• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gibberellins analysis

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Effect of Proton Beam Radiation on Bulbil Yield and Gibberellins of Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.)

  • Kim, Sang-Kuk;Choi, Hong-Jib;Kim, Kye-Ryung;Lee, In-Jung;Kim, Hak-Yoon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.250-254
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    • 2011
  • The study was carried out to evaluate the affect of proton beam radiation on production of bulbil and tuber including change of endogenous gibberellins, of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. The yield of bulbils and tubers from non- and irradiated D. opposita Thunb at doses of 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy were determined. Endogenous gibberellins were also quantified by GC/MS analysis. D. opposita tubers irradiated at 15 Gy produced higher bulbil production than non-irradiated plants. Enlarged bulbil (above size diameter 4 mm) was significantly increased at 15 Gy. Bioactive endogenous $GA_4$ was dominant in bulbils and tubers irradiated with proton beam rather than $GA_1$. Major gibberellins biosynthetic pathways in bulbils and tubers of D. opposita plants were non C-13 hydroxylation route. From the results of this study, 15 Gy proton beam radiation was suggested as an optimal dose that can produce high amounts of bulbil for mass production of D. opposita plant.

Gibberellin Production and Plant Growth Enhancement by Newly Isolated Strain of Scolecobasidium tshawytschae

  • Hamayun, Muhammad;Khan, Sumera Afzal;Kim, Ho-Youn;Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz;Hwang, Young-Hyun;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Kim, In-Kyeom;Lee, Byung-Hyun;Lee, In-Jung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.560-565
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    • 2009
  • We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of salt-stressed soybean cultivar Daewonkong and screened them for growth-promoting secondary metabolites. Of all fungal isolates, P-4-3 induced maximum growth promotion of waito-c rice and soybean. Analysis of the culture filtrate of P-4-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins $GA_1$, $GA_3$, $GA_4$, and $GA_7$, along with physiologically inactive $GA_{15}$ and $GA_{24}$. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin-producing capacity of P-4-3 was much higher than wild-type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as the control during the present study. The fungal isolate P-4-3 was identified as a new strain of Scolecobasidium tshawytschae through the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Gibberellins production and plant growth promoting ability of genus Scolecobasidium was reported for the first time in the present study.

Isolation of a Gibberellin-producing fungus (Penicillium sp. MH7) and Growth Promotion of Crown Daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium)

  • Hamayun, Muhammad;Khan, Sumera Afzal;Iqbal, Ilyas;Ahmad, Bashir;Lee, In-Jung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.202-207
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    • 2010
  • Plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) are well known for the production of useful secondary metabolites. However, limited information is available on the gibberellin (GA) production capacity of PGPF of endophytic origin. In the current study, 15 fungal endophytes were isolated from the roots of Crown daisy, and then screened on Waito-c rice, in order to identify plant growth promoting fungi. The fungal isolate MH7 significantly increased the shoot length (12.1 cm) of Waito-c in comparison with control treatment (7.9 cm). In a separate experiment, the culture filtrate (CF) of MH7 significantly promoted the growth attributes of Crown daisy. The MH7 CF was analyzed for gibberellins and it contained all physiologically active gibberellins ($GA_1$, 1.37 ng/ml; $GA_3$, 5.88 ng/ml; $GA_4$, 8.62 ng/ml; and $GA_7$, 2.05 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive $GA_9$ (0.83 ng/ml), $GA_{12}$ (0.44 ng/ml), $GA_{15}$ (0.74 ng/ml), $GA_{19}$ (1.16 ng/ml), and $GA_{20}$ (0.98 ng/ml). The CF of MH7 produced higher amounts of $GA_3$, $GA_4$, $GA_7$, $GA_9$, and $GA_{12}$ than wild-type Fusarium fujikuroi, which was used as a control for GA production. The fungal isolate MH7 was later identified as a new strain of Penicillium on the basis of its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 188 rDNA sequence.

Growth and Gibberellins level of Two Rice Cultivars as Influenced by Different Nitrogen Containing Compounds

  • Jang, Soo-Won;Hamayun, Muhammad;Sohn, Eun-Young;Kang, Sang-Mo;Choi, Kwang-Il;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Lee, In-Jung
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.223-226
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    • 2008
  • Seedlings of two rice cultivars i.e. cv. Daesanbyeo and cv. Dongjinbyeo were analyzed for growth and endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in response to nitrogen nutrition applied in the forms of $KNO_3$, $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ and $NH_4NO_3$. All the growth parameters showed an increase in N applied treatments and their magnitudes of increase were different depending on different nitrogen fertilizer forms. The endogenous GAs contents were increased with N application but differentially affected by various N-forms in both rice cultivars. In cv. Daesanbyeo, maximum amount of bioactive $GA_1$ was recorded for $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, while maximum amount of bioactive $GA_1$ in cv. Dongjinbyeo was observed in $NH_4NO_3$ applied treatments. In both rice cultivars, $KNO_3$ applied rice plants contained least $GA_1$ contents. Also, $GA_{19}$ was the most abundant GA found in rice seedlings whereas $GA_4$ was absent at seedling stage. Our study indicated that different rice cultivars showed different responses for the same fertilizer depending upon the response potential of each cultivar and the pertinent physiological responses to changes of endogenous GAs in rice cultivars, which were comparatively lesser in magnitude.

