• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gene polymorphisms

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Do VDR Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Breast Cancer?

  • Shaikh, Fouzia;Baig, Saeeda;Jamal, Qamar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.479-483
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is the first or second leading cancer among females across the globe. A large number of studies have been conducted to assess any relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer development. Epidemiological studies have indicated that ethnic traits exhibited by a group of people with a common ancestry and culture, alter the link between VDR gene and breast cancer. It has been hypothesized that VDR polymorphisms have the capacity to impact both on incidence of breast cancer occurrence and to predict its outcome. A survey was here conducted to assess and compare the impact of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 and poly (A) on development of breast cancer. Information was obtained from electronic databases including PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published during the period from 1996 to 2015. This search was achieved by using the terms "genetics", "breast cancer", "VDR gene", "polymorphisms". However, due to inconsistent results, no conclusive statements could be presented about the significance of the VDR genotype as far as the development of breast carcinoma is concerned.

Muscle-Specific Creatine Kinase Gene Polymorphisms in Korean Elite Athletes

  • Kang, Byung-Yong;Kang, Chin-Yang;Lee, Kang-Oh
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2003
  • In view of the importance of muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKMM) gene as a genetic factor for athletic performance, we investigate the relationship between elite athletic performance and two restriction fragment length polymorphisms (Ncol and Taql RFLPs) in the CKMM gene. Genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells of 98 unrelated male Korean elite athletes and 04 sedentary controls, respectively. Two genetic polymorphisms in the CKMM gene were detected by the polymerase chain reaction and the digestion with restriction endonucleases, Ncol and Taql, respectively. There were no significant associations between two genetic polymorphisms in the CKMM gene and elite athletic performance or clinical parameters in our subjects. Therefore, these findings suggest that two genetic polymorphisms in the CKMM gene may not be useful as genetic markers to predict the athletic performance in male Koreans.

A Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Tumour Necrosis Factor α-1031 and Tumour Necrosis Factor β+ 252 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

  • Misron, Khairunnisak;Ab Hamid, Suzina Sheikh;Ahmad, Azlina;Ramli, Ramiza Ramza
    • Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2017
  • Objectives. This case-controlled study aimed to identify the association of tumor necrosis factor $(TNF){\alpha}-1031$ and $TNF{\beta}+252$ gene polymorphisms between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and healthy controls. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of these gene polymorphisms with factors related to CRS. Methods. All deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples were genotyped for $TNF{\alpha}-1031$ and $TNF{\beta}+252$ genes by mean of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The statistical analysis were carried out using chi-square test or Fisher exact test to determine the associations of these gene polymorphisms in CRS. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of these gene polymorphisms in CRS and its related risk factors. Results. The genotype and allele frequencies of $TNF{\alpha}-1031$ and $TNF{\beta}+252$ gene did not show any significant associations between CRS and healthy controls. However, a significantly statistical difference of $TNF{\alpha}-1031$ was observed in CRS participants with atopy (P-value, 0.045; odds ratio, 3.66) but not in CRS with asthma or aspirin intolerance. Conclusion. Although the presence of $TNF{\alpha}-1031$ and $TNF{\beta}+252$ gene polymorphisms did not render any significant associations between CRS and healthy control, this study suggests that $TNF{\alpha}-1031$ gene polymorphisms in CRS patients with atopy may be associated with increase susceptibility towards CRS.

Lack of Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Genetic Polymorphisms on Breast Cancer Risk: a Case-Control Study and Pooled Analysis

  • Park, Boyoung;Shin, Aesun;Kim, Kyee-Zu;Lee, Yeon-Su;Hwang, Jung-Ah;Kim, Yeonju;Sung, Joohon;Yoo, Keun-Young;Lee, Eun-Sook
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9093-9099
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    • 2014
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) gene may harbor targets for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene are associated with the susceptibility of breast cancer. We performed a candidate gene association study between $PPAR{\gamma}$ polymorphisms and breast cancer and a meta-analysis on the association of breast cancer with selected $PPAR{\gamma}$ variants. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene were analyzed among 456 breast cancer patients and 461 controls from the National Cancer Center in Korea. Association between the polymorphisms and breast cancer risk were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage test for trend and a multivariate logistic regression model. Two SNPs, rs3856806 and rs1801282, had been previously analyzed, thus enabling us to perform pooled analyses on their associations with breast cancer susceptibility. Our findings from the candidate gene association study showed no association between the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. A meta-analysis combining existing studies and our current study also refuted an association of the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene with breast cancer. Our findings suggest that the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene may not harbor variants that alter breast cancer susceptibility, although a moderate sample size might have precluded a decisive conclusion.

