• Title, Summary, Keyword: Germanium

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Preparation of Organic Germanium by Yeast Cell (효모를 이용한 유기게르마늄의 제조)

  • 송원종;이상철;오태광
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.87-90
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    • 1995
  • A process of organically bound germanium preparation was developed for healthy food using inorganic germanium adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adaptations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against inorganic germanium were successively carried out through stepwise increase of GeO$_{2}$ concentration in order to produce high quantities of germanium bound yeast. Productivity of yeast and quantities of germanium in yeast were obtained 70.2 g/l and 9780 ppm, repectively, when adapted yeast and fed batch culture were used. Germanium taken-up yeast is to be organically bound germanium by evidence of no difference of germanium content after dialysis.

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Study on Activities of Antioxidant and Anticancer of Germanium-fortified Tricholoma matsutake Myceliumm (게르마늄 강화 송이균사체의 항산화 및 항암 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hae-Ja;Kim, Wan-Gyeom;Cho, Hwa-Eun;Choi, Yun-Hee;Lee, Ki-Nam;Chong, Myong-Soo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.473-479
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was evaluated physiological activity effect of organic germanium in culture broth of germanium-fortified Tricholoma matsutake mycelium and germanium-fortified yeast. Proliferation Tricholoma matsutake mycelium and yeast was inhibited by addition of germanium. Contents of organic germanium in Tricholoma matsutake mycelium and yeast was increased in dose-dependent manner. And low concentration(1,000 ppm) of germanium in mycelium was almost changed organic germanium. In the result of antioxidant activity as SOD-like activity, contents of total polyphenol compound and electron donating ability, activity of germanium-fortified Tricholoma matsutake mycelium was higher than that of germanium-fortified yeast. To evaluate of antitumor effects in vitro, we examined nitric oxide production of Raw 264,7 cell and cytotoxicity of HT1080 cell by MTT assay. Nitric oxide production of germanium-fortified Tricholoma matsutake mycelium was shown low level in low concentration(1,000 ppm) than other groups. The anticancer effect of germanium-fortified Tricholoma matsutake mycelium on HT 1080 cell was indicated a strong inhibitory effect in low concentration(1,000 ppm). These results suggest that organic germanium in culture broth of germanium-fortified Tricholoma matsutake mycelium has valuable physiological activities as antioxidant and anticancer effect, and it was higher than that of germanium-fortified yeast.

New Low Temperature Sol-gel Synthesis of Germanium Nanoparticles and Their Optical Characteristics (게르마늄 나노입자의 새로운 저온 졸-겔 합성방법의 개발과 광학적 특성)

  • Jang, Seunghyun
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2010
  • New low temperature synthesis of germanium nanoparticles obtained from the reaction of germanium tetrachloride and sodium/benzophenonewere developed. These germanium nanoparticles terminated with chloride group were oxidized in air to give hydroxy-terminated germanium nanoparticles. Germanium nanoparticle containing 20(S)-camptothecin (CPT) for a noble drug delivery system were developed. FT-IR spectroscopy was used for the characterization of vibrational absorption for the germanium nanoparticle and oxidized germanium nanoparticles containing camptothecin. Electronic absorption and fluorescence properties were measured with UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrometer. The morphology of oxidized germanium nanoparticles containing camptothecin was investigated by using TEM.

The Growth Inhibition against Gastric Cancer Cell in Germanium or Soybean Sprouts Cultured with Germanium (게르마늄 및 게르마늄 분말 용해수로 재배한 콩나물의 위암세포 성장억제 작용)

  • 김은정;이경임;박건영
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.287-291
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    • 2004
  • The growth inhibitory effect of germanium, or soybean sprouts cultured with germanium, on cancer cells was determined in the cultured gastric cancer cell line, AGS. The growth of AGS was significantly inhibited by the addition of 0.01-1% organic germanium (Ge-132) and germanium stone powder in MTT cytotoxicity assays. The juice from germanium treated soybean sprouts (GTS) inhibited the growth of AGS gastric cancer cells by 78-88% at concentrations of 2.5 or 5${\mu}\ell$. The juice from Seomoktae GTS revealed an especially higher growth inhibitory effect than that from the control soybean sprouts (germanium non-treated soybean sprouts, GNTS) in AGS. The results suggest that soybean sprouts cultured with germanium may exert an anticancer effect against gastric cancer cells.

Characteristics of Absorption and Accumulation of Inorganic Germanium in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

  • Kang, Je-Yong;Park, Chan-Soo;Ko, Sung-Ryong;In, Kyo;Park, Chol-Soo;Lee, Dong-Yun;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.12-20
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    • 2011
  • The characteristics of absorption and accumulation of inorganic germanium in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer were examined. In 4-year-old P. ginseng, the germanium content of the field soil increased with increased amounts and frequencies of inorganic germanium application, while chemical components of the soil, such as available phosphate and exchangeable calcium, potassium, and magnesium, decreased with the increased inorganic germanium application. In the 4-year-old P. ginseng, the germanium content was highest in the rhizome and increased in the order of stem, leaf, lateral root, and main root, suggesting that inorganic germanium was absorbed from the root and translocated to the stem and leaf via the rhizome. As for changes in ginsenosides in 4-year-old P. ginseng rhizomes, the contents of ginsenosides $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Re, and Rf decreased as the germanium content in soil increased. Ginsenosides $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Rc, Re, and Rf in the main root also decreased with increasing germanium content in the main root. The results suggest that inorganic germanium treatment may increase organic germanium in harvested P. ginseng, thus enhancing the medicinal effi cacy of ginseng products.

