• Title/Summary/Keyword: Ginseng

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Overexpression of PgSQS1 Increases Ginsenoside Production and Negatively Affects Ginseng Growth Rate in Panax ginseng

  • Shim, Ju-Sun;Lee, Ok-Ran;Kim, Yu-Jin;Lee, Jung-Hye;Kim, Ju-Han;Jung, Dae-Young;In, Jun-Gyo;Lee, Beom-Soo;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.98-103
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    • 2010
  • The medicinal plant Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) contains various phytosterols and bioactive triterpene saponins (ginsenosides). Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step in ginsenoside biosynthesis. Transgenic plants of P. ginseng were generated by introducing the squalene synthase gene derived from P. ginseng. Adventitious roots of the transgenic ginseng grew best in B5 medium, and 2 g of inoculum secured an optimal growth rate. Two phytohormones, indolebutyric acid and 1-naphtalene acetic acid, increased root growth and decreased ginsenoside production. Treatment with two selected elicitors, chitosan and jasmonic acid, and a precursor of the isoprenoid pathway, mevalonic acid, enhanced ginsenoside production and retarded ginseng growth rate.

In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng

  • In, Gyo;Ahn, Nam-Geun;Bae, Bong-Seok;Lee, Myoung-Woo;Park, Hee-Won;Jang, Kyoung Hwa;Cho, Byung-Goo;Han, Chang Kyun;Park, Chae Kyu;Kwak, Yi-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.361-369
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    • 2017
  • Background: The chemical constituents of Panax ginseng are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. In the present study, the chemical change of Panax ginseng induced by steaming was monitored in situ. Methods: Samples were separated from the same ginseng root by incision during the steaming process, for in situ monitoring. Sampling was sequentially performed in three stages; FG (fresh ginseng) ${\rightarrow}$ SG (steamed ginseng) ${\rightarrow}$ RG (red ginseng) and 60 samples were prepared and freeze dried. The samples were then analyzed to determine 43 constituents among three stages of P. ginseng. Results: The results showed that six malonyl-ginsenoside (Rg1, Rb1, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rb2) and 15 amino acids were decreased in concentration during the steaming process. In contrast, ginsenoside-Rh1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(S, R)-Rg3 and Maillard reaction product such as AF (arginine-fructose), AFG (arginine-fructose-glucose), and maltol were newly generated or their concentrations were increased. Conclusion: This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng).

The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

  • Baeg, In-Ho;So, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the processed products are expected to expand continuously.

Molecular Identification of Korean Mountain Ginseng Using an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS)

  • In, Jun-Gyo;Kim, Min-Kyeoung;Lee, Ok-Ran;Kim, Yu-Jin;Lee, Beom-Soo;Kim, Se-Young;Kwon, Woo-Seang;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2010
  • Expensive herbs such as ginseng are always a possible target for fraudulent labeling. New mountain ginseng strains have occasionally been found deep within mountain areas and commercially traded at exorbitant prices. However, until now, no scientific basis has existed to distinguish such ginseng from commonly cultivated ginseng species other than by virtue of being found within deep mountain areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer has been shown to be an appropriate method for the identification of the most popular species (Panax ginseng) in the Panax ginseng genus. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified between three newly found mountain ginseng (KGD4, KGD5, and KW1) and already established Panax species. Specific PCR primers were designed from this SNP site within the sequence data and used to detect the mountain ginseng strains via multiplex PCR. The established multiplex-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of newly found mountain ginseng strains, Korean ginseng, and foreign ginseng in a single reaction was determined to be effective. This study is the first report of scientific discrimination of "mountain ginsengs" and describes an effective method of identification for fraud prevention and for uncovering the possible presence of other, cheaper ginseng species on the market.

A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts (자연산 산삼, 산양삼 및 인삼의 항산화능 비교연구)

  • Jang, Hae-Young;Park, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Rhim, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein(DCF) fluorescence. Results: 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and $20{\mu}g$ extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05). 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of $FeSO_4$/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05) higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

Recent Trend of Import and Export of p. ginseng in Japan (일본의 최근 인삼수출입 동향)

  • Park, Hoon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.200-203
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    • 1994
  • Recent trend of ginseng (p. ginseng) trade in Japan was analyzed. From 1984 white ginseng import increased continuously to 240% while export of red ginseng decreased to 29%. Red ginseng import increased until 1990 and decreased thereafter, resulting in 12% of total import ginseng in 1993 from 47% in 1990. During five years (1989∼1993) white ginseng import from Korea decreased from 44% to 14% of total white ginseng imported while import from China increased. Red ginseng import from China ranged 97 to l00% of total red ginseng and little change was shown during five years. Price of Korean ginseng was higher than that of China by 2.2 times for white and 6.6 times for red. The continuous decrease of Chinese ginseng price might affect import trend. Export price of red ginseng increased continuously and was higher than that of Korean red ginseng (1.95 times) and much higher than import price (20 times in 1993).

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Ginseng saponins and the treatment of osteoporosis: mini literature review

  • Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif;Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair;Ahn, Sungeun;Kang, Sera;Kim, Yeon-Ju;Sathishkumar, Natarajan;Yang, Dong-Uk;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2013
  • The ginseng plant (Panax ginseng Meyer) has a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins with a dammarane skeleton as well as protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, commonly known as ginsenosides, which have antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-adipocyte, and sexual enhancing effects. Though several discoveries have demonstrated that ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) as the most important therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, yet the molecular mechanism of its active metabolites is unknown. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the therapeutic properties of ginsenosides both in vivo and in vitro, with an emphasis on the different molecular agents comprising receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, and matrix metallopeptidase-9, as well as the bone morphogenetic protein-2 and Smad signaling pathways.

Comparison of Plant Growth and Morphological Characteristics Among the Korean Ginseng, the American Ginseng and the Bamboo Ginseng (고려인삼, 미국삼 및 죽절삼의 생육 및 형태적 특성 비교)

  • 정열영;이명구
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 1998
  • An investigation was conducted to ascertain the basic information on characteristics of growth and morphological characters among the Korean (Panax. ginseng), the American (Panax. quinquefolium) and the Bamboo (Panax. japonicus) ginseng. In aerial parts growth of the ginseng species by age, The Korean ginseng and American ginseng's stem and leaf growth was alike in 2-4 years old, but growth cycle changed in 6 years old. The Korean ginseng was more vigorous than the American ginseng. The Korean ginseng roots were highly observed in ratio of red skin roots among three species, whereas The American ginseng roots were highly infected by root rot. It seems to be variable depending on growing stage and species. The Korean ginseng flowered about the middle of May, the American ginseng early June, and the Bamboo ginseng was late of May, The berry color of the ginseng species was observed, The Korean and American ginseng's mature berry color was red, The Bamboo ginseng's berry was three type of color and shape. In root characteristics of the seedling, Korean (p. ginseng), American (p. quinquefolium) ginseng's root shape was similarity in type, the bamboo ginseng showed different type, which root length and root weight was smaller than those of ginseng. In morphological characters of Leaf surface, pollen, and stoma, the Korean ginseng and American ginseng had crystal rosette on epidermis cell, but the Bamboo ginseng didn't has crystal rosette. Pollen shape observed tricolpate pollen and size was media type among the ginseng species, and also guard cell was anomocytic type, which were observed by scanning electronic microscope.

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