Gene-Diet Interaction on Cancer Risk in Epidemiological Studies

  • Lee, Sang-Ah
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.360-370
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    • 2009
  • Genetic factors clearly play a role in carcinogenesis, but migrant studies provide unequivocal evidence that environmental factors are critical in defining cancer risk. Therefore, one may expect that the lower availability of substrate for biochemical reactions leads to more genetic changes in enzyme function; for example, most studies have indicated the variant MTHFR genotype 677TT is related to biomarkers, such as homocysteine concentrations or global DNA methylation particularly in a low folate diet. The modification of a phenotype related to a genotype, particularly by dietary habits, could support the notion that some of inconsistencies in findings from molecular epidemiologic studies could be due to differences in the populations studied and unaccounted underlying characteristics mediating the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the actual phenotypes. Given the evidence that diet can modify cancer risk, gene-diet interactions in cancer etiology would be anticipated. However, much of the evidence in this area comes from observational epidemiology, which limits the causal inference. Thus, the investigation of these interactions is essential to gain a full understanding of the impact of genetic variation on health outcomes. This report reviews current approaches to gene-diet interactions in epidemiological studies. Characteristics of gene and dietary factors are divided into four categories: one carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and dietary factors including folate, vitamin B group and methionines; oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms and antioxidant nutrients including vegetable and fruit intake; carcinogen-metabolizing gene polymorphisms and meat intake including heterocyclic amins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; and other gene-diet interactive effect on cancer.

Polymorphisms and Functional Analysis of the Intact Human Papillomavirus16 E2 Gene

  • Ekalaksananan, Tipaya;Jungpol, Watcharapol;Prasitthimay, Chuthamas;Wongjampa, Weerayut;Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd;Pientong, Chamsai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10255-10262
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    • 2015
  • High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) E2 proteins play roles in transcriptional regulation and are commonly functionally disrupted when the HPV genome integrates into host chromosomes. Some 15-40% of cancer cases, however, contain an intact E2 gene or episomal HPV. In these cases, polymorphism of the E2 gene might be involved. This study aimed to determine polymorphisms of the E2 gene in episomal HPV16 detected in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous cell carcinomas and altered functions compared to the E2 prototype. The E2 gene was amplified and sequenced. Two expression vectors containing E2 gene polymorphisms were constructed and transfected in SiHa and C33A cells, then E6 gene as well as Il-10 and TNF-${\alpha}$ expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Expression vectors and reporter vectors containing the HPV16 long control region (LCR) were co-transfected and transcriptional activity was determined. The results showed that a total of 32 nucleotides and 23 amino acids were changed in all 20 cases of study, found in the transactivation (TA) domain, hinge (H) region and DNA binding (DB) domain with 14, 5 and 13 nucleotide positions. They mostly caused amino acid change. The expressing vectors containing different E2 gene polymorphisms showed E6 mRNA suppression, TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA suppression and IL-10 induction but no statistically significant differences when compared to the E2 prototype. Moreover, promoter activity in HPV16 LCR was not affected by E2 protein with different gene polymorphisms, in contrast to nucleotide variations in LCR that showed an effect on transcription activity. These results demonstrated that E2 gene polymorphisms of episomal HPV16 did not affect transcriptional regulation and suggested that nucleotide variation as well as epigenetic modification of the LCR might play a role in inducing malignant transformation of cells containing episomal HPV16.

Association between COMT and 5-HTTLPR Polymorphisms in Korean Patients with Panic Disorder : A Replication Study (한국 공황장애 환자에서 COMT 및 5-HTTLPR 다형성의 연관 분석 : 재현 연구)

  • Kim, Se-Woong;Choi, Tai Kiu;Lee, Sang-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2016
  • Objectives We investigated whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and serotonin related gene polymorphisms may be associated with agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder in Korea. Methods The COMT gene (rs4680), 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) gene (rs25531), serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A) gene (rs6295) genotypes were analyzed in 406 patients with panic disorder and age-sex matched 206 healthy controls. Patients with panic disorder were dichotomized by the presence of agoraphobia. The following instruments were applied : the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results There was a significant difference in the distribution of 5-HTTLPR genotype between panic patients with agoraphobia and without agoraphobia (p = 0.024). That is, the panic patients with agoraphobia had a significant excess of the less active 5-HTTLPR allele (S allele). (p = 0.039) Also, we replicated previous western reports which indicated a significant difference in the distribution of COMT genotype between the patients with panic disorder and the healthy controls (p = 0.040). However, no significant associations of agora-phobia or panic disorder with HTR1A gene polymorphisms were found. Conclusions This result supports that the COMT polymorphisms may be associated with panic disorder and suggests that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms may play a role in the pathogenesis of agoraphobia in the Korean patients with panic disorder.

