• Title/Summary/Keyword: Gene Expression

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Insulin Resistance Does Not Influence Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle

  • Nguyen, Lisa L.;Kriketos, Adamandia D.;Hancock, Dale P.;Caterson, Ian D.;Denyer, Gareth S.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 2006
  • Insulin resistance is commonly observed in patients prior to the development of type 2 diabetes and may predict the onset of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that impairment in insulin stimulated glucose-disposal in insulin resistant patients would be reflected in the gene expression profile of skeletal muscle. We performed gene expression profiling on skeletal muscle of insulin resistant and insulin sensitive subjects using microarrays. Microarray analysis of 19,000 genes in skeletal muscle did not display a significant difference between insulin resistant and insulin sensitive muscle. This was confirmed with real-time PCR. Our results suggest that insulin resistance is not reflected by changes in the gene expression profile in skeletal muscle.

Histone tail cleavage as a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism for gene expression

  • Yi, Sun-Ju;Kim, Kyunghwan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2018
  • Chromatin is an intelligent building block that can express either external or internal needs through structural changes. To date, three methods to change chromatin structure and regulate gene expression have been well-documented: histone modification, histone exchange, and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Recently, a growing body of literature has suggested that histone tail cleavage is related to various cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, osteoclast differentiation, granulocyte differentiation, mammary gland differentiation, viral infection, aging, and yeast sporulation. Although the underlying mechanisms suggesting how histone cleavage affects gene expression in view of chromatin structure are only beginning to be understood, it is clear that this process is a novel transcriptional epigenetic mechanism involving chromatin dynamics. In this review, we describe the functional properties of the known histone tail cleavage with its proteolytic enzymes, discuss how histone cleavage impacts gene expression, and present future directions for this area of study.

Deciphering the molecular mechanisms of epitranscriptome regulation in cancer

  • Han, Seung Hun;Choe, Junho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 2021
  • Post-transcriptional regulation is an indispensable cellular mechanism of gene expression control that dictates various cellular functions and cell fate decisions. Recently, various chemical RNA modifications, termed the "epitranscriptome," have been proposed to play crucial roles in the regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression. To date, more than 170 RNA modifications have been identified in almost all types of RNA. As with DNA modification-mediated control of gene expression, regulation of gene expression via RNA modification is also accomplished by three groups of proteins: writers, readers, and erasers. Several emerging studies have revealed that dysregulation in RNA modification is closely associated with tumorigenesis. Notably, the molecular outcomes of specific RNA modifications often have opposite cellular consequences. In this review, we highlight the current progress in the elucidation of the mechanisms of cancer development due to chemical modifications of various RNA species.

Inhibition of Contact Dermatitis in Animal Models and Suppression of Proinflammatory Gene Expression by Topically Applied Flavonoid, Wogonin

  • Lim, Hyun;Park, Haeil;Kim, Hyun-Pyo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.442-448
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    • 2004
  • Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) is a down-regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, contributing to anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. For further characterization of modulatory activity on ploinflammatory gene expression in vivo, the effect of wogonin was examined in this experiment using animal models of skin inflammation. By topical application, wogonin inhibited an edematic response as well as ploinflammatory gene expression against contact dermatitis In mice. Wogonin inhibited ear edema ($19.4-22.6\%$) at doses of $50-200\;{\mu}g$/ear and down-regulated interleukin-$1{\beta}$ induction ($23.1\%$) at $200{\mu}g$/ear in phenol-induced simple irritation. Wogonin ($2{\times}50-2{\times}200{\mu}g$/ear) also inhibited edematic response ($51.2-43.9\%$) and down-regulated ploinflammatory gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-$1{\beta}$, interferon-$\gamma$, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase with some different sensitivity against picryl chloride-induced delayed hypersensitivity reaction. All these results clearly demonstrate that wogonin is a down-regulator of ploinflammatory gene expression in animal models of skin inflammation. Therefore, wogonin may have potential for a new anti-inflammatory agent against skin inflammation.

Gene Expression Profiles of Dibutyl Phthalate and 17$\beta$-Estradiol using cDNA microarray in MCF 7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

  • Ryu, Jae-Chun;Kim, Hyung-Tae;Kim, Youn-Jung
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.274-278
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    • 2002
  • Phthalates, suspected endocrine disruptor, are plasticizer and solvent used in industry, and some phthalates are known as potential carcinogen. Most common human exposure to this compounds may occur with contaminated food. It may migrate into food from plastic wrap or may enter food from general environmental contamination, and it has become widespread environmental pollutants, thus leading to a variety of phthalates that possibly threaten the public health. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) may playa part of cell proliferator, which mediates changes in gene expression and the metabolism of xenobiotics. An understanding of the role of DBP in modulating gene regulation should provide insight regarding mechanisms of DBP induced xenoestrogenic impact. To elucidate the type of genes that are associated with estrogenic activity induced by DBP at the dose (10$^{-8}$ M) appeared proliferating effects, the pattern of gene expression in MCF7 cells was compared between 17$\beta$-estradiol and DBP exposure in the cDNA microarray. From the results, it showed some differences of gene expression patterns between MCF7 cells treated with 17$\beta$-estradiol and DBP, and also DBP shows estrogenic potential with changes in estrogen-related gene expression levels.