Process Modeling of Germanium Condensation and Application to Nanowire PMOSFET (게르마늄 응축 공정의 모델링과 나노와이어 PMOSFET 응용)

  • Yun, Mina;Cho, Seongjae
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, prcess modeling of germanium condensation has been performed and a germanium PMOSFET having nanowire channel implented by the condensation process has been designed and characterized by device simulations. Based on the previous experimental results, our modeling results demonstrate that the ratio of germanium concentration at the silicon germanium-silicon dioxide interface ($C_S$) to that in the bulk region ($C_B$) which are obtainable during the germanium condensation is approximately 4.03 and the effective diffusion coefficient ($D_{eff}$) of germanium atom is $3.16nm^2/s$. Furthermore, a germanium nanowire-channel PMOSFET having the ultra-thin germanium channel on the silicon core that can be fabricated by the germanium condensation has been designed and characterized. As the result, it is confirmed that the proposed device having the coaxial nanowire consisting of silicon core and germanium channel might have superior performances over the device with either all-silicon or all-germanium channel.

A Modified Process for Producing High Quantities of Bio-Germanium in Yeast and a Study of Its Oral Toxicity

  • Park, So-Young;Joo, Seong-Soo;Won, Tae-Joon;Chung, Jin-Woong;Lee, Sung-Hee;Oh, Sun-Woo;Lee, Do-Ik;Hwang, Kwang-Woo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.78-82
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    • 2007
  • Since germanium has been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of diseases such as cancer and rheumatic arthritis, we developed an adapted process of bio-germanium preparation using inorganic germanium. In the present study we determined the optimal conditions for culturing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (KCTC-1199), and the best concentrations of inorganic germanium for the adaptation process. The resulting method was successful at producing high quantities of germanium yeasts. The following are the culture conditions that obtained the highest level of productivity: an inorganic germanium concentration of 3,000-5,000 ppm, a pH of 6.5, a temperature of $35^{\circ}C$, and 20 hr of incubation time. In addition to this high-yield quantity study, we observed the acute oral toxicity of mice treated with Geranti Bio-Ge $Yeast^{(R)}$. We found no changes in body weight, or in the mortality between the control groups and the bio-germanium yeast group. There were also no digestive problems such as diarrhea that occurred in either group.

Determination of Germanium in Spring Waters by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS에 의한 지하수 중의 Germanium 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kyung Su;Song, Seong Yeon;Shim, Ue Sup;Kim, Sun Tae
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.120-124
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    • 1998
  • A rapid and accurate determination method of ultra-trace amounts of germanium in spring water by ICP-MS has been developed. Mass number 74 was not only the best mass but also the smallest mass interference. Only 30% of water samples contain germanium more than $0.1{\mu}g/L$, and a few of them has organogermanium species.

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Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Study of Germanium(Ⅳ)-Morin Complex (Germanium(Ⅳ)-Morin 착물에 대한 네모파 양극벗김 전압전류법적 연구)

  • Sohn, Se Chul;Park, Yong Joon;Joe, Kih Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.41 no.11
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    • pp.590-593
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    • 1997
  • Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry was applied to the germanium(IV)- Morin complex in 0.5 M sulfuric acid as a supporting electrolyte. The peak potential appeared at - 0.606 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Effects of sulfuric acid concentration, Morin concentration, accumulation potential, and accumulation time on the stripping peak current for the complex of germanium(IV)-Morin were studied. Interferences by other metal cations that affect on stripping peak current were also investigated. The detection limit was found to be $3.76{\times}10^{-7}M(27 {\mu}g/L)$ for germanium(IV) using 60 seconds of accumulation time. The relative standard deviation (n=8) for 0.4 mg/L($5.5{\times}10^{-6}$ M) germanium(IV) was 3.2%.

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Effects of Dietary Germanium Supplementation on the Meat Quality of Duck (게르마늄 급여가 오리의 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • 김혜정;양성운;주명규;이규호;조수현;이성기
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to investigate the influence of dietary germanium supplementation on the meat quality of duck. Ducks raised for 42 days were slaughtered and the ground meats were stored at 3$^{\circ}C$ for 12 days under 1200 lux. Experimental treatments were divided into 3 kinds of meat from ducks fed germanium as follows; 1) Control(natural water + commercial feed), 2) T1(1~10 days: natural water + commercial feed, 11-42 days: natural water + commercial feed supplemented with 1 % germanium), 3) T2(1~10 days: germanium submersion water + commercial feed, 11~42 days: natural water + commercial feed supplemented with 1 % germanium). The pH of duck meat was not different among the treatments(p>0.05). The germanium treatments exhibited significantly higher crude fat content in both breast and thigh meat(p<0.05). In the fatty acid composition, T2 contained more unsaturated fatty acid than control or Tl. TPA(textural profile analysis) value such as hardness, gumminess, chewiness and adhesiveness decreased in meat from duck fed supplemental germanium. Cholesterol contents of duck meat decreased in dietary supplemental germanium treatment compared to control, but were not significantly different among them(p>0.05). Dietary germanium supplementation affected on lipid oxidation of meat during storage. TBARS of meat from duck fed germanium was lower than that of control(po.05). The CIE L*, b* and h$\^$0/ values of germanium treatments were significantly(p.o5) higher than those of control. Also a* value showed more stable in germanium diet treatment during storage. Therefore, dietary supplemental germanium to duck resulted in light brownish color formation, improvement tenderness and retardation of lipid oxidation of meat during refrigerated storage.