• Title/Summary/Keyword: Gene Expression

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Evaluation of tTA-Mediated Gene Activation System on Human Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Infections

  • Choi, Kwang-Hoon;Kim, Ki-Ho;Kim, Hong-Jin
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.257-260
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    • 2000
  • The tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA)-mediated gene activation system was examined in virus infected cells to determine its role in the control of gene expression. In the presence of tTA, the gene expression from the tetO-modified minimal promoter was efficiently activated in the uninfected cells, whereas essentially no activation was observed from the only minimal promoter without the seven direct repeats of 42 bp tetO sequences. However, essentially no activation was observed when only the minimal promoter was used, without the seven direct repetitions of the 42 bp tetO sequences. On the other hand, in the infected cells, a substantial background of $\beta$-glucuronidase expression was detected in the absence of tTA, even though tTA stimulated the gene expression by ~7-fold. This background expression indicates that the sequences within or nearby tetO are involved in the background stimulation of the gene expression by HCMV and HSV-1 . These results suggest that the application of the tTA-mediated gene activation system may not be extremely useful for studying the biological roles of HCMV and HSV genes In the viral replicative cycles, because of the basal activity of the gene expression.

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AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

  • Choi, S.H.;Park, S.K.;Johnson, B.J.;Chung, K.Y.;Choi, C.W.;Kim, K. H.;Kim, W.Y.;Smith, S.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.411-419
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    • 2015
  • We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained $10{\mu}g/mL$ insulin and $10{\mu}g/mL$ pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with $40{\mu}M$ palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta ($CPT1{\beta}$) gene expression, but the increase in $CPT1{\beta}$ gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17-fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased $AMPK{\alpha}$ gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

Identification of a Promoter Motif Involved in Curtovirus Sense-Gene Expression in Transgenic Arabidopsis

  • Hur, Jingyung;Choi, Eunseok;Buckley, Kenneth J.;Lee, Sukchan;Davis, Keith R.
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2008
  • Expression of the seven open reading frames (ORFs) of single-stranded DNA Curtoviruses such as Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) is driven by a bi-directional promoter. To investigate this bidirectional promoter activity with respect to viral late gene expression, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a GUS reporter gene under the control of either the BCTV or BSCTV bi-directional promoter were constructed. Transgenic plants harboring constructs showed higher expression levels when the promoter of the less virulent BCTV was used than when the promoter of the more virulent BSCTV was used. In transgenic seedlings, the reporter gene constructs were expressed primarily in actively dividing tissues such as root tips and apical meristems. As the transgenic plants matured, reporter gene expression diminished but viral infection of mature transgenic plants restored reporter gene expression, particularly in transgenic plants containing BCTV virion-sense gene promoter constructs. A 30 base pair conserved late element (CLE) motif was identified that was present three times in tandem in the BCTV promoter and once in that of BSCTV. Progressive deletion of these repeats from the BCTV promoter resulted in decreased reporter gene expression, but BSCTV promoters in which one or two extra copies of this motif were inserted did not exhibit increased late gene promoter activity. These results demonstrate that Curtovirus late gene expression by virion-sense promoters depends on the developmental stage of the host plant as well as on the number of CLE motifs present in the promoter.

Gene Expression Profiles Related with TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity

  • Ryu, Yeon-Mi;Kim, Ki-Nam;Kim, Yu-Ri;Sohn, Sung-Hwa;Seo, Sang-Hui;Lee, Seung-Ho;Kim, Hye-Won;Won, Nam-Hee;Kim, Meyoung-Kon
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.164-171
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    • 2005
  • Toxicological studies have an object of detecting adverse effects of a chemical on an organism based on observed toxicity marker (i.e., serum biochemical markers and chemical-specific gene expression) or phenotypic outcome. To date, most toxicogenomic studies concentrated on hepatic toxicity. cDNA microarray analysis enable discrimination of the responses in animals exposed to different classes of hepatotoxicants. In an effort to further characterize the mechanisms of 2, 3, 7, 8,-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin)-mediated toxicity, comprehensive temporal-responsive microarray analyses were performed on hepatic tissue from Sprague-Dawley rats treated with TCDD. Hepatic gene expression profiles were monitored using custom DNA chip containing 490 cDNA clones related with toxicology. Gene expression analysis identified 26 features which exhibited a significant change. In this study, we observed that the genes related with oxidative stress in rats exposed to Dioxin, such as CYPIIA3 and glutathione S-transferase, were up-regulated at 24hr after exposure. In this study, we carried out to discover novel evidence for previously unknown gene expression patterns related to mechanism of hepatic toxicity in rats exposed to dioxin, and to elucidate the effects of dioxin on the gene expression after exposure to dioxin.