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Effects of Homogentisic Acid and Natural Products Derived from Pinellia ternata on Secretion, Production and Gene Expression of MUC5AC Mucin from Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

  • Lee, Hyun Jae;Lee, Choong Jae
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated whether adenosine, adenine, uridine and homogentisic acid derived from Pinellia ternata affect the secretion, production and gene expression of MUC5AC mucin from airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with adenosine, adenine, uridine or homogentisic acid for 30 min and then stimulated with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression, mucin protein production and secretion were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The results were as follows: (1) Adenine and homogentisic acid decreased PMA-induced MUC5AC mucin gene expression, although adenosine and uridine did not affect the mucin gene expression; (2) Adenosine, adenine, uridine and homogentisic acid inhibited PMA-induced MUC5AC mucin production; (3) Homogentisic acid inhibited the secretion of MUC5AC mucin from NCI-H292 cells. These results suggest that, among the four compounds examined, homogentisic acid showed the regulatory effect on the steps of gene expression, production and secretion of mucin, by directly acting on airway epithelial cells.

Effects of Clematidis Radix Extract on Osteoclastogenesis and Gene Expression in RANKL-induced RAW 264.7 Cell (위령선(威靈仙)이 RANKL 처리 RAW 264.7 Cell에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Young-Hun;Yoo, Jeong-Eun;Lim, Hyun-Jung;Yoo, Dong-Youl
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.78-90
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Clematidis Radix extract(CB) on osteoclast differentiation and gene expression. The osteocastogenesis and gene expression were determined in RANKL-induced RAW 264.7 cell. Methods: RANKL-induced RAW 264.7 cell with Clematidis Radix extract was stained by TRAP which is expressive marker of osteoclast. The gene expression of RANK, $TNF{\alpha}$, IL-6, iNOS and Cathepsin, those are factors related to bone resorption, was estimated by using Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Clematidis Radix extract decreased the number of TRAP-positive multi nuclei cell, and decreased the gene expression of RANK, $TNF{\alpha}$, IL-6, iNOS and Cathepsin K in RANKL-induced RAW 264.7 cell. Conclusion: It is concluded that Clematidis Radix extract might decrease the bone resorption resulted from decrease of osteoclast differentiation and it's related gene expression.

The effects of Pueraria lobata extract on gene expression in liver tissue of rat with estrogen-deficient obesity (갈근이 비만 랫드 간조직의 비만관련 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Yoon Sang;Hwang, Gwi Seo
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.117-128
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    • 2014
  • Objective : It is known that Pueriaria lobata has an anti-osteoporetic effect, anti-cancer effect, anti-pyretic effect, and anti-diabetic effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-obesity effect of Pueriaria lobata extract (PLE), and elucidate the effect of it on gene expression related to lipid metabolism. Method : The experiments were performed with the use of ovariectomized rats as estrogen-deficient obesity model. They were grouped NC (normal control), OC (estrogen-deficient control), PLH (100mg/kg of PLE), PLL (20mg/kg). PLE was orally administered for 6 weeks. Body weights and serum lipid level were estimated, and real-time PCR was performed to investigate the effect of PLE on gene expression in liver. Results : PLE decreased the body weight and serum cholesterol and triglyceride, but increased HDL-cholesterol. And PLE increased leptin, CYP27, CPT1, CYP8B1, ACAT2, LDLR, and SCD1, but reduced $PPAR{\gamma}$, PGC1A, HMG-CoA-R, ACAT1, SCD1, and APoB gene expression in liver tissue of rat with estrogen-deficient obesity. Conclusion : It is concluded that Pueriaria lobata reduced body weight, and its effect was expressed by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in rats with estrogen-deficient obesity.

The Effects of Fasting and Grazing on Na-glucose Cotransporter-1 (SGLT-1) Gene Expression of Rectal Epithelia in Beef Cattle

  • Kozakai, Takaharu;Imura, K.;Nakajima, K.;Sakanoue, S.;Watanabe, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.232-237
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    • 2009
  • The expression of SGLT-1 mRNA has been reported in the small intestine of mammals and the rectum of chickens. However, the expression and functional significance of SGLT-1 in bovine rectum is not known. In this study, we studied the effects of fasting and grazing on SGLT-1 gene expression in biopsy epithelial tissue of bovine rectum. In Japanese Black beef cattle, i) SGLT-1 gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in the biopsy rectal epithelia samples obtained through an endoscope, ii) SGLT-1 gene expression in the rectal epithelial tissues increased at 48 and 72 h after fasting correlating with a decrease in body weight. iii) SGLT-1 gene expression decreased after one month from the start of grazing (May to June) and then stabilized until the end of the grazing period (June to October) in the rectal epithelial tissues of grazing cattle. In conclusion, it is clear that SGLT-1 gene expression in the rectal epithelial tissue is increased by a restricted dietary condition.

Effect of Vitrification on In Vitro Maturation and Development and Gene Expression in Canine Oocytes

  • Park, Ji-Hoon;Kim, Sang-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.131-136
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    • 2011
  • The in vitro maturation rate of vitrified-thawed canine oocytes was $30.8{\pm}3.4%$. The in vitro maturation rate of vitrified oocytes was lower than that of the control ($52.0{\pm}2.5%$, p<0.05). The in vitro maturation rate of vitrified-thawed oocytes were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of fresh oocytes. The in vitro maturation and developmental rates of the vitrified-thawed oocytes were $17.5{\pm}2.5%$ and $8.8{\pm}3.4%$, respectively. This results were lower than the control group ($43.6{\pm}3.2%$ vs $20.0{\pm}3.0%$). SOD1 gene expression of 1~2 mm of follicle size were higher than those of above 6 mm follicle size. SOD2 gene expression of 1~2 mm of follicle size were significantly higher than those of above 6 mm follicle size (p<0.01). The expression pattern of SOD1, 2 was constantly expressed in both groups but strongly expressed in follicles (1~2 mm) group when compared to the above 6 mm follicles. SOD gene expression between groups the fresh and vitrified oocytes groups were significant differences in rates. However, RGS gene expression between groups the fresh and vitrified oocytes groups were no significant differences in rates.