Investigation of KIT Gene Polymorphisms in Korean Cattle

  • Hoque, Md. Rashedul;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Lim, Da-Jeong;Cho, In-Cheol;Choi, Nu-Ri;Seo, Dong-Won;Lee, Jun-Heon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.411-418
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    • 2012
  • KIT gene is the major causative gene for coat color variation in diverse animal species. This gene regulates melanocyte migration from the neural crest to target tissues and the mutation of this gene can affect dominant white phenotypes in animals. Because this gene has a major influence for the coat color variation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 Korean cattle (Hanwoo) and 5 Holstein individuals were investigated. The Hanwoo DNA samples included three different colored (5 Black, 5 Yellow and 4 Stripe) animals. Total 126 polymorphisms have been identified and 23 of them are located in the exon region. Also, 5 bp (TTCTC) and 3 bp (TCT) intronic indels in intron 3 and intron 5, respectively, were identified. Out of 23 exonic polymorphisms, 15 SNPs are the missense mutations and the rest of the SNPs are silence mutations. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed for the different colored animals using the obtained KIT gene sequences. Holstein breed showed a clear breed-specific cluster in the phylogenetic tree which is differed from Hanwoo. Also, three colored Hanwoo animals were not discriminated among the breeds. The KIT gene polymorphisms identified in this study will possibly give some solutions for the color variations in cattle with further verifications.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer in Iran

  • Abediankenari, Saeid;Jeivad, Fereshteh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3187-3190
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    • 2013
  • Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor which contributes to many processes involved in cell survival, proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, that may lead to cancer development. Gastric cancer is one of the most common diseases of digestive system that has low 5-year-survival. The aim of this research was to determine the significance of EGFR tyrosine kinase domain gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 83 patients with gastric cancer and 40 normal subjects were investigated for EGFR gene polymorphisms in exons 18-21 by PCR-SSCP. Then, DNA sequencing was conducted for different mobility shift bands. Finally the data were statistically analyzed using the chi-2 test and the SPSSver.16 program. Results: Exon 18 of EGFR gene showed three different bands in SSCP pattern and DNA sequencing displayed one mutation. SSCP pattern of Exons 19 and 21 did not show different migration bands. Exon 20 of EGFR gene revealed multiple migrate bands in SSCP pattern. DNA sequencing displayed 2 mutations in this exon: one mutation was caused amino acid change and another mutation was silent. Conclusion: It may be that EGFR tyrosine kinase gene polymorphisms differ between populations and screening could be useful in gastric cancer patients who might benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Prostate Cancer Risk in the Pakistani Population

  • Yousaf, Nageen;Afzal, Sibtain;Hayat, Tehreem;Shah, Jasmin;Ahmad, Nafees;Abbasi, Rashda;Ramzan, Khushnooda;Jan, Rasul;Khan, Imran;Ahmed, Jawad;Siraj, Sami
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.10009-10013
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    • 2014
  • Background: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been a subject of extensive pharmacogenetic research recently. Association studies between different types of cancers including prostate cancer (PCa) and VDR gene polymorphism have also been conducted. The objective of this study was to find possible associations between PCa and VDR gene polymorphisms in the Pakistani population. Materials and Methods: A total of 162 subjects, including prostate cancer patients and controls, were genotyped for Apa I, Taq I and Fok I polymorphisms in the VDR gene using allele specific PCR, PCR-RFLP and direct DNA sequencing. Allelic frequencies were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and associations between the genetic markers and PCa were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Apa I CC genotype was found to have strongest association with PCa risk, and "A" genotype was found to have protective effect. Fok I and Taq I did not have appreciable levels of association with PCa, although Taq I "TC" heterozygotes seemed to have some protective effect. Similarly the "C" allele of Fok I also seemed to have protective effect. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report showing association between VDR gene polymorphisms and PCa in Pakistan. Our findings may be somewhat skewed because of small sample size and tendency of consanguineous marriages in Pakistani society; nevertheless, it shows the trend of association and protective effects of certain VDR gene polymorphisms against PCa.