Gene Expression Analysis of Rat Liver Epithelial Cells in Response to Thioacetamide

  • Park, Joon-Suk;Yeom, Hye-Jung;Jung, Jin-Wook;Hwang, Seung-Yong;Lee, Yong-Soon;Kang, Kyung-Sun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2005
  • Thioacetamide (TA) is potent haptotoxincant that requires metabolic activation by mixed-function oxidases. Micrcarray technology, which is massive parallel gene expression profiling in a single hybridization experiment, has provided as a powerful molecular genetic tool for biological system related toxicant. In this study we focus on the use of toxicogenomics for the determination of gene expression analysis associated with hepatotoxicity in rat liver epithelial cell line WB-F344 (WB). The WB cells was used to assess the toxic effects of TA. WB cells were exposed to two concentrations of TA-doses which caused 20% and 50% cell death were chosen and the cells exposed for periods of 2 and 24 h. Our data revealed that following the 2-h exposure at the both of doses and 24-h exposure at the low doses, few changes in gene expression were detected. However, after 24-h exposure of the cells to the high concentration, multiple changes in gene expression were observed. TA treatment gave rise predominantly to up-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and cell death, but down-regulation of genes involves in cell adhesion and calcium ion binding. Exposure of WB cells to higher doses of the TA gave rise to more changes in gene expression at lower exposure times. These results show that TA regulates expression of numerous genes via direct molecular signaling mechanisms in liver cells.

The Effect of Galkunhwanglyeonhwanggum-tang (GGT) and Sopunghwalhyeol-tang (SPT) on Gene Expression Levels of MCP-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and eNOS in HUVECs (갈근황연황금탕(葛根黃蓮黃芩湯)과 소풍활혈탕(疎風活血湯)이 HUVEC 내에 MCP-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and eNOS의 유전자 발현량에 대해 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Hyun-jin;Jeon, Sang-yoon;Jang, Hye-yeon;Kim, Min-wook
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.668-675
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Galkunhwanglyeonhwanggum-tang (GGT), and Sopunghwalhyeol-tang (SPT) on gene expression of MCP-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and eNOS in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: HUVECs were treated with GGT and SPT at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 ㎍/mL. Gene expression of MCP-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and eNOS in HUVECs was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and electrophoresis was performed to verify the gene expression level. Results: 1. MCP-1 gene expression was more strongly decreased by SPT than by GGT. 2. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene expressions were more strongly decreased by SPT than by GGT 3. GGT significantly increased eNOS gene expression, but SPT did not. Conclusions: These findings suggest that GGT and SPT regulate gene expression related to anti-inflammatory effects in HUVECs. Clinical application of these Korean medicines to diseases related to dyslipidemia, such as cardiovascular disease, will require additional in vivo experiments to verify the anti-inflammatory effects of GGT and SPT.

Profiling of Gene Expression According to Cancer Stage in Clear Cell Type of Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Won, Nam-Hee;Ryu, Yeon-Mi;Kim, Ki-Nam;Kim, Meyoung-Kon
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.62-71
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    • 2005
  • For toxicity model in the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most important model to assess the structural and functional alterations. Most RCCs are sporadic, and environmental agents are suspected to play a role in the etiology of the disease. In this study, we discovered novel evidence for previously unknown gene expression patterns related to progression according to cancer stage in RCC. Four clear cell RCC tissue samples along with five corresponding patient-matched normal kidney tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy. To examine the difference of gene expression profile in clear cell RCC, radioactive cDNA microarrays were used to evaluate changes in the expression of 1,152 genes in a total. Using $^{33}P-labeled$ probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles including drug metabolism, and cellular signaling. 29 genes were identified with expression levels that differed by more than 2.0 value of z-ratio, compared with that in control. Whereas expression of 38 genes were decreased by less than-2.0 value of z-ratio. In conclusion, this study has identified 67 gene expression alterations in clear-cell type of RCC. Most notably, genes involved in cell growth were up-regulated in stage I more than stage III whereas genes involved in signal transduction were down-regulated in which both stage I and stage III. The identified alteraions of gene expression will likely give in sight in to clear cell RCC and tumor progression.

