Wan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 1980
  • The distribution pattern of mineral nutrients, among various Parts of Korea ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) was investigated to understand ginseng nutrition by simple correlation analysis. Five·year old ginseng plants grown under four different nutritional environments were sampled and separated into leaf, petiole, stem, rhizome, cortex and epidermis of tap foot, central part of tap root, cortex and epidermis of lateral root, central part of lateral root, fine root in the middle of truly, for chemical analysis. Between mineral nutrients in root, N and P showed highly significant positive correlation each other and with Mg and Cu while all other elements (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B) showed highly significant positive correlation each other. In shoot, number of mineral nutrient pairs haying significant relation was much less than in root. (Negative: P with Ca or B, K with N, Fe, Mn or Cu, Positive: N with Mg, Fe, Mn or Cu, K with Zn, Ca with Mg, Zn, or B, Fe Mn Cu each other, Mn with B.) The number of pairs having significant correlation in whole plant was approximately the same as the number in root but three of them showed significant negative correlation. The distribution pattern similarity of mineral contents among various parts was also discussed in relation to physiological significance in Korea ginseng plant.

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Effects of Storage Temperature on Quality of Fresh Ginseng during Distribution (수삼의 저장온도가 유통 중 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ji Hyun;Chio, Ji Weon;Hong, Yoon Pyo;Kim, Geum Soog
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.431-438
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    • 2015
  • Background : This study was conducted to determine out the effect of storage temperature on the quality of fresh ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) during distribution. Methods and Results : Fresh ginseng was washed, packed in $30{\mu}m$ low density polyethylene (LDPE) film, then stored at 0, -2 and $-4^{\circ}C$. After 4 weeks of storage, ginseng was then stored at $5^{\circ}C$, as a simulation of the distribution process. Ginseng stored at $-4^{\circ}C$ showed higher respiration rate, ethylene production and electrolyte conductivity during the distribution phase than those stored at 0 and $-2^{\circ}C$. Decay and browning rate rapidly increased following 3 weeks of distribution in samples stored $-4^{\circ}C$. However ginseng stored $-2^{\circ}C$, which is below freezing point, for 4 weeks did not show the physiological change or quality deterioration. Ginsenoside contents decreased during storage for all plant, but did not differ significantly between storage temperatures. Conclusions : Storage at temperatures below $-2^{\circ}C$ can negatively affect respiratory characteristics and electrolyte leakage and increase quality deterioration and decay rates during distribution.

A Study on Flow Characteristics of a Ginseng Cleaner Using PIV (PIV에 의한 인삼세척기의 특성연구)

  • 송치성
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Marine Engineers Conference
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    • pp.140-145
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    • 2000
  • The objective of experimental study is to apply simultaneous measurement by PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) to high_speed flow characteristics within ginseng cleaner model. Three different kinds of flow rate(15.20 27ℓ/min) are selected as experimental condition. Optimized cross correlation identification to obtain velocity vectors is implemented by direct calculation of correlation coefficients. The instantaneous velocity distribution time0mean velocity distribution and velocity profile are represented quantitatively for the deeper understanding of the flow characteristics in a ginseng cleaner model.

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Frequency and Distribution of Btomate in Korean Ginseng Plant (Pann ginseng C.A. Meyer) (인삼의 기공수분포에 관하여)

  • Lee, Jong-Cheol;Cheon, Seong-Gi;Kim, Yo-Tae
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1980
  • This investigation were carrion out to know the frequency, size and distribution of stomata in Korean ginseng, acanthopanax and codonopsis. The results are as follows; 1. Stomatal frequency in ginseng leaf was remarkably less than those of acanthopanax and codonopsis leaf, but size of stomata in ginseng leaf was larger than those of acanthopanax and codonopsis leaf. 2. Stomatal frequency of one year old ginseng plant was higher than those of the older. Two to five years old ginseng plants were not differed in frequency and size of stomata. 3. Frequency and size of stomata were higher and larger in red-berry variant in compare to yellow-berry variant. 4. Stomatal frequency in different leaf Position was not significantly different among those of middle leaf, first side leaf and second side leaf, but in decreasing order of middle Part, upper, lower part and edge in the same ginseng leaf. 5. Stomata was not seen in adaxial surface and petiole of leaf ginseng, acanthopanax and codonopsis. 6. Stomatal frequency was higher in ginseng plant grown under no$.$shading compared to shading, and that of ginseng plant in rear line was less than that of front line under the same shade roof.

