• Title, Summary, Keyword: Genotypes

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Variation in seedling growth inhibition due to Maleic Hydrazide treatment of rice(Oryza sativa) and ragi(Eleusine coracana) genotypes and its relationship with yield and adaptability

  • Das, Swarnalata;Sinha, Susil Kumar;Misra, Rama Chandra
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2008
  • Multilocation trials on 36 rice(Oryza sativa) genotypes of 3 different maturity groups were conducted at four different locations of Orissa for 3 years and 30 ragi(Eleusine coracana) genotypes of 2 different maturity groups were evaluated in three environmental conditions for 3 years. Grain yield data were subjected to stability analysis following linear regression model to estimate adaptability and stability parameters, i.e. b, and $S^2d$ Stability of performance of genotypes was also estimated by two other stability parameters viz., ecovalence W and AMMI stability value ASV. The rice and ragi genotypes of different duration groups showed wide variation in their mean yield, b, $S^2d$, W and ASV parameters. Seeds of the 36 rice and 30 ragi genotypes were treated with 500 and 100 ppm aqueous solution of maleic hydrazide(MH) for 24 hours, respectively to study MH-sensitivity. Sensitivity of genotypes to MH treatment was estimated in terms of seedling growth inhibition index(SGI). The rice and ragi genotypes showed wide differences in their MH-sensitivity in terms of SGI. Relationship of MH-sensitivity of genotypes with their yielding ability, adaptability and stability of performance was tested by contingency $x^2$ test. Low sensitivity of rice and ragi genotypes to MH in terms of SGI appeared to be good indicators of high yielding ability of genotypes. Also, low and high MH-sensitivity of genotypes would be a good indicator of better adaptability to rich and poor environments, respectively, in ragi but not in rice. Low MH-sensitivity of genotypes could be the good indicator of stability of yield performance in rice but not in ragi.

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Genetic Variability in the Fodder Yield, Chemical Composition and Disappearance of Nutrients in Brown Midrib and White Midrib Sorghum Genotypes

  • Singh, Sultan;Prasad, S.V.Sai;Katiyar, D.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1303-1308
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    • 2003
  • Samples of eleven brown midrib (ICSU 96031, ICSU 93046, ICSU 96082, ICSU 96078, ICSU 96075, ICSU 95101, ICSU 96034, ICSU 96063, ICSU 45116, ICSA 93-3 and ICSA 3845 X 3816) and nine white midrib genotypes (ICSU 96050, ICSU 96030, ISU 95082, SSG 59-3, FSHI 93-1, FSHI 2219A X 3211, HC 171, ICSA 93-2 and ICSA 93-1) based on their phenotypic appearance were collected at 50 per cent flowering from the sorghum germplasm grown at Research farm of IGFRI, Jhansi. These genotypes were evaluated with respect to crude protein, fiber composition, in-sacco dry matter, OM, cell wall components disappearance/digestibility besides the fodder yield, total phenolic and availability index values. Brown midrib genotypes were lower (p<0.05) in NDF, ADF, cellulose and acid detergent lignin concentration than white midrib genotypes. Mean NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents were 69.4, 42.1, 35.4 and 5.7% in brown mid rib vis-a vis 75.8, 47.5, 39.6 and 7.3% in white mid rib genotypes. Nonsignificant (p>0.05) differences were observed in dry matter, crude protein and organic matter contents between brown midrib and white midrib genotypes. Phenolic contents were significantly (p<0.05) lower in browm mid rib (0.2) than white mid rib (0.3%) sorghum. Brown midrib genotypes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher in-sacco DM, OM and CP disappearance than normal (white midrib) genotypes. The mean degradability of DM, OM and CP was 64.1, 62.6 and 79.6% in brown mid rib and 53.1, 54.0 and 76.6% in white mid rib genotypes, respectively. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences between genotypes in extent of fiber fraction degradability though in-sacco NDF and ADF degradability was more by 5 and 4 units, respectively in brown midrib genotypes vis-a-vis white midrib genotypes. Average fodder yield (green and dry g/plant) and availability index (%) values were significantly (p<0.05) higher for brown midrib (474.2, 129.8 and 80.4) genotypes than white midrib (375.0, 104.8 and 69.2) genotypes. Lignin contents had significant negative correlation with DM, OM, NDF and ADF degradability. The results of the study revealed that brown midrib genotypes are superior not only with regard to chemical entities and disappearance of DM and fiber fractions but also better in respect of fodder yield and availability index values. Thus, brown midrib sorghum strains may be useful in increasing digestibility, intake, feed efficiency and animal performance.