Healing Effect of Yukmijihwang-tang on Fracture Factor and Morphological Changes in Femur Fractured Mice (육미지황탕(六味地黃湯)이 대퇴골절 동물모델의 골절 유합인자 및 형태학적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Seok;Jeon, Dong Hwi;Oh, Min-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2020
  • Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the healing effect of Yukmijihwang-tang (YM) on femur fractured mice. Methods Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal, control, positive control, YM with low, medium, high dosage each. All groups were prepared with femur fracture and treated diffrently. In order to measure bone regeneration effects, we analysed the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), collagen type II alpha 1 chain (Col2a1), Sox9, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osterix genes expressed in bone. For morphological analysis, muscles were removed and femur was observed with naked eye. Results COX2 gene expression in bone marrow significantly decreased. BMP2 gene expression significantly increased. Col2a1 gene expression significantly increased. Sox9 gene expression increased as well. Runx2 gene expression in bone marrow increased, but there was no statistical significance. Osterix gene expression significantly increased. Union of the fracture site progressed more in YM group compared to the control group. The fracture union score was significantly decreased in YM group compared to the control group. Conclusions YM showed anti-inflammatory effect, promoted bone regeneration by stimulating the bone regeneration factor. In conclusion, YM can help fracture healing and it well be applied clinically to patients with fracture.

Feature-based Gene Classification and Region Clustering using Gene Expression Grid Data in Mouse Hippocampal Region (쥐 해마의 유전자 발현 그리드 데이터를 이용한 특징기반 유전자 분류 및 영역 군집화)

  • Kang, Mi-Sun;Kim, HyeRyun;Lee, Sukchan;Kim, Myoung-Hee
    • Journal of KIISE
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2016
  • Brain gene expression information is closely related to the structural and functional characteristics of the brain. Thus, extensive research has been carried out on the relationship between gene expression patterns and the brain's structural organization. In this study, Principal Component Analysis was used to extract features of gene expression patterns, and genes were automatically classified by spatial distribution. Voxels were then clustered with classified specific region expressed genes. Finally, we visualized the clustering results for mouse hippocampal region gene expression with the Allen Brain Atlas. This experiment allowed us to classify the region-specific gene expression of the mouse hippocampal region and provided visualization of clustering results and a brain atlas in an integrated manner. This study has the potential to allow neuroscientists to search for experimental groups of genes more quickly and design an effective test according to the new form of data. It is also expected that it will enable the discovery of a more specific sub-region beyond the current known anatomical regions of the brain.

Prognostic Role of PTEN Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients from North-East Iran

  • Golmohammadi, Rahim;Rakhshani, Mohammad Hassan;Moslem, Ali Reza;Pejhan, Akbar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4527-4531
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    • 2016
  • Background: PTEN protein is one of the most important tumour suppressor factors which is detectable by immunohistochemistry. The goal of the present study was to investigate the prognostic role of PTEN gene expression in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 100 breast cancer patients referred to Sabzevar hospitals in the north-east of Iran between 2010 and 2011, who were followed up to 2015. PTEN gene expression in tissue samples was determined using specific monoclonal antibodies and data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Patient survival was analyzed after 4 years of follow-up using the Cox regression model. Results: PTEN gene expression was evident in 70 of 100 cnacer samples but was found at high levels in all non-cancer samples. There was an inverse significant relationship between PTEN gene expression and tumour stage or tumour grade (p<0.001). The expression of PTEN in invasive ductal tumours was lower than in non-invasive tumours. There was also an inverse significant relationship between the hazard of death and PTEN gene expression (p<0.001). In addition, there was an inverse significant relationship between tumour stage and hazard of death (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings indicate that lack of PTEN gene expression can be a sign of a worse prognosis and poor survival in breast cancer cases.