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Studies on the Effect of Silicon Nutrition on Plant Growth, Mineral Contents and Endogenous Bioactive Gibberellins of Three Rice Cultivars

  • Jang, Soo-Won;Hamayun, Muhammad;Sohn, Eun-Young;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Kil-Ung;Lee, In-Jung
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2007
  • Silicon is one of the key elements for healthy growth and development in rice crops. We analyzed the effect of silicon(Si) on some growth parameters, plant mineral contents, and bioactive gibberellins in three rice cultivars. Silicon was applied at the rates of 0 kg/0.1ha(control), 40 kg/0.1ha, and 80 kg/0.1ha throughout the course of experiment. Plant growth parameters were enhanced by the application of elevated Si, though plant height and culm length were more favorably affected than the respective dry weights. The plant mineral contents analyzed also increased in treatments where Si was applied without potassium, demonstrating that Si application promotes the absorption of these minerals in rice crops. The endogenous gibberellins measured in our study showed that $GA_1$ is the only bioactive GA form present in rice seedlings. The endogenous $GA_1$ and its precursor $GA_{20}$ contents increased after Si application. However, this increase in endogenous $GA_1$ and $GA_{20}$ contents, and plant growth parameters were different according to the rice cultivars. Our results indicate that Si is a beneficial element in rice nutrition and that different cultivars of Oryza sativa show differential responses to Si nutrition in terms of their growth and development.

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Isolation and Identification of Fungal Strains Producing Gibberellins from the Root of plants (식물뿌리내부에 존재하는 지베렐린 생산균 분리와 동정)

  • Rim, Soon-Ok;Lee, Jin-Hyung;Khan, Sumera Afzal;Lee, In-Jung;Rhee, In-Koo;Lee, Kyung-Soo;Kim, Jong-Guk
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.357-363
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    • 2007
  • 249 fungal strains were isolated from the roots of 26 plants, and the production of GAs was spectrophotometric ally examined. As a result 76 fungal strains were shown to produce GAs. Bioassay of culture broth from seventy six fungal strains producing GAs was carried out with waito-c rice, that is dwarf rice. The seventy six fungi with GAs-producing activity were incubated for seven days in 40 mL of Czapek's liquid medium at $30^{\circ}C$ and 180 rpm, and the culture broth of fungi were treated on the 2-leaf rice sprout. Fifteen of these showed plant growth promoting activity and the amount of each GAs in the medium was measured by Gas chromatographymass spectrometer (GC-MS). Nine of these fungi were also identified by genetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA.

Aspergillus clavatus Y2H0002 as a New Endophytic Fungal Strain Producing Gibberellins Isolated from Nymphoides peltata in Fresh Water

  • You, Young-Hyun;Kwak, Tae Won;Kang, Sang-Mo;Lee, Myung-Chul;Kim, Jong-Guk
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2015
  • Eighteen endophytic fungi with different colony morphologies were isolated from the roots of Nymphoides peltata growing in the Dalsung wetland. The fungal culture filtrates of the endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-c rice seedling to evaluate their plant growth-promoting activities. Culture filtrate of Y2H0002 fungal strain promoted the growth of the Waito-c rice seedlings. This strain was identified on the basis of sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer region and the partial beta-tubulin gene. Upon chromatographic analysis of the culture filtrate of Y2H0002 strain, the gibberellins (GAs: $GA_1$, $GA_3$, and $GA_4$) were detected and quantified. Molecular and morphological studies identified the Y2H0002 strain as belonging to Aspergillus clavatus. These results indicated that A. clavatus improves the growth of plants and produces various GAs, and may participate in the growth of plants under diverse environmental conditions.