Genotype-Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Contributing Characters in Soybean(Glycine max L.)

  • Islam, Mohammad Saiful;Newaz, Muhammad Ali;Islam, Md. Jahidul;Heo, Seong-Il;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.504-510
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    • 2007
  • GE interaction is the expression of differential genotypic adaptation across environments. GE interactions through different stability parameters and performance of the traits of genotypes were studied. The traits were days to maturity, pod length, number of pods/ plant, 100-seed weight and seed yield/plant in ten soybean genotypes across five environments. Significant differences were observed for genotypes, environments and GE interactions. Stability analysis after Eberhart and Russell's model suggested that the genotypes used in this study were all more or less responsive to environmental changes. Most of the genotypes perform better in Env.3. Based on phenotypic indices(Pi), regression ($S^2di$) genotype Garurab was found fairly stable for days to maturity. BS-23 and G-2120 may be considered as stable genotype for pod length. All the genotypes except G-2120 showed that the genotypes were relatively unstable under environmental fluctuation for the number of pod/plant. Genotype BS-23 was found most stable among all the genotypes for 100-seed weight. BS-3 and Gaurab was the most stable and desirable genotypes for seed yield in soybean.

The Prevalence and Genotype of Human Papillomavirus from Patients with Genital Warts in Eastern Guangdong Province

  • Luo, Zhao-Yun;Chen, Qiang;Yang, Hui;Lin, Min;Chen, Chan-Yu;Yang, Chun;Yang, Li-Ye
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5675-5679
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    • 2015
  • Background: Low-risk human papillomavirus (LR-HPV) infection is the main cause of genital warts. LRHPV genotypes 6 and 11 are associated with genital warts, but there have only been a few published studies about the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV in genital warts in China. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes for clinical cases involving both men and women and to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent (genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18) HPV vaccine in eastern Guangdong province of China. Materials and Methods: A total of 696 eligible patients with genital warts were enrolled during the period Aug 2009 through Oct 2014. Specimens were collected from genital warts, the HPV GenoArray test was used for HPV detection and genotyping, which could detect 21 HPV genotypes, including genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18. Results: Among the 696 cases, 675 samples were successfully genotyped. The median age of patients was 32.1 years (range, 16-67 years). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (285/675, 42.2%), HPV-11 (265/675, 39.3%), HPV-52 (52/675, 7.7%), HPV-16 (51/675, 7.56%), HPV-81 (50/675, 7.40%) and HPV-58 (37/675, 5.48%). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 96.59%. The cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6 and 11 was 78.7% (531/675), the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 16 and 18 was 11.6% (78/675), and the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 was 82.5% (557/675). Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence that, in eastern Guangdong, different from Western countries, the most prevalent low risk HPV genotypes in patients with genital warts are 6, 11 and 81. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine could prevent 82.5% of genital warts in eastern Guangdong.

Genetic Diversity Studies and Identification of Molecular and Biochemical Markers Associated with Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Cultivated Faba Bean (Vicia faba)