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Distribution Characteristics of Hazardous Heavy Metals in Ginseng and Wood-cultivated Ginseng (인삼 및 산양삼의 부위별 유해중금속 분포 특성)

  • Yang, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Tae-Woo;Lee, Jae-In;Choi, Hoon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.325-333
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    • 2019
  • The present study was carried out to identify the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in ginseng and wood-cultivated ginseng reduction of dietary exposure. Samples of ginseng and wood-cultivated ginseng were collected from 14 and 5 regions across Korea, respectively. Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (Ar) were detected by ICP-MS after microwave digestion, whereas aluminum (Al) was determined using ICP. Cultivated ginseng peels were 16.2% of whole root, while the peels and fine roots amounted to 21.8% and 16.8% of whole wood-cultivated ginseng, respectively. Taking into account the weight and concentration of the heavy metals by root part, their distribution ratios were calculated and compared. The cultivated ginseng peels contained 40.3% Pb, 25.9% Cd, 47.6% As, and 89.9% Al. Meanwhile, heavy metals consisting of 27.2% Pb, 28.2% Cd, 48.3% As, and 56.8% Al were distributed in the peels of the wood-cultivated ginseng. There was no significant difference between the peels and fine roots of the wood-cultivated ginseng with respect to the distribution proportion of heavy metals, except for Al. These results indicate that the level of dietary exposure to heavy metals could be reduced by peeling ginseng and wood-cultivated ginseng prior to consumption.

Effects of Film Packaging and Gas Composition on the Distribution and Quality of Ginseng Sprouts (새싹인삼의 필름포장과 가스조성이 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Chang, Eun Ha;Lee, Ji Hyun;Choi, Ji Weon;Shin, Il Sheob;Hong, Yoon Pyo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.152-166
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    • 2020
  • Background: Ginsenosides, which have various physiological activities, are known to be abundant in the leaves and roots of ginseng. Ginseng sprouts can be used as a fresh vegetable and roots, stems, and leaves of ginseng can be consumed. This study aimed to investigate the effect of carbon dioxide treatment and the modified atmosphere (MA) packaging method in suppressing quality deterioration during the distribution of ginseng sprouts. Methods and Results: Ginseng sprouts were packed using Styrofoam, barrier film + non gas treatment, barrier film + gas treatment, 15 ㎛ polyamide (PA) double film + non gas treatment, 15 ㎛ PA double film + gas treatment, 25 ㎛ PA film + non gas treatment, or 25 ㎛ PA film + gas treatment. Quality parameters including gas composition, relative humidity, chlorophyll SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) value, firmness, and rate of quality loss in ginseng sprouts were monitored at the following temperatures: 20℃, and 10℃. Ginseng sprouts packaged with 25 ㎛ PA film showed loss in quality because of wilting owing to low relative humidity within the film. Chlorophyll and firmness did not differ between film and gas treatments. The time point at which the combined loss from softening and decay owing to fungal, and bacterial infection and wilt reached 20% was considered the limit of distribution. At 20℃, the packaging not included in the 20% distribution loss rate limit or up to 7 days was 15 ㎛ PA double film + gas treatment. At 10℃, the packaging not included in the 20% distribution loss rate limit for up to 18 days were barrier film + gas treatment and 15 ㎛ PA double film + gas treatment. Conclusions: The film packaging suitable for the distribution of ginseng sprouts was found to be the barrier film and PA film with low gas permeability and maintaining hygroscopicity at 95% relative humidity. To prevent the loss in quality of ginseng sprouts, gas treatment (8% of O2 and 18% of CO2) in the film was found to be more suitable than no gas treatment for inhibition of decay.

Strategies for Channel Innovation of True Korea Ginseng Distribution Using Genuine Guarantee System (진품확인시스템을 활용한 고려인삼 유통혁신전략)

  • 권혁인
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2001
  • Lately, the Korean ginseng was confronted with the sale crisis in world markets from the various circumstance. One of important difficulties is overspreading of Korean ginseng imitative in foreign markets. In Korean markets also, chinese ginseng was imported illegally and manufactured as Korean ginseng, which was resulted inthe damage of Korean ginseng brand. The most essential problem is misunderstanding of Korean ginseng 。 s information in the foreigner. In this paper, we developed a genuine guarantee system to identify the true Korean ginseng through internet and geographic cording system of Korean ginseng products. This system can be applied to the enforcement of Korean ginseng sale to international markets.

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Red-Colored Phenomena of Ginseng(Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) Root and Soil Environment (인삼근 적변현상과 근권 토양환경)

  • 양덕조;김용해
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 1997
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of red-colored phenomena(RCP) in ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), distribution of inorganic elements of ginseng root and its surrounding soil, and microflora in the soil were investigated. Red brown colored-substances were accumulated in the cell wall of epidermis at early stage of red-colored ginseng (RCG). Cell wall of the late stage of RCG was disordered and microorganisms were shown in the disordered cell wall. Al, Si and Fe contents among inorpanic elements in the epidermis of RCG were higher at two or three times than that of healthy ginseng. On the other hand, K content was higher at three times in healthy ginseng than that of RCG. Especially, Fe content was higher at three times in lateral roots of RCG than that of healthy ginseng. Total 21 strains of microorganisms were isolated on the 523 medium from surface soil, surrounding soil of both healthy and RCG, and RCG. Six strains of microorganisms among them were resistant to 2 mM Fe. Two species in Bacillus app. and Lactobacillus app. , and one species in Micrococcus sp. and Npisseria sp. respectively were identified. It seemed that RCP was closely related with the distribution and uptake of inorganic elements, was also correlated Fe-independent metabolism of microorganisms.

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