Gibberellin-Producing Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Monochoria vaginalis

  • Ahmad, Nadeem;Hamayun, Muhammad;Khan, Sumera Afzal;Khan, Abdul Latif;Lee, In-Jung;Shin, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1744-1749
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    • 2010
  • The role of endophytic fungi in plant growth and development is well documented. However, endophytic fungi with growth promotion capacity have never been isolated from weeds previously. In the current study, we isolated 8 fungal endophytes from the roots of Monochoria vaginalis, a serious weed of rice paddy in Korea. These isolates were screened on Waito-C, in order to identify plant growth promoting metabolites. Two fungal isolates (M5.A & M1.5) significantly promoted the plant height and shoot length of Waito-C during preliminary screening experiments. The culture filtrates (CFs) of M5.A and M1.5 also promoted the shoot length of Echinocloa crusgalli. Gibberellins (GAs) analysis of the CFs of M5.A and M1.5 showed that these endophytic fungi secrete higher quantities of GAs as compared with wild-type G. fujikuroi KCCM12329. The CF of M5.A contained bioactive GAs ($GA_3$, 2.8 ng/ml; $GA_4$, 2.6 ng/ml, and $GA_7$, 6.68 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive $GA_9$ (1.61 ng/ml) and $GA_{24}$ (0.18 ng/ml). The CF of M1.5 contained physiologically active GAs ($GA_3$, 1.64 ng/ml; $GA_4$, 1.37 ng/ml and $GA_7$, 6.29 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive $GA_9$ (3.44 ng/ml), $GA_{12}$ (0.3 ng/ml), and $GA_{24}$ (0.59 ng/ml). M5.A and M1.5 were identified as new strains of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp., respectively, based on their 18S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis.

Phoma herbarum as a New Gibberellin-Producing and Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus

  • Hamayun, Muhammad;Khan, Sumera Afzal;Khan, Abdul Latif;Rehman, Gauhar;Sohn, Eun-Young;Shah, Aamer Ali;Kim, Sang-Kuk;Joo, Gil-Jae;Lee, In-Jung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1244-1249
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    • 2009
  • Endophytic fungi are known for the production of valuable metabolites, but information on the gibberellin production capacity of this group is limited. We isolated 9 endophytic fungi from the roots of salt-stressed soybean plants and screened them on waito-c rice, in order to identify plant growth promoting fungal strains. The fungal isolate TK-2-4 gave maximum plant length (20.35 cm) promotion in comparison with wild-type Gibberella fujikuroi (19.5 cm). In a separate experiment, bioassay of TK-2-4 promoted plant length and biomass of soybean cultivar Taegwangkong. The TK-2-4 culture filtrate was analyzed for the presence of gibberellins, and it was found that all physiologically active gibberellins, especially $GA_4$ and $GA_7$, were present in higher amounts ($GA_1$, 0.11 ng/ml; $GA_3$, 2.91 ng/ml; $GA_4$, 3.21 ng/ml; and $GA_7$, 1.4 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive $GA_9$ (0.05 ng/ml), $GA_{12}$ (0.23 ng/ ml), $GA_{15}$ (0.42 ng/ml), $GA_{19}$ (0.53 ng/ml), and $GA_{20}$ (0.06 ng/ml). The fungal isolate TK-2-4 was later identified as a new strain of Phoma herbarum, through the phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA sequence.

Gibberellin Production by Newly Isolated Strain Leifsonia soli SE134 and Its Potential to Promote Plant Growth

  • Kang, Sang-Mo;Khan, Abdul Latif;You, Young-Hyun;Kim, Jong-Guk;Kamran, Muhammad;Lee, In-Jung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.106-112
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    • 2014
  • Very few plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to produce gibberellins (GAs). The current study aimed to isolate a phytohormone-producing PGP rhizobacterium from soil and assess its potential to enhance plant growth. The newly isolated bacterium was identified as Leifsonia soli sp. SE134 on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. Application of L. soli culture filtrate significantly increased the biomass, hypocotyl, and root lengths of cucumber seeds as compared with non-inoculated sole medium and distilled water treated controls. Furthermore, the PGPR culture was applied to the GA-deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C. Treatment with L. soli SE134 significantly increased the growth of Waito-C rice seedlings as compared with controls. Upon chromatographic analysis of L. soli culture, we isolated, detected and quantified different GAs; namely, $GA_1$ ($0.61{\pm}0.15$), $GA_4$ ($1.58{\pm}0.26$), $GA_7$ ($0.54{\pm}0.18$), $GA_8$ ($0.98{\pm}0.15$), $GA_9$ ($0.45{\pm}0.17$), $GA_{12}$ ($0.64{\pm}0.21$), $GA_{19}$ ($0.18{\pm}0.09$), $GA_{20}$ ($0.78{\pm}0.15$), $GA_{24}$ ($0.38{\pm}0.09$), $GA_{34}$ ($0.35{\pm}0.10$), and $GA_{53}$ ($0.17{\pm}0.05$). Plant growth promotion in cucumber, tomato, and young radish plants further evidenced the potential of this strain as a PGP bacterium. The results suggest that GA secretion by L. soli SE134 might prove advantageous for its ameliorative role in crop growth. These findings can be extended for improving the productivity of different crops under diverse environmental conditions.