  • Mahmoud, Amer F.;Abd El-Fatah, Bahaa E.S.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.11-28
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    • 2020
  • Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important legume crops in Egypt. However, production of faba bean is affected by several diseases including fungal diseases. Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. was shown to be the most common wilt disease of faba bean in Assiut Governorate. Evaluation of 16 faba bean genotypes for the resistance to Fusarium wilt was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat [ISSR], sequence related amplified polymorphism [SRAP], and simple sequence repeat [SSR]) and a biochemical marker (protein profiles) were used to study the genetic diversity and detect molecular and biochemical markers associated with Fusarium wilt resistance in the tested genotypes. The results showed that certain genotypes of faba bean were resistant to Fusarium wilt, while most of the genotypes were highly susceptible. The percentage of disease severity ranged from 32.83% in Assiut-215 to 64.17% in Misr-3. The genotypes Assiut-215, Roomy-3, Marut-2, and Giza2 were the most resistant, and the genotypes Misr-3, Misr-1, Assiut-143, Giza-40, and Roomy-80 performed as highly susceptible. The genotypes Assiut-215 and Roomy-3 were considered as promising sources of the resistance to Fusarium wilt. SRAP markers showed higher polymorphism (82.53%) compared with SSR (76.85%), ISSR markers (62.24%), and protein profile (31.82%). Specific molecular and biochemical markers associated with Fusarium wilt resistance were identified. The dendrogram based on combined data of molecular and biochemical markers grouped the 16 faba bean genotypes into three clusters. Cluster I included resistant genotypes, cluster II comprised all moderate genotypes and cluster III contained highly susceptible genotypes.

Genetic polymorphism of Estrogen metabolising enzymes and individual genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in Korean (Estrogen대사 효소의 유전자 다형성과 한국인 유방암 환자의 유전적 감수성에 대한 연구)

  • 김현준;이수진;공구
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2003
  • To determine the frequencies of the genotypes of estrogen metabolising enzyme (CYP17, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and COMT) and to identify the high-risk genotypes of these metabolic enzymes to breast cancer in Korean, the author has analysed 115 breast cancer patients and corresponding age and sex matched heathy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restiction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A2/A2 genotype in CYP17 polymorphism, m2/m2 genotype in CYP1A1 polymorphism, and Val/Val genotype in CYP1B1 had 0.95, 1.40 and 0.76 relive risks to breast cancer comparing with reference genotypes of each polymorphism, respectively. Among the genotypes of COMT enzyme polymorphism, L/H and L/L genotypes had 0.97 and 1.54 relative risks to breast cancer, respectively. According to the number of high risk genotype, the patients with one or two putative high risk genotypes had 0.95 and 1.94 relative risks to breast cancer, respectively. This study have demonstrated the unique frequency of genotypes of estrogen metabolizing enzyme in Korean healthy women, which will provide the basic data and insights to study the estrogen related conditions in Korean women including breast and endometrial cancers. And it also indicates that the well-known high risk genotypes of estrogen metabolizing enzymes are not significantly associated with the development of breast cancer in Korean women.

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High Risk Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes in Kurdistan Region in Patients with Vaginal Discharge

  • Hussein, Nawfal R;Balatay, Amer A;Assafi, Mahde S;Al-Mufty, Tamara Abdulezel;Khalil, Amira S
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3191-3193
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    • 2016
  • Background: The human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered as the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. This virus is of different genotypes and generally can be classified into high and low risk types. Objective: To determine the rate of high risk HPV genotypes in women with vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Materials and Methods: Cervical swabs were taken from 104 women. DNA was extracted and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of high risk genotypes. Results: It was found that 13/104 (12.5%) of the samples were positive for high risk HPV genotypes. Amongst those who were positive, 4/13 (30.7%) were typed as genotype 16 and 7/13 (53.8%) showed mixed genotyping. On the other hand, genotypes 53 and 56 were found in only one sample each. Conclusions: High risk HPV genotypes are not uncommon and further community based study is needed to determine the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes and plan for prevention of infection.

Construction and Characterization of an Anti-Hepatitis B Virus preS1 Humanized Antibody that Binds to the Essential Receptor Binding Site

  • Wi, Jimin;Jeong, Mun Sik;Hong, Hyo Jeong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1336-1344
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    • 2017
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With recent identification of HBV receptor, inhibition of virus entry has become a promising concept in the development of new antiviral drugs. To date, 10 HBV genotypes (A-J) have been defined. We previously generated two murine anti-preS1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), KR359 and KR127, that recognize amino acids (aa) 19-26 and 37-45, respectively, in the receptor binding site (aa 13-58, genotype C). Each mAb exhibited virus neutralizing activity in vitro, and a humanized version of KR127 effectively neutralized HBV infection in chimpanzees. In the present study, we constructed a humanized version (HzKR359-1) of KR359 whose antigen binding activity is 4.4-fold higher than that of KR359, as assessed by competitive ELISA, and produced recombinant preS1 antigens (aa 1-60) of different genotypes to investigate the binding capacities of HzKR359-1 and a humanized version (HzKR127-3.2) of KR127 to the 10 HBV genotypes. The results indicate that HzKR359-1 can bind to five genotypes (A, B, C, H, and J), and HzKR127-3.2 can also bind to five genotypes (A, C, D, G, and I). The combination of these two antibodies can bind to eight genotypes (A-D, G-J), and to genotype C additively. Considering that genotypes A-D are common, whereas genotypes E and F are occasionally represented in small patient population, the combination of these two antibodies might block the entry of most virus genotypes and thus broadly neutralize HBV infection.

Regeneration Potential of Immature Embryos during Seed Development in Spring and Winter Wheat Genotypes

  • Kim, Kyung-Hee;Park, Ji-Suk;Lee, Byung-Moo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.279-283
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    • 2011
  • The immature embryos during seed development were examined to predict the suitable embryos for an efficient regeneration system. Five spring wheat genotypes and five winter wheat genotypes were tested using immature embryos as explants. Spring wheat genotypes showed much higher levels of plant regeneration than those of winter wheat genotypes. The highest frequencies of embryogenesis and regeneration were obtained when embryos at 13-14 days after anthesis (DAA) were used as explant and decreased using embryos at 21-22 DAA during seed development. Significant differences were also found for callus induction and regeneration as affected by immature embryo size. The regeneration efficiency was drastically decreased in spring and winter wheat genotypes when embryos larger than 2.0 mm of length were used. The optimum developmental stage and embryo length for regeneration efficiency were at 13-14 DAA and 1.0-1.5 mm, respectively. The selection of suitable embryos for the high frequencies of embryogenesis and regeneration leads us to efficient genetic improvement of wheat.

Genotypic Variations in ${\beta}-glucan$ Content of Barley Cultivated in Different Regions

  • Kim Hong-Sik;Park Kwang-Geun;Baek Seong-Bum;Nam Jung-Hyun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.335-339
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    • 2006
  • The level of ${\beta}-glucan$ which is a major soluble dietary fiber found in the grain endosperm cell wall was highly variable among 25 barley genotypes grown at four locations including Suwon, Naju, Jinju, and Jeju. Statistically significant genotypic effects were observed for ${\beta}-glucan$ content at each or across growing sites (P<0.001). On average, 'Chalssalbori' showed the lowest percentage ${\beta}-glucan$ (4.04%) among genotypes in the grain, whereas 'Yonezawa Mochi' was highest in percentage ${\beta}-glucan$ (6.46%) compared to other genotypes. The significant difference between genotypes was approximately 1-2% across environments. The effects of location or interaction between locations and genotypes were not significant on the variation of ${\beta}-glucan$ contents. High ${\beta}-glucan$ content seemed to be greatly associated with such grain traits as waxiness and presence of husk except for 'Chalssalbori'. The waxy genotypes had a mean of 5.37% and values ranging from 5.28 to 5.47%, but normal genotypes had a mean of 4.78% and values ranging from 4.69 to 4.88% over environments. Hulless barley genotypes were also higher than hulled barley genotypes for the average ${\beta}-glucan$ content in both individual and over all environments. The difference between the hulled and hulless gene pools was on average of 0.37% with ranges from 0.19% to 0.56% at four environments. ${\beta}-glucan$ content measured from a mapping population of $F_5$-derived 107 lines derived from the cross between 'Yonezawa Mochi' and 'Neulssalbori' was not significantly associated with other agronomic traits except for 1,000-kernel weight at the '01 Suwon environment. Not too much information on the relationship of ${\beta}-glucan$ content to agronomic traits was available.